False and True Advantages
 

In these two verses the two key- notes of Islam, which are FAITH and RIGHT CONDUCT have been mentioned: ``Graces and superiorities, and other advantages are not given or obtained by your desires or by the desires of the people of the Scriptures.'' Whoever you might be, if you do evil deeds, you have to answer for that, and you must suffer the consequences of what you have done; unless God's Mercy may come to your help and catch your hand.

(( 125 ))

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125- AND WHO CAN BE BETTER IN RELIGION THAN HE WHO SUBMITS HIMSELF TO ALLAH, BEING A GOOD.- DOER, AND WHO FOLLOWED THE CREED OF ABRAHAM.- THE PURE IN FAITH.- AND ALLAH TOOK ABRAHAM FOR A FRIEND.

(( 126 )) 126- AND TO ALLAH BELONGS ALL THAT IS IN THE HEAVENS, AND ALL THAT IS IN THE EARTH, AND ALLAH ENCOMPASSES ALL THINGS.

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 125


This refers to the superiority of Islam which is full submission to the will of Allah, over all the other religions. Three criterions are introduced here as the standards of judging the best of religions:

1- Full submission of the whole self to Allah, the only one true God, Who is the creator of the universe.

2- Being good in words and deeds, and doing good and justice to All.

3- Following the creed of ABRAHAM the KHALIL OF ALLAH.

WHAT DOES KHALIL MEAN?

ABRAHAM is one of the five arch prophets of Allah in Muslim theology with the title of KHALIL- ALLAH; which may mean the friend of Allah, or one who has purified himself for Allah. In spite of all that dignity and title, in the theology of Islam, he is no more than a mortal man, chosen by Allah as Messenger, and ultimately as God's friend. ABRAHAM'S creed, and his strict belief in Monotheism, and his ardent love for the only true God, has been the foundation and origin of the three great religions founded by Moses, Jesus, and Mohammad.

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(( 127 ))

127- THEY ASK YOU FOR A PRONOUNCEMENT CONCERNING WOMEN. SAY ALLAH PRONOUNCES CONCERNING THEM, AND THAT WHICH HAS BEEN REHEARSED UNTO YOU IN THE BOOK CONCERNING THE ORPHAN GIRLS, TO WHOM YOU GIVE NOT WHAT IS PRESCRIBED FOR THEM, WHILE YOU LIKE TO MARRY THEM. AND ALSO REGARDING THE WEAKENED (HELPLESS) CHILDREN. AND THAT YOU HAVE TO STAND FIRM FOR JUSTICE TO ORPHANS, AND WHATEVER OF GOOD YOU DO ALLAH KNOWS THAT.

THE COMMENTARY
WOMEN'S RIGHTS AGAIN. (VERSE NO. 127)


Once again, great stress and emphasis is laid upon the Muslims to be fair and equitable in their dealings with women, orphans, children and all the helpless people who are in need of special care. Various rules and regulations and fair instructions have been issued in S 4: 2-25 and elsewhere in the holy Qura"n about widows, orphans, marriage and divorce, dower and heritage and etc: ``Allah has already pronounced concerning them; that which has been rehearsed unto you in the book regarding the orphan girls, the helpless children, and all the orphans generally.''

* * * *

(ABULFOTHU RAZI the great commentator of QURA"N has a cause of revelation for this verse in his book saying: ``In the Pagan Era it was customary that some near kins, held the right of being the guardian of the orphan

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girls of their family. If the girl was beautiful enough, the guardian would marry her, in order to own her inheritance too. But if she was not handsome enough, he would hinder her from marriage to continue his guardianship over her, and own all her heritage!'' (TRANSLATOR'S NOTE)

(( 128 ))

128- IF A WOMAN FEARS ILL.- TREATMENT OR DESERTION ON HER HUSBAND'S PART, THERE IS NO BLAME ON THEM TO SEEK A MUTUAL AGREEMENT, (ON IGNORING A PART OF THEIR RIGHTS ON ACCOUNT OF EACH OTHER) THAT PEACE IS GOOD. SOULS ARE PRONE TO AVARICE. IF YOU DO GOOD AND AVOID EVIL, ALLAH IS AWARE OF WHATEVER YOU DO.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION. (VERSE NO. 128)


Most of the commentators have narrated that: ``RA"FIA- IBN- KHADIJ had two wives - one old and one young. He gave her elder wife a divorce, but before she had her period finished, he agreed with reconciliation, on condition that she had to suffer his younger wife and to show patience on account of her.

