Chapter 9 : Tashahhud and Salam
|Chapter 8 : Qunut|
The word “qunut” means obedience accompanied by humility. For example, while addressing H?adrat Maryam (Mary), God says:
“O Mary, be obedient [uqnuti] to your Lord.” What is meant by qunut in prayer is the supplication that we recite in the second rak‘ah of every prayer. On the interpretation of the verse,
“And dedicate yourself to Him with total dedication,” Imam as-sadiq (‘a) says that what is meant by “tabattul” is to raise the hands in supplication during prayer. The word “tabattul” means cutting off hope in other than God. The Qur’an thus enjoins us:
“Supplicate your Lord, beseechingly and secretly.”
One of the signs of beseeching and weeping in the presence of God is to raise the hands in supplication. The indigent man stretches his hands toward the Absolute All-sufficient, praying to Him alone and purges his heart of other than Him.
Although qunut is only optional [mustahabb] in prayer, it has, nevertheless, been given such attention that Imam ar-Rida (‘a) thus wrote in one of his letters to Ma’mun: “Qunut is an obligatory sunnah in all the daily prayers.” Of course, the purpose of the Imam (‘a) is to emphasize the importance of qunut. For example, if one forgets to perform it before the ruku‘, it is recommended to perform a compensatory one after ruku‘, and if he remembers it during sujud, he may also do so after salam.
Concerning the etiquette of performing qunut, it is thus recorded: You have to raise your hands up to the level of your face; the palms of the hands must be open toward the sky; the two hands must be kept together; the fingers must be close together except the thumbs; at the time of reciting the supplication, you have to look at the palms of the hands and recite it loudly; of course, not to the extent that the leader of the congregation would hear it.
There is no specific supplication and one may recite whatever supplication one wants. It is also not necessary that the supplication be recited in Arabic as it may also be recited in English. Of course, it is clear that the Qur’anic supplications and the supplications that the Infallibles (‘a) read in their qunut have special virtue and preeminence.
The qunut of different prayers
The number of qunut is not identical in all prayers. Each of the five daily prayers has one qunut before the ruku‘ of the second rak‘ah. But the Friday congregational prayer which has two rak‘ahs have two qunuts, one before the ruku‘ of the first rak‘ah and the other one after the ruku‘ of the second rak‘ah.
In the ‘id al-Fitr and ‘id al-Qurban prayers each of which has two rak‘ahs, we recite nine qunuts; five successive qunuts before the ruku‘ of the first rak‘ah and four successive qunuts before the ruku‘ of the second rak‘ah. Of course, there is a special supplication recorded for these qunuts.
Even in the salah al-ayat [prayer of natural signs] which has two rak‘ahs and five ruku‘s in every rak‘ah, it is recommended to recite the qunut before the second, fourth, sixth, and eight ruku‘s, though it is enough to have one qunut before the tenth ruku‘.
The witr prayer, which is a one-rak‘ah prayer performed at the end of the night supererogatory prayers, has a long qunut and many recorded supplications, such as istighfar [to say, for example, “astaghfirullah”] 70 times, “al-‘afwu” 300 times and supplication for 40 believers.
The prayer for rain, like the ‘id prayers, has five qunuts in the first rak‘ah and four qunuts in the second rak‘ah.
In any case, to prolong the qunut is recommended. Abu Dharr asked the Prophet (s): “Which prayer is better?” The Prophet (s) replied: “The prayer whose qunut is longer and anyone who would recite his qunut longer will have more comfort during the time of the Day of Resurrection.”
The qunut of the Infallibles (‘a)
Ibn Mas‘ud said that the reason behind his acceptance of Islam was his witnessing the prayer of three persons, viz. the Holy Prophet (s), H?adrat ‘Ali (‘a) and H?adrat Khadijah (r).
In the salam that we give in the Ziyarah al Ya Sin to H?adrat al-Mahdi (may Allah, the Exalted, expedite his glorious advent), we read:
ÇáÓøóáÇóãõ Úóáóíúßó Íöíäó ÊõÕóáøöí æóÊóÞúäõÊõ
“Peace be upon you when you are standing for prayer and qunut!”
For each of the Infallibles (‘a), there has been recorded long supplications in the qunut, which we cannot quote here for lack of space. It is surprising that the qunut with all its blessings is not widely and frequently practiced. Were H?adrat ‘Ali and the Khulafa’ ar-Rashidun not reciting qunut in their prayers?
