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Zayd ibn ‘Ali.

[1] Surah adh-Dhariyat 51:56. In this volume, the translation of Qur’anic passages is adapted from Sayyid ‘Ali Quli Qara’i, The Qur’an with a Phrase-by-Phrase English Translation (London: Islamic College for Advanced Studies Press, 2004). [Trans.]

[2] Surah al-Baqarah 2:138: “The baptism of Allah [sibghat Allah], and who baptizes better than Allah? And him do we worship.” [3] Question: If affection to one’s child is indeed part of one’s natural disposition [fitrah], how is it that in some epochs such as the Pre-Islamic Period or Age of Ignorance [yawm al-jahiliyyah] some people used to bury their daughters alive?

Reply: The issues pertaining to natural disposition [fitrah] are numerous. Just as affection for one’s offspring is part of our natural disposition, regard for one’s honor is also a part of it. The Arabs during the pre-Islamic period used to regard their daughters as a source of shame and ignominy as they would be taken captive during wars and had no productive power and economic earning. Thus, in a bid to preserve their honor and dignity, they used to dispose of their daughters. Love for wealth and love for life are both related to the natural disposition [fitri]. Some people sacrifice their lives for wealth while others do the opposite, i.e. sacrifice wealth for the sake of their lives. Therefore, sacrificing one’s daughter for the sake of preserving one’s honor is not inconsistent with the natural disposition of man, although it might be a result of ignorance or confusion.

[4] Mawlawi: Jalal ad-Din ar-Rumi (1207-1273) was the greatest mystic poet in the Farsi language and founder of the Mawlawiyyah order of dervishes (“The Whirling Dervishes”). he is famous for his lyrics and for his didactic epic, Spiritual Couplets. [Trans.]

[5] The abbreviation, “‘a” stands for the Arabic invocative phrase, ‘alayhis-salam, ‘alayhimus-salam, or ‘alayhas-salam [may peace be upon him/them/her], which is used after the names of the prophets, angels, Imams from the Prophet’s progeny, and saints (‘a). [Trans.]

[6] The term taghut applies to any idol, object, or individual that prevents men from doing what is good, and leads them astray. The term has been used eight times in the Qur’an. Prior to Islam, taghut had been the name of the one of the idols of the Quraysh tribe. This name is used also to mean the Satan. Moreover, the term is used to indicate one who rebels against lofty values, or who surpasses all bounds in his despotism and tyranny and claims the prerogatives of divinity for himself whether explicitly or implicitly. [Trans.]

[7] That is, God subjected the taghuts to the lowest ebb of humiliation and abjectness. [Trans.]
[8] Surah al-Mulk 67:30.
[9] Surah al-Waqi‘ah 56:70.
[10] Surah al-Waqi‘ah 56:65.
[11] Surah as-Saba’ 34:9.

[12] hazrat: The Arabic word hazrat is used as a respectful form of address. [Trans.]

[13] Surah ta ha 20:14.

[14] The abbreviation, “s”, stands for the Arabic invocative phrase, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa alihi wa sallam [may God’s salutation and peace be upon him and his progeny], which is used after the name of the holy Prophet Muhammad (s). [Trans.]

[15] Bihar al-Anwar vol. 71, p. 212.

[16] Bihar al-Anwar vol. 71, p. 212.

[17] Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 86.

[18] Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 496.

[19] Murtaza Mutahhari, Sayri dar Sireh-ye Nabawi [A Survey of the Life Conduct of the Prophet (s)], p. 213.

[20] ayatullah Murtaza Mutahhari (1298-1358 AhS) was a scholar of unusually wide learning, a prolific writer, eloquent speaker, lecturer, and a cherished student of Imam Khomeini. he was a leading member of the Revolutionary Council until his assassination on May 1, 1979 by the terrorist Furqan group. [Trans.]

[21] Murtaza Mutahhari, taharat-e Ruh [Spiritual Purification], p. 122.

[22] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 78, p. 357.

[23] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 14, p. 41.

[24] Surah al-Baqarah 2:65.

[25] The Night of Power (or Decree), has a very special significance in the Muslim calendar because it is the anniversary of that night when the Qur’an was first revealed to Prophet Muhammad. This night has been described as ‘better than a thousand months’, and tradition holds that requests made to God during Laylat al-Qadr will be granted. [Trans.]

[26] Surah ta ha 20:14.

[27] Surah al-Ra‘d 13:28.