PEACE IS BETTER

Our prophet has said: ``Of all the things lawful, the divorce is the most hateful one to God.'' If a woman feels that her husband becomes ill- treating, and incompatible, and a breach between them has been probable, she must know that the sanctity of marriage itself is greater

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in value than any mutual gift; and if their separation would be prevented by some material concessions, then let it be done, because it is far better to keep their ties of wedlock safe and sound, that peace is always better than turbulence and disturbance.

(( 129 ))

129- YOU ARE NEVER ABLE TO DO JUSTICE AMONG WOMEN (YOUR WIVES) EVEN THOUGH YOU BE EAGER FOR IT. SO TURN NOT ALL YOUR ATTENTION, TO LEAVE THE ONE AS SHE IS SUSPENDED. AND IF YOU RECONCILE, AND AVOID EVIL, THEN ALLAH IS THE COMPASSIONATE FORGIVER.

(( 130 ))

130- AND IF THEY SEPARATE, ALLAH WILL ENRICH THEM ALL, OUT OF HIS EXTENSIVE BOUNTIES; THAT ALLAH IS THE WISE EXTENDER.

THE COMMENTARY
POLYGAMY IS ON CONDITION OF JUSTICE


Having more than one wife, and up to four, is permitted on the condition that man should be perfectly just and equitable to all his wives; a condition that may seem almost impossible. The man might be just and fair in material and economical matters; but of surety he won't be able to love them all in the same scale and measure. Therefore the verse implies that he should at least not discard one of them, casting her off of attention as if she is in suspension. So the purpose of doing justice among your wives is not equality in loving them, which is not in the husband's hand, but it lays in heart. Equality is rather wanted in their dowers, provisions, opportunities, expenditures, and other material gifts, or whatever it might be.

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(( 131 ))

131- AND TO ALLAH BELONGS ALL THAT IS IN THE HEAVENS AND ALL THAT IS IN THE EARTH. AND WE DID EXHORT THOSE WHO WERE GIVEN THE BOOK BEFORE YOU, AND YOU TOO; THAT BEWARE OF ALLAH. BUT IF YOU REJECT FAITH; TO ALLAH BELONGS ALL THAT IS IN THE HEAVENS, AND ALL THAT IS IN THE EARTH. AND ALLAH IS FREE OF WANT, PRAISE WORTHY.

(( 132 )) 132- AND TO ALLAH BELONGS ALL THAT IS IN THE HEAVENS AND ALL THAT IS IN THE EARTH. AND ENOUGH IS ALLAH FOR A DEFENDER.

(( 133 )) 133- IF IT BE HIS WILL, HE WILL TAKE YOU AWAY, O, PEOPLE AND BRING OTHERS, (IN YOUR PLACE) AND ALLAH IS ABLE TO DO THAT.

(( 134 )) 134- HE WHO WANTS THE REWARD OF THIS WORLD (THIS LOWER LIFE) WITH ALLAH IS THE REWARD OF THIS WORLD AND THE LAST. (THE UPPER LIFE TO COME) AND ALLAH IS THE HEARER, THE SEEING.

[ 601 ]

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 131


If the spouses fail to have peace and their separation is inevitable, let them desert; because to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, and his bounties are extensive and limitless, of which He may enrich them all. Then Muslims are addressed by the ending of the verse that, if you be God-fearing and avoid evil, it is for your own good and Allah the Priaseworthy, is free of All wants.