During qunut we should not think of ourselves and our requests only. We have to learn from H?adrat Zahra who said:
ÇáúÌóÇÑó Ëõãøó ÇáÏøóÇÑó
That is, “Think of your neighbor first and then your family.” God has promised to grant the personal requests of anyone who would pray for others.
In the qunut we have to pray against our enemies, asking for the victory of Islam and the Muslims.
In his qunut the Holy Prophet (s) would curse a group of people, mentioning their names and descriptions. In the qunut of his prayer, H?adrat ‘Ali (‘a) used to curse Mu‘awiyah and ‘Amru ibn al-‘as. At any rate, tawalla and tabarra are part of the religion, nay the foundation of our religion:
åóáö ÇáÏøöíäõ ÅáÇøó ÇáúÍõÈøõ æóÇáúÈõÛúÖõ¿
“Is the religion other than love and hatred?” ?
Chapter 9 : Tashahhud and Salam
ÃóÔúåóÏõ Ãóäú áÇó Åá?åó ÅáÇøó Çááåõ æóÍúÏóåõ áÇó ÔóÑöíßó áóåõ æóÃóÔúåóÏõ Ãóäøó ãõÍóãøóÏÇð ÚóÈúÏõåõ æóÑóÓõæáõåõ. Çóááøóåõãøó Õóáøö Úóáóì ãõÍóãøóÏò æóÂáö ãõÍóãøóÏò
I bear witness that there is no god but Allah; One and Only and having no partner; and Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. O Allah! Send blessings on Muhammad and his progeny.
Among the obligatory parts of prayer is tashahhud which is recited in the second and last rak‘ahs of prayer. In the tashahhud we testify and bear witness to the Oneness of Allah and the apostleship [risalah] of His Prophet, H?adrat Muhammad (s). Although we have testified again and again to these two facts in the adhan and iqamah, those testimonies were at the time of the approach of the prayer and this testimony is at the end of the prayer.
There is wisdom behind all these repetitions. It is because man is easily subjected to negligence and forgetfulness, easily forgetting the Owner of the blessings. These sentences are like a rope that protects the ship of humanity from the waves of events.
The slogan of tawhid
“La ilaha illallah” is the first slogan of all the prophets (‘a).
“La ilaha illallah” is the testimony that all those who possess knowledge along with the angels do acknowledge:
“Allah bears witness that there is no god but Him—and [so do] the angels and those who possess knowledge.”
“La ilaha illallah” is the sentence that every Muslim hears at birth, with which he will be buried and which will be recited at his grave [talqin].
“La ilaha illallah” is the most beloved of sentences to God and the heaviest of deeds on the Scale.
“La ilaha illallah” is the formidable fortress of God in which whoever enters is safe from His wrath:
áÇó Åöá?åó ÅáÇøó Çááåõ ÍöÕúäöíº Ýóãóäú ÏóÎóáó ÍöÕúäöí Ãóãöäó ãöäú ÚóÐóÇÈöí
“La ilaha illa’llah is My fortress; so, whoever enters My fortress is safe from My wrath.”
“La ilaha illallah” is the demarcation between kufr and Islam. Any unbeliever [kafir] who recites it enters the fold of Islam. The Prophet (s) criticized the Muslim who did not pay attention to one of the enemy soldiers when the latter recited “la ilaha illallah” and killed him, saying: “With the utterance of this statement, anyone is safe even though we do not know whether he does so sincerely or not.”
“La ilaha illallah” is the slogan of the Muslims at the time of passing the sirat on the Day of Resurrection.
We read in history that Abu Jahl said to the Prophet (s): “Shall we abandon the 360 idols and accept One God? We are willing to utter 10 sentences but not this statement.” But the Prophet (s) said: “It is this statement that will give you glory and power and will give you superiority over other communities.”
A glance at the Du‘a’ al-‘Arafah of Imam al-H?usayn (‘a) and the sermon of Imam as-Sajad (‘a) at Sham makes the fact clear that the saints of God wholeheartedly bore witness to this, and even the earth and time gave this testimony.
In the tashahhud we do not suffice ourselves with merely “la ilaha illallah”. We rather add, “wahdahu la sharikalah” “He is alone who has no partner”. That is, He is One who has no partner in creation, in control and in legislation: “wa lam yaku’l-lahu sharika fi’l-mulk” “And He has no partner in sovereignty.” Servitude to God is the highest honor for the saints of God:
Åáóåöíº ßóÝóì Èöíó ÚöÒøÇð Ãóäú Ãóßõæäó áóßó ÚóÈúÏÇð
“O Lord! It is already enough of an honor for me that I am Your servant.”