[28] The abbreviation, “q” stands for the Arabic invocative phrase, quddisa sirruh [may his soul be sanctified], which is used after the names of pious people. [Trans.]

[29] See Surah al-Baqarah 2:62; Surah an-Nisa’ 4:69; Surah al-Hajj 22:17. [Tans.]

[30] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 49, p. 175.

[31] Surah al-Hijr 15:99.

[32] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 53, p. 326.

[33] Surah ta ha 20:14.

[34] Surah al-Ra‘d 13:28.

[35] Surah al-Fajr 89:27-28.

[36] Surah al-Baqarah 2:21.

[37] Surah al-Quraysh 106:3-4.

[38] Surah al-‘Ankabut 29:45.

[39] Surah hud 11:114.

[40] Nahj al-Balaghah (The Peak of Eloquence) is a collection of speeches, sayings and letters of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi talib (‘a) compiled by Sharif ar-Razi Muhammad ibn al-husayn (d. 406 Ah/1016). The contents of the book concern the three essential topics of God, man and the universe, and include comments on scientific, literary, social, ethical, and political issues. With the exception of the words of the Glorious Qur’an and of the holy Prophet (s), no words of man can equal it in eloquence. So far, more than 101 exegeses have been written on the Nahj al-Balaghah, indicating the importance of this treatise to scholars and learned men of research and investigation. For more information, visit: http://www./nahjul. [Trans.]

[41] Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon 222.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Ibid., Sermon 199.

[44] Ibid.

[45] Zakah: the tax levied on various categories of wealth and spent on the purposes specified in Surah at-Tawbah 9:60. [Trans.]

[46] Ibid., Sermon 196.

[47] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 77, p. 402.

[48] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:139: “Those who take the faithless for allies instead of the faithful—do they seek honor with them? [If so,] indeed all honor belongs to Allah.”

[49] Surah al-Baqarah 2:45.

[50] Maqtal ash-Shams, p. 179.

[51] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 83, p. 127.

[52] Tafsir Atib al-Bayan, vol. 1, p. 161.

[53] Surah al-Baqarah 2:45.

[54] Khums: literally means one-fifth. According to the Shi‘ah school of jurisprudence [fiqh], this one-fifth tax is obligatorily levied on every adult Muslim who is financially secure and has surplus in his income out of annual savings, net commercial profits, and all movable and immovable properties which are not commensurable with the needs and social standing of the person. Khums is divided into two equal parts: the Share of the Imam [sahm al-Imam] and the Share of the Sayyids/Sadat (descendants of the Prophet) [sahm as-Sadat].

Accordingly, the Share of the Imam is to be paid to the living Imam, and in the period of Occultation, to the most learned living mujtahid who is the giver’s marja‘ at-taqlid [Source of Emulation]. The other half of the khums, the Share of the Sayyids/Sadat, is to be given to needy pious Sayyids who lack the resources for one’s year respectable living in consonance with their various statuses. For more information, see Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi, Khums: An Islamic Tax, http://www./beliefs/practices/khums.html.

[55] Surah al-Baqarah 2:115.

[56] Bakkah: the holy Mosque or the city of Mecca, or the territory where they stand. [Q Trans.]

[57] Surah al ‘Imran 3:96.

[58] Surah al-Baqarah 2:150.

[59] That is, a knowledge which will enable you to distinguish between truth and falsehood. [Trans.]

[60] Surah al-Anfal 8:29.

[61] Surah al-Hadid 57:28.

[62] Surah Muhammad 47:17.

[63] Surah ‘Ankabut 29:69.

[64] Surah al-A‘raf 7:201.

[65] Surah al-‘Ankabut 29:45.

[66] Surah al-Baqarah 2:45.

[67] Surah Yusuf 12:53.

[68] Surah al-Qasas 28:83: “This is the abode of the hereafter which We shall grant to those who do not desire to domineer in the earth nor to cause corruption, and the outcome will be in favor of the God-wary.”

[69] Surah an-Nazi‘at 79:40-41: “But as for him who is awed to stand before his Lord and forbids the soul from [following] desire, his refuge will indeed be paradise.”

[70] Surah al-An‘am 6:162.

[71] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 88, pp. 41, 93.

[72] Surah al-Baqarah 2:34: “And when We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate before Adam,’ they prostrated, except Iblis: he refused and acted arrogantly, and he was one of the faithless.”

[73] Surah al ‘Imran 3:96: “Indeed the first house to be set up for mankind is the one at Bakkah, blessed and a guidance for all nations.”

[74] Surah al-‘Ankabut 29:45.