VERSE NO. 132 & 133

Here for the third time it is emphasized that to Allah belongs all that are it the heavens and whatever is in the earth. That is to say; God has a universal power to create, to grow and cherish, and to maintain and guard all that exist; and on the other hand, He can destroy them all the people, the nations, and all things, and create new ones to replace them;- and in this bussiness of exchange, He gains nothing, He loses nothing too! VERSE NO. 134

This refers to those who claim to have faith, and they even take part in the Strive and sacred wars, but the highest result and reward that they expect, is success and victory, plunder and spoils, and other material incomes; and they are unaware that God's Grace is limitless, and His bounties are infinite; and He can give them also the endless rewards of the hereafter.

(( 135 ))

135- O, YOU WHO BELIEVE! STAND OUT FIRMLY FOR JUSTICE, BEING WITNESSES FOR ALLAH, EVEN IF IT BE AGAINST

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YOURSELVES OR (AGAINST) YOUR PARENTS, OR KINSFOLK; BE HE RICH OR POOR. ALLAH IS MORE DESERVING THAN THEM. SO FOLLOW NOT CAPRICES (YOUR FANTASTIC NOTIONS) LEST YOU SWERVE FROM JUSTICE. IF YOU DEVIATE OR REFUSE (TO DO JUSTICE) ALLAH IS AWARE OF WHATEVER YOU DO.

THE COMMENTARY
SOCIAL JUSTICE. (VERSE NO. 135)


Here a general instruction has been issued on account of social justice - a commandment that all have to observe without any exception. That is, in all our judgements we must have our Lord as a witness besides us. We must seek Allah's consent and pleasures in our judgement, and swerve not even though our decree has to be issued against our own interests or against the interests of our parents and our nearers and dearers. And when we have to be a witness and testify to something, we must be strict, straight, and not drooping. We must be a witness for God, because we act in the presence of the Lord God Who is aware of whatever we do.

The verse then points at the causes of swerve, that some people may be inclined to favour a rich man of whom they may expect some aid; and a judge may want to favour a poor for being helpless.

``Be you witness for Allah, even if it be against yourselves or against your parents or kinsfolk; be he rich or be he poor, Allah is more deserving than them.''

Be they poor or rich, you have to observe justice and to avoid both extremes, because all of them are under the care and protection of Allah, and God is more deserving to be cared than the others. This verse may also show the importance of justice in the sight of God and Islam. Shiites are of opinion that JUSTICE is an attribute of God, and it is one of the tenets and five principles of religion; and that, to stand firm for justice is to be a witness of God, and being godly.

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(( 136 )) 136- O, YOU WHO BELIEVE! BELIEVE IN ALLAH AND HIS MESSENGER, AND IN THE BOOK THAT HE SENT DOWN TO HIS MESSENGER, AND IN THE BOOK THAT HE HAS SENT BEFORE. AND HE WHO DENIES ALLAH AND HIS ANGELS, AND HIS BOOKS, AND HIS MESSENGER, AND THE LAST DAY (OF JUDGEMENT) HAS INDEED STRAYED A FAR ASTRAY.

THE COMMENTARY OCCASION OF REVELATION. (VERSE NO. 136)

It is narrated from IBN- ABBAS that some of the chieftains, and men of eminence from among the people of Scriptures, such as ABDULLA- IBN- SALAM, SAID- IBN- KAAB, his brother ASAD- IBN- KAAB, and other distinguished ones, came to the prophet and said: ``We do believe in your Qura"n, and in Moses and his bible, and in Ezra as an apostle. But to tell you the truth, we don't believe in any other prophet or Book, such as Jesus and his Gospel.'' The verse then came down to instruct that a Muslim should believe in all the prophets of God, and all the books that God has sent to His apostles for the guidance of mankind; if they want to have a true religion and a right and straight path to their origin and destination.

COMMENTS

Hereby some of the people of the Scriptures have been addressed, who due to their begotry were obstinately attached to some racial, national, or social opinion, creed, or practice; and were intolerant in their unreasonable Zeal and fanaticism. Qura"n wants such people to know

[ 604 ]

that all the prophets and all the Divine Books have come out of the same source and origin which is Allah. Any belief and faith which takes its origin by habit, birth, imitation and fancy, is false, untrue, and void of heavenly and divine value. The main objects of faith are God, His apostles, His revelations, His angels, and His Last Judgement in the Resurrection Day. For all these chief objects, we must bear a room and love in depths of our hearts. Therefore: ``He who disbelieves and denies Allah and His Angels and His Books, and His Messenger, and the Day of Doom, he is out of the way, and has strayed a far astray.''