Servitude to God implies man’s freedom from all forms of restriction, attachment and affection. It thus gives man so much power that he would not be afraid of any superpower. On account of being a sincere servant of God, the wife of Pharaoh became such an impenetrable force that all of Pharaoh’s gold and silver had no effect on her, and although Pharaoh subjected all to his service, she remained the servant of God alone. Her accomplishment was such that she became a model for all believing men and women throughout history:
“Allah draws an[other] example for those who have faith: the wife of Pharaoh.”
In any case, testimony to the Prophet’s (s) servanthood [‘ubudiyyah] to God is a preliminary to the testimony of his apostleship [risalah], and this itself has lessons and messages: “Ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduh…”.
Testimony to his apostleship means the negation of all man-made schools; acceptance of the eternality and universality of the apostleship of the Seal of the Prophets [khatam al-anbiya’]; and rejection of all the t?aghuts.
Testimony to the apostleship of H?adrat Muhammad (s) is a covenant that God has made with the all the prophets; had they not accepted his apostleship, they would not have attained the station of prophethood. Therefore, I am not alone in saying, “Ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasulah” as all the prophets (‘a) have said so as well.
What has afflicted most of monotheists nowadays is that they verbally utter, “La ilaha illallah” but in practice they turn to other than Him, looking for power and glory somewhere else. They obey other than Him and express love to other than Him. By the way, polytheism is itself a grave act of injustice and disrespect for His Sacred Essence:
“Polytheism is indeed a great injustice.”
It is so because having a partner connotes weakness, impotence and the inability to act, as well as the existence of a similar and equal being—things which are inconceivable with respect to God.
Testimony to the apostleship
“Wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluh” “And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.”
Servitude [‘ubuddiyyah] is the highest station of the prophets (‘a). Indeed, it is the preliminary stage of apostleship and prophethood: “‘abduhu wa rasulah”.
It is servitude to God that brings the Prophet (s) to the ascension [mi‘raj]:
“Immaculate is He who carried His servant on a journey”
And it causes the heavenly revelation to descend upon him:
“We have sent down (the revelation through angels) to Our servant.” God also praises His prophets (‘a) for their servitude to Him. Regarding H?adrat Nuh (Noah) (‘a), He says:
“Indeed he was a grateful servant.” Concerning H?adrat Sulayman (Solomon) (‘a) He states:
“What an excellent servant!”
One of the distinctions of the prophets (‘a) in relation to the geniuses and inventors is that the latter have obtained their genius and creativity as the result of intelligence, perseverance and exercise, while the prophets (‘a) have acquired their miracles as a result of servitude to God and under the aegis of the divine grace, and servitude is the foundation of all the stations of the prophets (‘a).
Acknowledgment of the servanthood of the prophets (‘a) prevents any form of extremism, fanaticism and radicalism concerning the stations of the saints of God. It reminds us that the Prophet (s), though the best of creation, is also a servant of God.
It is needless to say that this testimony must be based on sincerity and truthfulness for, the hypocrites [munafiqin] used to testify also to the apostleship of the Prophet (s) yet the Qur’an thus reveals about them:
“When the hypocrites come to you they say, ‘We bear witness that you are indeed the apostle of Allah.’ Allah knows that you are indeed His Apostle, and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are indeed liars.”
“Allahumma salli ‘ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad.” “O Allah! Send blessings on Muhammad and his progeny.”
After bearing witness to tawhid and the risalah, we invoke blessings for Muhammad and his progeny (‘a). salawat is the symbol of love [muhabbah], friendship [muwaddah] and devotion to the family of the Holy Prophet of Islam (s), which the Qur’an regards as the reward for the apostleship of the Prophet (s).
salawat is the polish for man’s rusty soul and it wipes away hypocrisy [nifaq]. salawat is a factor in wiping away sins, a means for opening the gates of heaven, the reason behind the angels’ supplication for man and asking for the forgiveness of his sins, and a means of proximity to the Prophet (s) on the Day of Resurrection and the obtainment of his intercession [shafa‘ah].
The one who has blissful fate is he whose last statement in the world is salawat.
God initially sends blessings [salawat] to the Prophet (s) and then orders us to send salawat:
“Indeed Allah and His angels bless the Prophet. O you who have faith! Invoke blessings on him and invoke Peace upon him in a worthy manner.”