[75] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:43: “O you who have faith! Do not approach prayer when you are intoximated, [not] until you know what you are saying.”

[76] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:142: “When they (hypocrites) stand up for prayer, they stand up lazily, showing off to the people and not remembering Allah except a little.”

[77] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 89, p. 201.

[78] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:100.

[79] Sirr as-salah, p. 12.

[80] Surah al-Fatir (or al-Mala’ikah) 35:29.

[81] Surah al-A‘raf 7:170.

[82] Surah al-Hijr 15:9.

[83] Surah ta ha 20:14.

[84] Surah al-Isra’ 17:78.

[85] Qisas (literally means retribution or retaliation) in the Islamic jurisprudence is to be executed against a criminal who committed such crime as murder, amputation of a body limb, or laceration and beating according to legal decree when the victim or his guardians seek retribution in lieu of receiving a fine or blood money. [Trans.]

[86] Surah al-Jinn 72:18.

[87] The Kharijites [khawarij] or al-Mariqun (a name given to them by Imam ‘Ali and meaning “those who missed the truth of religion”) were a group of quasi-holy, narrow-minded Muslims who were originally followers of Imam ‘Ali and fought alongside him at the Battle of siffin. Initially they supported arbitration, pushing Imam ‘Ali to accept it; however, later they revolted against it arguing that because God was the only true arbitrator, Imam ‘Ali and those who agreed with him in the arbitration were not simply wrong;

they were in fact unbelievers, hence they could have no dealings with them. On Imam ‘Ali’s return to Iraq from siffin, this group seceded from his army and set up camp on the banks of the Nahrawan canal. The Kharijites (or seceders) became a fierce group who believed that they were the only true Muslims, and as such they began terrorizing people whom they regarded as unbelievers. Imam ‘Ali was at first able to talk to them and persuade some of them to cease their hostilities, but eventually he was forced to take up arms against them. In 659 CE he attacked their army under the leadership of ‘Abdullah ibn Wahab al-Rasibi at Nahrawan almost annihilating them. Nahrawan was the third and last battle Imam ‘Ali engaged in with his internal enemies. [Trans.]

[88] Surah an-Nur 24:56.

[89] Surah al-Baqarah 2:256.

[90] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:60.

[91] Surah al-Quraysh 106:3-4.

[92] Surah al-‘Ankabut 29:45.

[93] Surah ta ha 20:14.

[94] ulu’l-‘azm: literally, resolute figures or men of decision. [Trans.]

[95] Surah al-‘Alaq 96:

[96] Surah al-Isra’ 17:1.

[97] Surah al-Baqarah 2:23.

[98] Surah Ya Sin 36:60-61:

“Did I not exhort you, O children of Adam, saying, ‘Do not worship Satan. he is indeed your manifest enemy. Worship Me. That is the straight path’?”

[99] Surah al-Baqarah 2:40.

[100] Surah al-Baqarah 2:74.

[101] Surah al-Kawthar 108:1-2.

[102] Surah al-Baqarah 2:45.

[103] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 18, p. 421.

[104] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 91, “Bab Fazl salah Ja‘far.”

[105] Mafatih? al-Jinan [Keys to the Gardens of Paradise]: a standard manual of Shi‘i devotion containing the supplicatory prayers of the infallible Imams (‘a) as well as formulae for recitation at particular times or during visitation of the tombs of the Imams (‘a), complied from Bihar al-Anwar [Oceans of Lights] and other sources by Shaykh ‘Abbas al-Qummi, a scholar of vast learning who died in Najaf in 1940. [Trans.]

[106] That is, from among the non-Muslims, on non-availability of Muslim witnesses during journey. [Q Trans.]

[107] Surah al-Ma’idah 5:106.

[108] Surah al-Fatihah 1:4.

[109] Surah al-Fatihah 1:7.

[110] Surah al-Fatihah 1:7.

[111] Surah Maryam 19:58.

[112] Surah al-Hijr 15:99.

[113] Surah Ibrahim 14:37.

[114] Surah al-A‘raf 7:31.

[115] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 80, p. 188.

[116] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 73, p. 133.

[117] Risaleh-ye Ahkam-e Imam Khomeini, “Issue 910”.

[118] Surah al-Baqarah 2:125; Surah Maryam 19:11.

[119] Surah al ‘Imran 3:35: “When the wife of Imran said, ‘My Lord, I dedicate to You what is in my belly, in consecration.”

[120] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 2, p. 41.

[121] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 70, p. 210.