(( 138 ))

137- THOSE WHO BELIEVED AND THEN RENOUNCED IT, WHO AGAIN BELIEVED AND ONCE MORE DENIED. AFTER THAT THEY INCREASED PROFANITY, ALLAH IS NOT TO FORGIVE THEM, NOR TO GUIDE THEM TO A WAY. (TO SALVATION)

(( 138 )) 138- GIVE GLAD.- TIDINGS TO THE HYPOCRITES THAT; FOR THEM AWAITS A PAINFUL CHASTISEMENT.

(( 139 )) 139- THOSE WHO TAKE UNBELIEVERS FOR THEIR FRIEND INSTEAD OF THE BELIEVERS; DO THEY SEEK HONOUR BY THEM? BUT HONOUR, ALTOGETHER BELONGS TO ALLAH.

[ 605 ]

THE COMMENTARY
THE FATE OF THE OBSTINATE HYPOCRITES (VERSE NO.137)


Following the arguments about the faithless unbelievers, the word is now on those who every now and then change their minds in accordance to their secular profits and advantages. They have not a firm faith in anything at any time! Their creed and motive is all secular and doubledealing and finally they die unbelievers: ``Those who believe, and then recant. Again they believe but once more they renounce and repudiate! And finally increase profanity until they die in unbelief. These, Allah will neither forgive, nor will He guide them to a right way.'' This is a strict warning to those who use the religion as a secular means for their worldly purposes.

VERSE NO. 138

This verse in an ironic expression gives a gald-tiding and good news that for those double-faced and double- dealers a painful punishment has been prepared. VERSE NO. 139

This refers to another characters of the hypocrites who befriend the unbelievers instead of the faithful, and what for?! Do they expect to obtain some honor or some advantage through such an indecent friendship; while the source of all goodness is God, and to Him belongs all forms of glory and honour? Therefore this is a strict warning to all Muslims, that they should not seek honour and success, in the social, cultural, economical and political fields, through the friendship and support of Islam's enemies; because such false friends are not a friend in need!

(( 140 ))

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140- ALLAH HAS ALREADY SENT DOWN TO YOU IN THE BOOK, (THE COMMANDMENTS THAT) WHEN YOU HEAR THE SIGNS OF ALLAH BEING DENIED, OR RIDICULED, DO NOT SIT WITH THEM, UNTIL THEY PLUNGE INTO SOME OTHER TALK, IF NOT SO YOU WOULD BE LIKE THEM. ALLAH WILL GATHER ALL THE HYPOCRITES AND UNBELIEVERS TOGETHER IN THE HELL.

THE COMMENTARY OCCASION OF REVELATION. (VERSE NO. 140)

IBN- ABBASS has said: ``Some of the nominal Muslims and the hypocrites took part in the meetings of the learned Jews, wherein the verses of Qura"n were discussed on, and mocked at! This verse came down to show the ill consequences of attending to such meetings.

DON'T SIT IN A SIN ASSEMBLY

This verse refers to another verse (Q- S 5:68) that: ``When you hear men engaged in vain discourse about our revelation turn away from, them unless they turn to a different theme of talk. If Satan made you forget to withdraw, then after recollection sit not with the oppressors.'' Once again the verse puts an stress on performance of the above commandment which revealed formerly saying: When you hear the signs of Allah being denied and ridiculed, don't you sit with them, until they plunge to another talk.'' In another word; when you hear in a gathering that the truth is denied and mocked at, you ought not sit there with an indifferent look and in a neutral state of disposition. You rather have to get up, make your protest and withdraw from such assembly. Of course you should show no arrogance, and if your protest came to an effect, and they plunged to other theme of talk, you may rejoin the meeting.