From this verse and the following traditions, we have obtained these points below regarding salawat:
1. salawat is a verbal gesture of respect, but what is more important is the practical obedience required as is indicated by the phrase, “sallimu taslima”.
2. The salawat of God and the angels is permanent—“yusallun” in the present perfect tense.
3. The salawat of God is nobility [kiramah]; the salawat of the angels is mercy [rahmah]; and the salawat of the people is supplication [du‘a’].
4. It is recorded in the traditions: “In addressing Hazrat Musa (‘a), God said, ‘Send salawat upon Muhammad and his progeny as I and the angels do send salawat upon him’.”
5. The Messenger of Allah (s) said: “To remember God is a form of worship and to remember me is also a form of worship, and the same is true with respect to my successor ‘Ali ibn Abi talib.”
6. It is recorded in the traditions: “For the acceptance of your supplication, send salawat first before supplicating.” Not only the sending of salawat upon hearing the name of the Prophet (s) but also writing it after his name has reward. The Prophet (s) said: “The angels are praying for the forgiveness of anyone who would send salawat to me in his book so long as my name exists in that book.”
The manner of sending salawat
In the main books of the Ahl as-Sunnah, it is narrated that at the time of sending salawat, the progeny of Muhammad (s) should definitely be mentioned along with his name otherwise one’s salawat is incomplete [abtar] and defective.
In the Tafsir Durr al-Manthur, it is narrated from the sahih al-Bukhari, sahih Muslim, Sunan Tirmidhi, Sunan Nisa’i, Sunan Abu Dawud, and Sunan Ibn Majah, which are among the most important Sunni books, that someone asked the Prophet (s): “We know how to greet you [salam], but how should we send blessings to you?” The Prophet (s) said: “You say,
Çááøóåõãøó Õóáøö Úóáóì ãõÍóãøóÏò æóÚóáóì Âáö ãõÍóãøóÏò ßóãóÇ ÕóáøóíúÊó Úóáóì ÅÈúÑóÇåöíãó æóÂáö ÅÈúÑóÇåöíãó Åäøóßó ÍóãöíÏñ ãóÌöíÏñ
“O Allah! Send blessings on Muhammad and the progeny of Muhammad as You have sent blessings on Ibrahim and the progeny of Ibrahim. You are the Praiseworthy and Holy.”
Imam ash-Shafi’i, the imam of the Shafi’i school of Sunni jurisprudence, expresses this issue in the following poem:
íóÇ Âáó ÈóíúÊö ÑóÓõæáö Çááåö ÍõÈøõßõãõ
ÝóÑúÖñ ãöäó Çááåö Ýöí ÇáúÞõÑúÂäö ÃóäúÒóáóåõ
ßóÝóÇßõãõ ãöäú ÚóÙöíãö ÇáúÞóÏúÑö Ãóäøóßõãõ
ãóäú áóãú íõÕóáøö Úóáóíúßõãú áÇó ÕóáÇóÉó áóåõ
O members of the Household [Ahl al-Bayt] of the Messenger of Allah! Loving you is an obligation, which God has revealed in the Qur’an.
On the greatness and loftiness of your station, it is enough that anyone who does not invoke blessings on you (in invoking blessings on the Prophet (s)), it is as if he has not invoked blessings at all. Yes, remembering Muhammad’s progeny in every prayer indicates that after the Prophet (s) we have to refer to his Ahl al-Bayt (s) and not to others. And if it is not really so, mentioning the names of persons whose path is not necessary to tread, especially in every prayer, would be an act of extremism.
A certain person was clinging steadfastly to the Ka‘bah and sending salawat but not including the progeny of Muhammad (s). Imam as-sadiq said: “This is an act of injustice against us.”
The Prophet of God (s) said: “Those who would deprive my progeny of salawat cannot smell the fragrance of paradise on the Day of Resurrection.” Similarly, assemblies where the Name of God as well as that of the Prophet (s) and his progeny are not mentioned will be a source of regret on the Day of Resurrection.
It is interesting enough that it is thus recorded in the traditions: “When the name of one of the prophets of God is mentioned, send blessings first to Muhammad and his progeny, and then invoke blessings and salutation on that prophet.” The Messenger of Allah (s) said: “The real miser is he who hears my name but does not send salawat to me. He is the most unkind and unfaithful among people.”
After reciting salawat, we give three types of salam [salutation]: first to the Messenger of Allah (s), second to the saints of God, and finally to the believers and our co-religionists.