[122] Surah al-Insan (or, ad-Dahr) 76:9: “We feed you only for the sake of Allah. We do not want any reward from you nor any thanks.”

[123] Surah al-Insan (or, ad-Dahr) 76.

[124] Muhajjah al-Bayza’, vol. 8, p. 104.

[125] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 72, p. 93.

[126] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 70, p. 210.

[127] Muhajjah al-Bayza’, vol. 8, p. 104.

[128] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 75, p. 155.

[129] Surah al-Anfal 8:4.

[130] Surah al ‘Imran 3:163.

[131] Surah at-Takwir 81:21.

[132] Tamashagah-e Raz, p. 114.

[133] Surah al-‘Ankabut 29:65.

[134] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 70, p. 186.

[135] Ma‘sumin: those possessing the quality of infallibility (divinely protected against sinning); namely, the Prophet, Fatimah, and the Twelve Imams (‘a). See A Brief history of the Fourteen Infallibles, 3rd ed. (Tehran: WOFIS, 2001). [Trans.]

[136] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 41, p. 14.

[137] Khwajah Shams ad-Din Muhammad hafiz Shirazi (ca. 1325-1391) was the fourteenth century Persian lyric bard and panegyrist, and commonly considered as the preeminent master of the ghazal form. [Trans.]

[138] Du‘a Kumayl [Supplication of Kumayl]: The supplication taught by Imam ‘Ali (‘a) to one of his loyal companions and staunch supporters of Islam, Kumayl ibn Ziyad. Usually offered on every night preceding Friday [Laylat’ul-Jum‘ah] individually or in congregation after Isha’ prayers, this supplication envisages divine teachings and solid foundations of religion in order to enable everyone to follow the right path for becoming a worthy Muslim. The Arabic text, English translation and commentary of this famous supplication are available online at http://www./kumayl. [Trans.]

[139] Maraji‘ at-Taqlid (sing. Marja‘ at-Taqlid): literally means “Sources of Imitation”. Maraji‘ are the ‘ulama’ who have reached the position of Marja‘iyyah [Religious Reference Authority] because they have possessed such characteristics as justice, piety, superior knowledge, awareness and being oblivious to worldly possessions. The average people refer to them to find answers to their religious problems, and to follow their religious decrees. [Trans.]

[140] As narrated by ayatullah safi.

[141] Surah hud 11:7; Surah al-Mulk 67:2.

[142] Sham or Shamat: up until five centuries ago, included Syria of today, Lebanon and parts of Jordan and Palestine. [Trans.]

[143] Surah al-Ma’idah 5:55.

[144] Surah an-Nur 24:39.

[145] For example, Surah al-Baqarah 2:190.

[146] For instance, Surah al-Insan (or, ad-Dahr) 76:9.

[147] Surah al-Baqarah 2:207 and others.

[148] For example, Surah at-tin 95:6; Surah al-‘Asr 103:3, and many others. [Trans.]

[149] Surah an-Nahl 16:97.

[150] Mustadrak al-Wasa’il, hadith 4696.

[151] Surah al-‘Abasa 80:1-10.

[152] Surah al-Ma’idah 5:54.

[153] Surah al-Ahzab 33:39.

[154] Tuman: every tuman is equivalent to ten Iranian rials. [Trans.]

[155] See Murtaza Mutahhari, Wala-ha va Wilayat-ha, pp. 290-293.

For this book’s English translation, see Murtaza Mutahhari, Master and Mastership (Karachi: Islamic Seminary Publications, n.d.), chap. 7, “Wala of Control,” available online at http://www./mastership. [Trans.]

[156] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 1, p. 39.

[157] Ghurar al-Hikam.

[158] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 8, p. 107.

[159] Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon 178: “By Allah, no people are deprived of the pleasures of life after enjoying them, except as a result of sins committed by them, because certainly Allah is not unjust to his creatures. Even then, when calamities descend upon people and pleasures depart from them, they turn towards Allah with the true intention and the feeling in their hearts, he will return everything that vanished from them and cure all their ills.”

[160] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 1, p. 40.

[161] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 70, p. 201.

[162] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 1, p. 40.

[163] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 78, p. 312.

[164] Ghurar al-Hikam.

[165] Qassar al-Jamal.

[166] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:74.

[167] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:100.

[168] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 1, p. 39.

[169] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 1, p. 87.

[170] Muhajjah al-Bayza’ vol. 8, p. 103.

[171] Muhajjah al-Bayza’ vol. 8, p. 104.