[ 607 ] (( 141 ))

141- (THOSE HYPOCRITES ARE) THE ONES WHO WAIT IN WATCH ON YOU, THEN IF A VICTORY CAME TO YOU FROM ALLAH, THEY SAID: `WERE WE NOT WITH YOU?' (SO MUST WE HAVE A SHARE IN THE HONOUR AND SPOILS) AND IF THERE WAS A CHANCE (OF VICTORY) FOR THE UNBELIEVERS, THEY SAID: `WERE WE NOT ENCOURAGING YOU AND GUARDING YOU AGAINST THE BELIEVERS?' ALLAH WILL JUDGE BETWEEN YOU IN THE RESURRECTION DAY, AND ALLAH WILL NEVER MAKE A WAY FOR THE UNBELIEVERS OVER THE BELIVERS.

THE COMMENTARY CHARACTERISTIC OF THE HYPOCRITES. (VERSE NO. 141)

This verse and the next give more detail of the nature and qualification of the hypocrites. They always wait and watch, as an opportunist waits for an opportunity, in order to turn an event to their own benefit with a very little regard for principles or ultimate consequences. If there is a war between two averse parties like the faithless and faithful, they have no faith in either side and only watch for the result. If the believing party win the battle, they move to their side saying: ``Were we not with you?''

But when the unbelievers get a chance of victory they range themselves on their side, and with sentimental pretence of spirituality in speech, they take a great part of the credit to themselves, The verse therefore warns such double- faced, double- dealers who play fast and [ 608 ]

lose, throughout their life, but; the day of their account will come eventually:

Allah will judge between all of you in the Resurrection Day, and will gather you together in the Hell.'' The verse ends in a good- news for the believers so that they might not be terrified by the unbelievers:

``And Allah will never make a way (of victory or authority) for the unbelievers over the believers.'' This implies that the unbelievers will never be able to overcome the believers on various fields of military, politics, cultures, or economy. This is contrary to what we see with our own eyes, nowadays! It is because Most of the Muslims are nominal, and are not true believers! They neither have the necessary Islamic information and deeds, and nor that obligatory religious brotherhood.

(( 142 ))

142- THE HYPOCRITES SEEK TO DECEIVE ALLAH BUT IT IS HE WHO DECEIVES THEM. WHEN THEY STAND UP TO PRAY THEY STAND UP SLUGGISHLY, FOR A SHOW TO PEOPLE; AND THEY DO NOT REMEMBER ALLAH BUT A LITTLE.

(( 143 )) 143- WAVERING BETWEEN THIS AND THAT, BELONGING NEITHER TO THESE NOR TO THOSE. AND WHOM ALLAH LEAVES STRAYING YOU WILL NEVER FIND FOR HIM A WAY.

[ 609 ]

THE COMMENTARY VERSE NO. 142 - 143

Here five more of the characteristics of the hypocrites have been described: 1- They have chosen the way of fraud and deceit, to reach their objects which is purely secular. They even seek to deceive Allah through their weak minds, not knowing that they have plunged to deception and deceiving their very self and soul! This is because they have deliberately chosen evil, and have increased their guilt by fraud and deception. So have they bereaved themselves of the Grace and Mercy of God. They have contaminated their pure natural instinct and conscience, and in such that self- deceiving state who can lead them to a way to salvation?

2- They are far from Allah, and cannot enjoy God's presence. So, when they stand to pray they stand indisposed and sluggish.

3- They believe not in God's promises, so their worship and prayer is not for the sake of God, but for pretence and show off to people.

4- Even if they celebrate the praise of God and pray; that is very rare and little.

5- Being neither a believer nor an unbeliever, God has taken His support and has left them wandering, and wavering. They are misled and no one can show them a way to prosperity and salvation.

(( 144 ))

144- O, YOU WHO BELIEVE! TAKE NOT THE UNBELIEVERS AS FRIENDS INSTEAD OF THE BELIEVERS. WOULD YOU GIVE ALLAH A CLEAR PROOF AGAINST YOURSELVES?

(( 145 ))

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145- THE HYPOCRITES WILL BE CAST IN TO THE LOWEST DEPTHS OF THE FIRE, AND YOU WILL NEVER FIND A HELPER FOR THEM. (( 146 ))

146- EXCEPT THOSE WHO REPENTED AND AMENDED AND HELD FAST TO ALLAH, AND PURIFIED THEIR RELIGION FOR ALLAH. THOSE ARE WITH THE BELIEVERS, AND SOON WILL ALLAH GRANT THE BELIEVERS A GREAT REWARD.