In the verse,
God commands us to send salutations [salam] upon the Prophet (s) after the salawat. In prayer, therefore, after the salawat we extend salams to him:
ÇóáÓøóáÇóãõ Úóáóíúßó ÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáäøóÈöíøõ æóÑóÍúãóÉõ Çááåö æóÈóÑóßóÇÊõåõ
[Assalamu ‘alayka ayyuha’n-nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu]
“May Allah’s peace, mercy and blessings be upon you, O Prophet!” Through the takbirah al-ihram, we detached ourselves from creation [khalq] and attached ourselves to the Creator [khaliq]. At the end of the prayer we also first convey salutation to the gem of creation, viz. the Holy Prophet (s). Then, we extend our salutation to the righteous servants of God:
ÇóáÓøóáÇóãõ ÚóáóíúäóÇ æóÚóáóì ÚöÈóÇÏö Çááåö ÇáÕøóÇáöÍöíäó
[As-salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadillahi’s-salihin]
“May peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah!”
This salam includes all the past prophets, their successors and the infallible Imams.
God also sends blessings and benediction upon His prophets:
“Peace be to the apostles!”
“Peace be to Noah!”
“Peace be to Abraham!”
“Peace be to Moses and Aaron!”
Through the salam, we attach ourselves to the righteous servants of God—an attachment and relationship which are beyond the bounds of time and space, with all the purified and righteous ones throughout history, in all epochs and generations.
Then, it is the turn of our fellow believers at the present time. We send our salams upon those who have participated in the congregation of Muslims who have been standing with us in ranks as well as upon the angels who are present in the congregation of Muslims and the two angels who are assigned to each of us:
ÇóáÓøóáÇóãõ Úóáóíúßõãú æóÑóÍúãóÉõ Çááåö æóÈóÑóßóÇÊõåõ
[Assalamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakuh] “May Allah’s peace, mercy and blessings be upon you!”
We commence the prayer with the Name of God and end it with salam to the creatures of Allah. In these salutations, the hierarchy is observed. We send our salam first upon the Messenger of Allah, then upon the prophets, the saints and the righteous, and then the believers and followers.
The physiognomy of salam
Salam is one of the Names of God.
Salam is the salutation of the dwellers of paradise to one another.
Salam is the greeting of the angels at the time of entering the paradise.
Salam is the message of the All-merciful Lord.
Salam is the reception of the Night of Ordainment [laylah al-qadr].
Salam is the first right of Muslims upon one another.
Salam is the key to commencing any discourse or writing.
Salam is the deed of security from every sort of fear and evil.
Salam is the simplest good deed.
Salam is the symbol of humility and meekness.
Salam is the element of love and intimacy.
Salam is the expression of peace and amity.
Salam is the first gift and present between two human beings.
Salam is the wish for the safety of the servants of God.
Salam is the call for world peace.
Salam is the harbinger of hope and the bearer of joy.
Salam is the effacer of past offenses.
Salam is the announcement of presence and the permission to enter.
Salam is the best word at the time of entrance and exit.
Salam is a word which is light on the tongue but heavy in the scale.
Salam is the way for the reformers to reform the society.
Salam is the word addressed to both the dead and the living.
Salam is the source of glory and grandeur.
Salam is the element for earning the pleasure of God and the anger of Satan.
Salam is the means of entrance of the divine secrets into the heart.
Salam is the compensator for sins and the enhancer of good deeds.
Salam is the messenger of fellowship and friendship.
Salam is the agent that crushes vanity and egoism.
Salam is divine courtesy.
Salam is the reception of all that is good and wholesome.
Salam is a form of perfection the abandonment of which signifies stinginess, arrogance, seclusion, wrath, and the breaking of relationship ties.
Salam is the cloud of mercy that we spread out over the people, and as such, we say: “As-salamu ‘alaykum” [May peace be upon you] instead of “As-salamu lakum” [May peace be to you].
The Holy Prophet (s) used to say: “I shall never abandon the practice of greeting children in my life.” Although offering salam is recommended and replying to it is obligatory, the reward of the one who first offers the salam is 10 times more than that of the one who simply replies.
We read in the traditions that the one riding has to convey salam first to the one walking; the one standing to the one sitting; and the one arriving to those who are sitting in an assembly. And the Qur’an thus exhorts:
“When you are greeted with a salute, greet with a better one than it.”
æóÇáÓøóáÇóãõ Úóáóíúßõãú æóÑóÍúãóÉõ Çááåö æóÈóÑóßóÇÊõåõ
May Allah’s peace, mercy and blessings be upon you! ?