[172] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 70, p. 206.

[173] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 1, p. 35.

[174] Muhajjah al-Bayza’ vol. 4, p. 374.

[175] Surah al-A‘raf 7:56.

[176] Surah al-Anbiya’ 21:90.

[177] Nahj al-Balaghah, Saying 290.

[178] Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon 5.

[179] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:92-93: “Anyone who kills a believer by mistake should set free a believing slave, and pay blood-money to his (the victim’s) family, unless they remit it in charity… Should anyone kill a believer intentionally, his requital shall be hell, to remain in it [forever]; Allah shall be wrathful at him and curse him and he shall prepare for him a great punishment.”

[180] Surah al-Baqarah 2:225.

[181] Surah Ibrahim 14:37: “Our Lord! …So make the hearts of a part of the people fond of them (Abraham’s descendants), and provide them with fruits, that they may give thanks.”

[182] Surah al-Baqarah 2:165.

[183] Munajat ash-Sha‘baniyyah.

[184] Surah ash-Shu‘ara’ 26:88-89: “The day (Day of Resurrection) when neither wealth nor children will avail, except him who comes to Allah with a sound heart.”

[185] Surah al-Anwar, vol. 70, p. 375.

[186] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 12, p. 86.

[187] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 15, p. 22.

[188] Someone thus narrated to me: “I met one of the disabled war veterans (during the 1980-88 Iraqi imposed war against Iran), who was sitting in a wheelchair. I approached and kissed him. As he smelled my perfume, he asked me to give him my perfume. I said: ‘I will buy one for you and I will keep this one.’ At any rate, I did not give it to him and we parted ways. An hour later, I went to the toilet and the bottle of perfume fell into the toilet bowl. All of a sudden, I realized that this was a penalty for my stinginess and right there, I wept for my (miserable) state.” Yes, we will suppose to have so much regret and remorse on the Day of Resurrection since we have done nothing for God.

[189] Ghurar al-Hikam, hadith 1610.

[190] Ghurar al-Hikam, hadith 1615.

[191] Labbayk [here I am]: In full, Labbayk, allahumma labbayk, labbayka la sharika laka labbayk, inna’l-hamda wa’n-ni‘mata laka wa’l-mulka la sharika laka labbayk [“here I am, O Lord, here I am, You indeed have no partner, here I am. No doubt, all praise and bounties are Yours, and so is the absolute Domain. You indeed have no partners, here I am”]. Recited in Arabic, it is the talbiyyah, proclaimed immediately after wearing the ihram (white garment) that signifies the beginning of the hajj rituals. [Trans.]

[192] id al-Fitr: the Islamic feast marking the end of the fasting month of Ramazan. [Trans.]

[193] ‘id al-Qurban (Feast of Sacrifice): the Islamic feast marking the end of the hajj rituals in the month of Dhu’l-hijjah, which is associated with the offering of animals for sacrifice. [Trans.]

[194] salat al-ayat: obligatory prayer for signs or natural phenomena such as a solar eclipse, a lunar eclipse, earthquakes, thunder and lightning, etc. [Trans.]

[195] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 727.

[196] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 84, p. 351.

[197] Sirr as-salah, p. 78.

[198] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 20, p. 190.

[199] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 32, p. 60.

[200] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 104.

[201] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 35, p. 70.

[202] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 20, p. 63.

[203] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 11, p. 168.

[204] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 15, p. 248.

[205] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 15, p. 273.

[206] Tafsir-e Nemuneh, vol. 27, p. 307.

[207] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 92, p. 127.

[208] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 20, p. 126.

[209] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 92, p. 145.

[210] Zayd ibn ‘Ali, p. 186.

[211] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 19, p. 281.

[212] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 93.

[213] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 41, p. 341.

[214] Surah al-Ma’idah 5:55.

[215] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 35, p. 183.

[216] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 16, p. 99.

[217] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 40, p. 260.

[218] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 42, p. 125.

[219] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 86, p. 207.

[220] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 39, p. 98.

[221] Payambari va Hukumat [Prophethood and Governance], p. 136.

[222] Mustadrak al-Wasa’il, hadith 4365.

[223] The number “seven” is the number of the heavens, the days of the week, the circumambulation [tawaf] of the Ka‘bah, sa‘i [brisk walking or jogging] between the mounts of safa and Marwah, and the number of stones to be thrown at the representations of Satan during the Hajj rituals.

[224] Tafsir Kanz ad-Daqa’iq.

