Spreading Rumours (VERSE NO. 83)
 

One of the most dangerous calamities which may grasp the laps of various communities, is forging gossips, and spreading rumours. In time of war, and in public panic, sometimes a hypocrite, and ignorant friend, or a wise foe; may forge a gossip or invent a lie; and thoughtless people will repeat it and pass it from tongue to tongue, and from lips to ears, with more details and extra branches and leaves! News, whatever they be, must be handled with care. If it is true, the cowards and timids are frightened, and might encourage the enemy too, making him to take necessary measures and suitable actions. On the other hand if the news be false; it will cause needless alarms, and may serve to discourage and to dishearten the personnel.

Although those who are ruled by domineers and tyranical rulers, may use such tricks of spreading rumours, as a means and weapon in their negative combat against their governor or government; but to a safe and sound society, spreading gossip and rumours is harmful. On such basis Islam strictly prohibited rumours, and generally any lie,

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forgery or false reports. The proper way in such cases, is to hand over all the news directly to those with comprehension and power of understanding so that they investigate and then estimate and evaluate the gain and the loss of the news, and deal with it thoughtfully and in due course.

(( 84 ))

84- FIGHT IN THE WAY OF ALLAH. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR NONE BUT YOURSELF. AND ENCOURAGE THE BELIEVERS. MAY ALLAH RESTRAIN THE MIGHT OF THE UNBELIEVERS, AND ALLAH IS THE STRONGEST IN MIGHT, AND MOST SEVERE IN PUNISHMENT.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 84)


After the confusion and disorder in the battle of Ohud, the runaway Muslims came to themselves, and returned one by one to the battle field gathering round the prophet once again. The prophet's station on the hill was to some extent beyond the reach of the enemy. the heathens remained on the field for a couple of hours with some sort of a mysterious fear in their hearts. They did see a small group of prominent Muslims who were licking their wounds up there. Strange enough, they did not attempt to chase or catch the small group of Muslims! They also could easily raid in their defenceless town, Medina to rob and have a remarkable amount of booty.

But they did not do this too! They only shouted at the foot of the hill saying: `AALA" HOBAL' which means: `Exalted our big idol, whose name was HOBAL'. And in answer to that; Muslims shouted on the hill top: `Glory be to Allah! There is no god but Allah the Greater of all.'

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ABUSOFYAN the commander of the heathens who seemed to have fallen in a hurry, shouted: ``O, Mohammad! Let our date for the next encounter be on the smaller Badr, next year. This was a general gathering of buyers and sellers at a stated time and place, usually held in the month of ZIGHADIH, at the land of Badr.'' then a Muslim on behalf of the prophet answered loudly: ``We agree! Let it be so! We shall meet again there, if God speeds!''

Next year, when the appointed time reached, Mohammad who was unique in time keeping, and observing promises; summond Muslims to prepare themselves for the promised battle. Muslims who had not forgotten their last year of defeat in the battle of Ohud, held back and were not willing to attend a new war or wage a compaign against Abusofyan, and his troops. In accompany with only seventy men the prophet went to the appointment, but on the other hand Abusofyan too, was afraid and dared not to wage another war against Muslims so soon. The prophet and his troops turned back to Medina safe and sound, and without any encounter, leaving a mark of shame upon the hypocrites and nominal Muslims who had rejected his call. then the above verse was sent down to this effect.

EVERY ONE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS OWN DUTY

The verse (NO. 84) consists of an important social instruction, especially for the leaders, and that is: ``They should be so resolute and determined in their tasks and duties that even if no one helps them they should be steady and follow their purpose firmly and with perseverance.''

If not so, no success has ever been obtained; hence the verse: ``Fight in the way of Allah, even if you be alone. Mind your own business, because you are not responsible for what the others may do. If your enemy has strength, power and resources; God's strength, power, and resources are infinitely greater than that, and His punishment is also greater and more effective and severe.''

(( 85 ))

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85- WHOEVER INTERCEDES WITH A GOOD INTERCESSION, HE SHALL HAVE A SHARE OF IT. AND WHOEVER INTERCEDES WITH A BAD INTERCESSION, WILL (ALSO) HAVE A SHARE OF IT. AND ALLAH CONTROLS EVERYTHING.

THE COMMENTARY ENCOURAGING TO DO GOOD OR BAD. (VERSE NO.85)

Although the foregoing verse stated that man is responsible for his own duties, here it wants you to know that this does not necesarily mean that man should mind only his own business, and that he has nothing to do with the others. Therefore to put the matter in a right course, this verse (No. 85) as a complementary to the preceding verse, adds that; he who interceds with a good intercession will have a share of it, and vice versa. In other word, he who encourages some one to do something good or bad, will have a share of the results. Therefore if we help and support a good cause, we share in all its credits and its ultimate results. It is not only the actor of a bad character and role who should be called the sinner on the scene, but all those who have persuaded and who have encouraged one to do bad, are all sinners, and in particular those who have given support to a bad cause, will have to share all its evil consequences.