(( 147 )) 147- WHY SHOULD ALLAH PUNISH YOU, IF YOU GAVE THANKS AND BELIEVED. AND ALLAH IS THE KNOWING THANKFUL.

THE COMMENTARY VERSE NO. 144

Here in this verse is a warning to the believers, not to take the unbelievers as friends instead of the believers. Doing that, is a crime, a breach of law, and a kind of polytheism in the sight of God and His justice, and the guilty deserves a severe punishment.
VERSE NO. 145

Here the case of such hypocrites, that by their fraud and deceits, have won the friendship of some simple minded believers has been made clear: ``They will be cast into the lowest depths of Hell, where no one can find a helper to save them. This implies that in the sight of Islam and Allah, hypocrisy is the worst kind of blasphemy.

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VERSE NO. 146

But to make clear that the road to God will never be closed on His servants; even for the said hypocrites there is a way open if they do sincerely repent, and amend their conducts; the verse says: Except those who repented and amended and held fast to Allah, and purified their religion for Allah. Those are also with the believers and soon will Allah give them all a great reward.'' ALLAH DOES NOT PUNISH FOR VENGEANCE.

(VERSE NO. 147)

This refers to a very important fact and reality that God's punishment is not done for vegeance and showing His infinite power to His poor and weak creatures. If so, it could be due to God's weak points and deficiencies of which His Sacred Essence is free and entirely clear. As a matter of fact, life is what we make it with our own hands; and all our misfortunes and bad lucks are the reflections and the reactions of our own conducts. What pleasure or advantage can God have by punishment of His own servants over whom He has a loving care and control:

Why should Allah punish you if you gave thanks and believed.'' In other word if we believe and make our conducts and deeds good, there is no reason for our misfortune and punishment. The ending of the verse implies that if we do good deeds Allah is thankful, and recognizes our good acts, however little they be with gratitude, and will reward us for it through His infinite and everlasting Mercy and Grace.

THE END OF THE FIFTH PART OF THE HOLY QURA"N

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

When his holiness, AYATULLAH- AL- OZMA" NASIR MAKARIM SHIRAZI asked me to start translating an expressive summary and brief of his great Example Commentary of Qura"n on march 1999; I took that order as the best opportunity of my whole life. I immediately resigned of my Technical office and abandoned all my jobs, and used my full time and power, with love and pleasure, on this sacred work; and here you are with the result of a full year of my hard strive and endeavor. This is the first Volume of the book; consisting of .5.30. of the whole work to be translated if God speeds.

Whether I have been successful or failed; I have nothing to say; and I leave the judgement to the Most Merciful and Compassionate Lord for whose pleasure I have done my best.

In making the present attempt, my grateful acknowledgement and sincere thanks, extend to the following commentators, translators and publishers; but in particular, I should make a mention of Mowlana Allahmeh ABDULLAH YUSUF ALI, whose valuable work in translation and commentaries, has been the most intimate friend of my heart and mind for the past ten years.

I have always had it a sacred duty incumbent upon me to rehearse a few pages of his sacred work, first time in the mornings and before I started doing anything else.

Then I owe a lot of my present attempts also to the following translators of Qura"n, and publishers:

1- ARTHUR J. ARBERRY- ANSARIAN PUBLICATION QOM P.O.B. 37185/187

2- Dr. M. H. SHAKIR- ANSARIAN PUBLICATION QOM P.O.B. 37185/187

3- N. J. DAWOOD - PENGUINE BOOKS LONDON

4- ENCYCLOPEDIA INTERNATIONAL

5- The dictionaries that I made use of, in choosing words and terms were only that of Oxford and Webster.

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6- This volume one has been revised entirely and a lot of corrections have been made because the typings and preparatory works and means at the beginning were not prepared.

Thanks to my colleague Miss Pooran Pebdani for all her endeavour in this revision.