[225] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 92, p. 257.

[226] Surah hud 11:41.

[227] Surah an-Naml 27:30: “It is from Solomon, and it begins in the name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.”

[228] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 76, p. 385.

[229] Kanz al-‘Ummal, hadith 29558.

[230] Tafsir Burhan, vol. 1, p. 43.

[231] Mustadrak al-Hakim, vol. 3, p. 233.

[232] Ahl al-Bayt: according to authentic hadiths recorded in both the Sunni and Shi‘ah sources, the term Ahl al-Bayt, and interchangeably Itrah and al, is a blessed Qur’anic appellation that belongs exclusively to the Prophet, ‘Ali, Fatimah, hasan, and husayn (‘a). The members of this Family of five, with the Prophet Muhammad (s) at its head, were the ones alive at the time the Qur’anic verses regarding their virtue were being revealed to the Prophet (s). however, nine other Imams from the descendants of Imam al-husayn (‘a) are also included in this chosen Family, the final one being Imam al-Mahdi (‘a). [Trans.]

[233] Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, vol. 3, p. 177; vol. 4, p. 85.

[234] Surah al-A‘la 87:1.

[235] Surah al-Qasas 28:88:

“Everything is to perish except his Face.”

[236] Surah al-A‘raf 7:180.

[237] Tafsir Nemuneh, vol. 7, p. 27.

[238] Surah Maryam 19:65.

[239] Surah al-An‘am 6:164.

[240] Surah ta Ha 20:50.

[241] Surah al-Isra’ 17:20.

[242] Surah al-A‘raf 7:54.

[243] Surah al-Fatihah 1:2.

[244] Surah Yunus 10:10.

[245] Surah al-An‘am 6:12.

[246] Surah al-Anbiya’ 21:107.

[247] Surah ar-Rahman 55:1-2.

[248] Surah al ‘Imran 3:26.

[249] Surah al-Ghafir (or al-Mu’min) 40:16.

[250] Surah Ibrahim 14:48; Surah al-Ghafir (or al-Mu’min) 40:16.

[251] Surah al ‘Imran 3:19.

[252] Surah az-Zumar 39:3.

[253] Surah adh-Dhariyat 51:12.

[254] Surah al-Infitar 82:18-19.

[255] Surah ash-Shu‘ara’ 26:88.

[256] Surah al-Mumtahanah 60:3.

[257] Surah al-Hijr 15:49-50.

[258] Surah al-Ghafir (or al-Mu’min) 40:3.

[259] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:80.

[260] Divine Resignation [tafwiz] means leaving man to his own devises and suspending the divine will from any effective role. [Trans.]

[261] Surah al-A‘raf 7:43.

[262] Surah al-Ma’idah 5:18.

[263] Surah al-Inshiqaq 84:6.

[264] Surah Muhammad 47:17.

[265] Surah hud 11:56.

[266] Surah Ya Sin 36:3-4.

[267] Surah Ya Sin 36:61.

[268] Surah al ‘Imran 3:101.

[269] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 87, p. 3.

[270] Tawassul: literally, to resort to intermediaries. Technically, it refers to the practice of petition prayer addressed to God through a holy personage such as a prophet [nabi] or a saint [wali]. [Trans.]

[271] Surah al-An‘am 6:161.

[272] Surah al-Baqarah 2:143.

[273] Surah al-A‘raf 7:31.

[274] Surah al-Isra’ 17:29.

[275] Surah al-Furqan 25:67.

[276] Surah al-Isra’ 17:110.

[277] Surah al-Fath 48:29.

[278] Surah al-Baqarah 2:43.

[279] Surah al-Baqarah 2:82.

[280] Surah al-Baqarah 2:83.

[281] Surah al-‘Ankabut 29:8.

[282] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:135.

[283] Surah al-Ma’idah 5:8.

[284] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:69.

[285] Surah al-Baqarah 2:47.

[286] Surah al-Baqarah 2:61.

[287] Tawrah (Torah): the scripture revealed to Prophet Musa (Moses) (‘a) in its original form. [Trans.]

[288] Surah al-Ma’idah 5:13.

[289] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:161.

[290] Surah al-Ma’idah 5:24.

[291] Surah al-Mumtahanah 60:13.

[292] The traditions regarding the merits and importance of this surah have been recorded in Tafsir Burhan. In this volume, we shall only quote some of these traditions.

[293] Injil: the scripture revealed to Prophet ‘isa (Jesus) (‘a) in its original form. [Trans.]