(( 86 )) 86- WHEN YOU ARE GREETED WITH A GREETING, LET YOUR GREETING (IN ANSWER) BE BETTER THAN HIS, OR RETURN THE SAME; THAT ALLAH TAKES ACCOUNT OF EVERYTHING.

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THE COMMENTARY
ANSWER YOU EVERY KINDNESS (VERSE NO.86)


This verse consists of a general commandment that one should answer any greetings or salutations that he receives, in a better term, or at least in equally courteous terms. This is a common instruction for all, in order to cultivate kindness and to sow the seed of affection in the hearts, through expressing lovely feelings to each other - something that we all need it: ``When a courteous greeting or salutation is offered to you, answer it with a greeting still more courteous, or at least return it with equal courtesy.''

(( 87 )) 87- ALLAH, THERE IS NO GOD BUT HE. OF SURETY HE WILL GATHER YOU TOGETHER UNTIL THE RESURRECTION DAY. THERE IS NO DOUBT IN THAT; AND WHOSE WORD CAN BE TRUER THAN ALLAH?

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 87


This is a complementary to the last verse and a preface to the next. It refers to the Resurrection Day in which occurs the final judgement, mingled with Monotheism and the oneness of God, which both are of the greatest tenets of faith and religion. The qualification that `there is no doubt in the sure happening of Resurrection; is due to the evident natural, and given scientific reasons, that proves that. Besides all God's word testifies that incident, which is the truest of the words.

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(( 88 ))

88- WHAT IS THE MATTER WITH YOU, THAT YOU HAVE DIVIDED TO TWO PARTIES CONCERNING THE HYPOCRITES, AND ALLAH HAS TURNED THEM UPSIDE DOWN (OVERTHROWN THEM) FOR WHAT THEY HAVE EARNED. DO YOU WANT TO GUIDE HIM WHOM ALLAH HAS MISGUIDED? (GOD HAS THROWN THEM OUT OF HIS WAY FOR THEIR EVIL DEEDS) WHOM ALLAH MISGUIDES, YOU WILL FIND NO WAY FOR HIM.

(( 89 ))

89- THEY WISH YOU WOULD DISBELIEVE AS THEY HAVE DISBELIEVED SO THAT YOU ALL MAY BE ALIKE. THEREFORE TAKE NOT FROM THEM ANY FRIENDS UNTIL THEY EMIGRATE IN THE WAY OF ALLAH. THEN IF THEY TURNED AWAY, SEIZE THEM (AS CAPTIVES) AND KILL THEM WHEREVER YOU FIND THEM, AND TAKE NONE OF THEM AS FRIEND OR HELPLER.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 88)


IBN- ABBASS has narrated that; a group of the Meccan had apparently been converted, but practically they were nominal Muslims, mingled with the heathens and hypocrites.

They were not willing to take any practical step in Islam, and

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even proceeded on emigration for certain evil purposes, such as to play the spy! There was a controversy among Muslims which was going to turn to a hot dispute, as to what were they, and what was to be done with them. On account of them Muslims were divided in two groups. A party of them wanted to put them to the swords. Some of the simple minded converts said: ``Why should we kill our religious brothers who have already testified to the oneness of God, and to the prophethood of Mohammad, and are indeed Muslims, while some of them too, have left hearths and homes, and have emigrated to be with us?!'' But the actual policy pursued, avoided both extremes; and was determined by the above verses: For the time being no extreme measure was to be taken against them. On the contrary they were given more chances to amend themselves if they wanted to. But if they deserted the Muslim community once again with hostility, they had to be treated as enemies.

VERSE NO. 89

The argument about the hypocrites continues here to criticize the Muslims who befriended the hypocrites, and interceded and pleaded for them. Here in this verse the HOLY QURA"N declares how strangers to Islam they were and they are! And that, so dark their heart and their innerside was and is, that they wish you too would disbelieve as they have disbelieved, so that you all would be alike and equal.

Therefore the hypocrites are worse and more dangerous than the heathens and ordinary infidels, for being the theives and robbers of people's faith and belief! Now that they are so; you Muslims should never befriend them and should not take any of them for intimates, unless they change their minds and convert truthfully and without their harm and destruction, and emigrate in the way of Allah. If they do not do that, you will have to count them among your enemies, and sieze them and capture them as captives or prisoners or even kill them if necessary, wherever you encounter with them.

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(( 90 ))

90- EXCEPT THOSE WHO JOIN A PEOPLE BETWEEN WHOM AND YOU THERE IS A COMPACT. OR IF THEY COME TO YOU WITH THEIR CHESTS (THEIR HEARTS) CONSTRICTED FROM FIGHTING WITH YOU, OR FIGHTING WITH THEIR PEOPLE. (THEY NEITHER INTEND TO FIGHT AGAINST YOU, NOR DO THEY HAVE THE POWER TO FIGHT THEIR PEOPLE) HAD ALLAH WILLED, HE WOULD HAVE GIVEN THEM POWER OVER YOU, AND THEY WOULD HAVE FOUGHT YOU. SO IF THEY KEEP AWAY FROM YOU, AND FIGHT YOU NOT, AND OFFER YOU PEACE; THEN ALLAH GIVES NO WAY TO YOU AGAINST THEM.

THE COMMENTARY OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 90)

It can be deduced from various narrations that there were two tribes among the Arabs, one of which who had signed a peace treaty with Mohammad (AS), was named BANIZOMREH. The second tribe named ASHJAA, had a peace compact with the tribe of BANIZOMREH, but not with Muslims. Some of the believers who were anxious of the increasing power of BANIZOMREH, and doubted their fidelity and faithfulness; asked the prophet to wage a war against them and vanquish them, before they grow stronger and unconquerable. The prophet said: ``No, I will never break my promise, and you too shouldn't do that, and know that these people are the best in behaviour to parents among all Arabs, the kindest of all to relatives, and the most faithful and firm to their promises and compacts.''

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After a while it was reported that the tribe of ASHJAA had waged a compaign, consisting of seven hundred men, commanded by MASOOD- IBN- RAJEELEH, who were approaching Medina! The prophet sent a representative to talk with them to see what their purpose was of coming to Medina?! They said: ``We neither want to fight you for being near and neighbour to you, nor do we have the power of grappling with your enemies and we want to live a peaceful life near you.''

WELCOMING PEACE

Following the instructions of being harsh and hard to some of the heathens and hypocrites; two groups are here excluded;

1- Those who are connected with a people between whom and you there is a compact.
2- And those who come to you with their hearts constricted from fighting with you or fighting with their people.

Then to warn Muslims being selfish or proud of their victories, the verse adds: ``Had Allah willed, he would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you.'' In other word, their neutrality is a great advantage for you because, if they would fight against you as foes, your difficulties would have been manifold.

(( 91 ))

91- SOON YOU WILL FIND OTHERS WHO WILL WANT TO BE SECURE FROM YOU, AND TO BE SECURE OF THEIR OWN PEOPLE. YET WHENEVER THEY ARE RETURNED TO TEMPTATION, THEY PLUNGE INTO IT HEADLONG.

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IF THEY DID NOT WITHDRAW FROM YOU, AND OFFERED YOU NOT PEACE, AND RESTRAINED NOT THEIR HANDS, THEN SEIZE THEM, (AS CAPTIVES) AND KILL THEM WHEREVER YOU COME TO THEM. WE HAVE GIVEN YOU A CLEAR AUTHORITY AGAINST THEM.

THE COMMENTARY

It has been narrated that a group of Meccans used to come to Medina visiting the prophet to play trick and deceit. They pretended to have been converts, but as soon as they returned back to Mecca they worshipped their idols and befriended the heathens and idolaters, thus trying to be secure from both parties, and gain from both sides. This verse was sent down to disclose their hidden tricks and to make clear what was to them.

TEMPTATION OF DOUBLE.- DEALING Here we meet with another class of people who are opposite to the aforesaid two classes. These are a treacherous, faithless, and unreliable people who cannot be left alone! For protecting their personal interests and advantages, they want to have freedom among the Monotheists, as well as the Polytheists. For reaching such a nasty optimum, they always have to play fast and loose with this and that! They try to win your confidence and are all the time in the confidence of your enemy! A treacherous friend is the most dangerous enemy. So you will have no other way but to treat them as open enemy. If they faithfully stop fighting you, and helping your foe; and offer you a real peace, so good, so well! But if they do not do that truthfully, they have openly given you proofs, and God has provided you with a clear authority over them, and you may seize them- take them as captives, or fight them and kill them if necessary.