[294] Zabur: the scripture revealed to Prophet Dawud (David) (‘a) in its original form. [Trans.]

[295] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 1, p. 202.

[296] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 3, p. 13.

[297] Tafsir Nur ath-Thaqalayn, vol. 5, p. 709.

[298] Surah ash-Shura 42:11.

[299] Surah Luqman 31:13.

[300] Tafsir Nur ath-Thaqalayn, vol. 5, p. 714.

[301] Najh al-Balaghah, “Khutbah at-Tawhid”.

[302] Surah al-A‘raf 7:180.

[303] Surah at-tur 52:43.

[304] Surah al-Mursalat 77:48. See Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 85, p. 100.

[305] Surah al-Waqi‘ah 56:74.

[306] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 2, p. 922.

[307] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 85, p. 108.

[308] Surah sad 38:24.

[309] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 928.

[310] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 928.

[311] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 5, p. 203.

[312] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 928.

[313] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 942.

[314] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 942.

[315] All these etiquettes are recorded in Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, pp. 920-943.

[316] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 85, p. 110.

[317] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 922.

[318] Of course, sujud is solely for God and man was merely assumed the qiblah of the angels.

[319] Surah al-‘Alaq 96:19.

[320] Surah al-Fath 48:29.

[321] Surah an-Nahl 16:49.

[322] Surah ar-Rahman 55:6.

[323] Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon 91.

[324] Surah al-Insan 76:26.

[325] Surah al ‘Imran 3:43.

[326] Surah al-Hajj 22:77.

[327] Surah al-Fath 48:29.

[328] Surah as-Sajdah 32:15.

[329] Surah al-Furqan 25:63-64.

[330] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 85, p. 139.

[331] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 5, p. 466.

[332] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 5, p. 482.

[333] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 5, p. 453.

[334] Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 4, p. 189.

[335] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 5, p. 189.

[336] Mustadrak al-Wasa’il, vol. 4, p. 485.

[337] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 928.

[338] Surah al-Baqarah 2:125: “We charged Abraham and Ishmael [with its upkeep, saying], ‘Purify My house for those who go around it, for those who make it a retreat and for those who bow and prostrate.”

[339] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 85, p. 139.

[340] Al-Faqih, vol. 1, p. 282.

[341] Al-Wafi, vol. 8, p. 992.

[342] Mustadrak al-Wasa’il, vol. 4, p. 484.

[343] These traditions have been recorded in Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, pp. 950-980.

[344] The subjects of this discussion have been recorded in the traditions of the book, Kamil az-Ziyarat, Section 89 onward.

[345] Al-Wafi, vol. 8, p. 825.

[346] Muhajjah al-Bayza’, vol. 1, p. 346.

[347] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 5, p. 459.

[348] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 5, p. 453.

[349] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 5, p. 469.

[350] Al-Faqih, vol. 1, p. 334.

[351] Al-Faqih, vol. 1, p. 331.

[352] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 85, p. 163.

[353] Al-Wafi, vol. 8, p. 882.

[354] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 5, p. 475.

[355] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 85, p. 137.

[356] Safinah al-Bahar.

[357] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 1058.

[358] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 633.

[359] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 986.

[360] Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, p. 461.

[361] Surah Yusuf 12:100.

[362] Surah al-Waqi‘ah 56:74.

[363] Surah al-A‘la 87:1.

[364] Tafsir al-Mizan, vol. 19, p. 160.

[365] Surah at-tur 52:43.

[366] Surah al-Qalam 68:29.

[367] Surah al-An‘am 6:91.

[368] Surah al ‘Imran 3:191.

[369] Surah al-Mu’minun 23:115.

[370] Surah Yunus 10:68.

[371] Tasbihat al-Arba‘ah: literally, the four tasbihs; it refers to the recital of “Subhan Allahi wa’l-hamdulillahi wa la ilaha illallahu Allahu akbar” [Glory be to Allah; praise be to Allah; there is no god but Allah; Allah is greater]. [Trans.]

[372] Surah al-Anbiya’ 21:22.

[373] Surah ta ha 20:130.

[374] Surah an-Nasr 110:1, 3.

[375] Surah as-saffat 37:143-144.

[376] Surah al-Isra’ (or Bani Isra’il) 17:43.

[377] Surah as-saffat 37:159-160.

[378] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 7, p. 187.

[379] Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 80.

[380] Al-Wafi, vol. 2, p. 107.

[381] Surah al-Kahf 18:46: “Wealth and children are an adornment of the life of the world, but lasting righteous deeds are better with your Lord in reward and better in hope.”

[382] Tafsir al-Mizan, vol. 13, p. 540.

[383] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 1207.

[384] Surah al-Jum‘ah 62:1: “Whatever there is in the heavens glorifies Allah and whatever there is in the earth, the Sovereign, the All-holy, the All-mighty, the All-wise.”

[385] Surah al-Anbiya’ 21:79: “And We disposed the mountains and the birds to glorify [him] with David, and We have been the doer [of such things].”

[386] Surah ar-Ra‘d 13:13: “The Thunder celebrates his praise.”

[387] Surah an-Nur 24:41.

[388] Tafsir al-Qurtubi, vol. 8, p. 5581.

[389] Tafsir Nur ath-Thaqalayn, vol. 3, p. 444.

[390] Tafsir Nur ath-Thaqalayn, vol. 3, p. 168.

[391] Tafsir al-Mizan, vol. 13, p. 206.

[392] Surah al-Fath 48:10.

[393] Surah al-Isra’ (or Bani Isra’il) 17:44.

[394] Surah al-Isra’ (or Bani Isra’il) 17:85.

[395] This sentence was repeated four times in the Qur’an among which is in Surah al-Anbiya’ 21:109.

[396] Surah al-Isra’ (or Bani Isra’il) 17:44.

[397] Surah an-Naml 27:22-27.

[398] Surah an-Naml 27:18.

[399] Surah al ‘Imran 3:43.

[400] Surah al-Muzzammil 73:8.

[401] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 912.

[402] Mufradat ar-Raghib.

[403] Surah al-A‘raf 7:55.

[404] Ma‘ani as-saduq, p. 369.

[405] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 82, p. 197.

[406] Masa’il-e Qunut dar Tawdih al-Masa’il.

[407] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 82, p. 200.

[408] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 38, p. 280.

[409] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 81.

[410] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 82, p. 201.

[411] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 68, p. 63.

[412] Surah al ‘Imran 3:18.

[413] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 93, “Bab at-Tahlil wa Fazlah.”

[414] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 3, p. 13.

[415] It refers to Surah an-Nisa’ 4:94:

“Do not say to someone who offers you peace, ‘You are not a believer’.”

[416] Jami‘ al-Ahadith, vol. 1, p. 188.

[417] Faraz-ha’i az Tarikh-e Islami [highlights of Islamic history], p. 111.

[418] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 77, p. 402.

[419] Surah at-Tahrim 66:11.

[420] Surah al ‘Imran 3:81: “When Allah took a compact concerning the prophets, [he said,] ‘Inasmuch as I have given you of the Book and wisdom, should an apostle come to you thereafter confirming what is with you, you shall believe in him and help him.’ he said, ‘Do you pledge and accept My covenant on this condition?’ They said, ‘We pledge.’ he said, ‘Then be witnesses, and I am also among the witnesses along with you’.”

[421] Surah Luqman 31:13.

[422] Surah al-Isra’ (or Bani Isra’il) 17:1.

[423] Surah al-Baqarah 2:23.

[424] Surah al-Isra’ (or Bani Isra’il) 17:3.

[425] Surah sad 38:30.

[426] Surah al-Munafiqun 63:1.

[427] Surah ash-Shura 42:23

“Say, I do not ask of you any reward for it except the affection for [my] relatives.”

[428] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 1216.

[429] Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 492.

[430] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 94, p. 54.

[431] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 1220.

[432] Mir‘ah al-‘Uqul, vol. 12, p. 109.

[433] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 94, p. 63.

[434] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 1216.

[435] Surah al-Ahzab 33:56.

[436] Tafsir Nur ath-Thaqalayn, vol. 4, p. 305.

[437] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 94, p. 69.

[438] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 94, p. 64.

[439] As quoted in Tafsir-e Nemuneh, vol. 17, p. 420.

[440] As quoted in Tafsir al-Mizan, vol. 16, p. 365; sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 6, p. 151.

[441] Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, p. 303 quoting Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 6, p. 323.

[442] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 1218.

[443] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 1219.

[444] Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 397.

[445] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 94, p. 48.

[446] Wasa’il ash-Shi‘ah, vol. 4, p. 1220.

[447] Surah as-saffat 37:181.

[448] Surah as-saffat 37:79.

[449] Surah as-saffat 37:109.

[450] Surah as-saffat 37:120.

[451] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 16, p. 98.

[452] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 84, p. 277.

[453] Surah an-Nisa’ 4:86.