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(( 92 ))

92- NEVER SHOULD A BELIEVER KILL A BELIEVER EXCEPT BY MISTAKE. AND WHOEVER KILLS A BELIEVER BY MISTAKE, HE SHOULD SET FREE A BELIEVING SLAVE, AND PAY BLOODWIT TO THE FAMILY OF THE VICTIM, UNLESS THEY REMIT IT AS ALMS. IF THE DECEASED BELONGED TO A PEOPLE AT ENMITY WITH YOU, AND HE IS BELIEVER, THEN FREEING OF A BELIEVING SLAVE. (IS ENOUGH) BUT IF HE BELONGS TO A PEOPLE WITH WHOM YOU HAVE MUTUAL TREATY, THEN THE BLOODWIT IS TO BE PAID TO HIS FAMILY, ALONG WITH THE FREEING OF A BELIEVING SLAVE. IF THE SLAYER CANNOT AFFORD TO DO THIS, THAT HE IS TO FAST TWO CONSECUTIVE MONTHS BY WAY OF REPENTANCE TO ALLAH. AND ALLAH IS KNOWING WISE.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION. (VERSE NO. 92)


One of the Meccan idolaters, named HARITH- IBN- YAZID persecuted a Muslim named AYYASH- IBN - ABIRABIEH for his religious belief. Ayyash then fled to Medina, and there he joined the Muslim brotherhood. One day he was walking in Medina when he met with his former persecutor HARITH. He availed himself of the opportunity, and slew his former persecutor, without knowing that Ayyash had repented and converted, and was then one of his Muslims brothers!

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MURDER BY MISTAKE

The last verse gave Muslims some authority and stretched their hands upon their heathen enemies and the hypocrites. To prevent them to pass over the boundaries by misusing the commandments, here they are wanted to observe some precautions, and follow some new instructions that are issued about a murder. In Islamic brotherhood life is absolutely sacred, and even a murder by mistake is to be compensated for. The verse at the beginning consists of a commandment that: ``No believer should ever kill a believer unless by a mistake and without any guilty intention.'' Then the mistaken murder may be classified as follows:

1- If the deceased is a believer, belonging to the Muslim community; the killer has to set free a believing slave, for Islam discountenances and disapproves slavery. He also has to pay bloodwit to the family of the victim, unless they remit it for charity.

2- If the victim is a believer, but belongs to a people at war with you, the case is different. You only have to set free a believing salve. The blood money is then not paid to his family, because it is not wise to increase the resources of your enemy.

3- If the deceased belongs to a people in alliance, with you, and with whom you have mutual treaty and compacts, then the compensation is to be given to his family, along with freeing a believing salve.

If the slayer cannot afford to free a slave and to pay the bloodmoney, he is not ignored, and he has by an act of self- denial to show that he is indeed sorry for what he has done by mistake. He therefore must sincerely repent to Allah and ask for pardon by holding a two consecutive months of fasting.

(( 93 ))

93- AND WHOEVER KILLS A BELIEVER INTENTIONALLY, HIS RECOMPENSE IS HELL, TO ABIDE THERE IN FOR EVER. AND [ 571 ]

THE WRATH AND THE CURSE OF ALLAH ARE ON HIM, AND A GREAT PUNISHMENT IS PREPARED FOR HIM.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION. (VERSE NO. 93)


MAGHIS- IBN - SABBA"BIH, found the slain body of his brother (HESHA"M) in the parish of BANINAJAR, and he referred the case to the Messenger of God. The prophet sent him, in accompany with a believer of the same tribe, named GHEIS- IBN- HALAL, to the chiefs of BANINAJA"R asking them to hand over the murderer if it is known to them; and if not, pay the bloodwit. Not knowing who had killed the victim, they paid the bloodmoney to his brother MAGHIS, and they both returned.

In their way back to Medina, Maghis was affected by evil thoughts of paganism, and at once rushed upon his fellow traveller, GHIS- IBN- HALAL who belonged to the tribe of BANINAJJAR, and killed him in order to avenge his brother's murder! He did that and escaped to Mecca and recanted Islam too. Hearing that, the prophet condemned him to death, and the above verse revealed to this effect.

THE RECOMPENSE OF WILFUL MURDER

Following the decree for him who kills a believer by mistake and without any guilty intention, the argument is now about wilful murder of a believer, for whom four punishments are ordained:

1- Whoever slays a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to burn therein forever.
2- The wrath of Allah will fall upon him!
3- He will be driven far off from God's Mercy, because God will curse him.
4- A great punishment is prepared for him.

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Security of our community, is one of the most important factors of man's well being and safe living, and therefore Allah has taken unreasonable murder of an individual as important as killing the whole population, and all the people.

(( 94 ))

94- O, BELIEVERS! WHEN YOU GO ABROAD (TO FIGHT) IN THE WAY OF ALLAH, INVESTIGATE CAREFULLY; AND DO NOT SAY TO HIM WHO OFFERS YOU A SALUTATION: (DECLARING TO BE A MUSLIM) ``YOU ARE NOT A BELIEVER'' SEEKING THE PERISHABLE GOODS OF THIS LOWER LIFE. (i.e. THE SPOILS IN THE LIFE OF THIS WORLD) WITH ALLAH IS ABUNDANT SPOILS. YOU TOO, WERE SUCH BEFORE, AND ALLAH OBLIGED YOU. (BY CONFERRING ON YOU HIS FAVOURS) THEREFORE CAREFULLY INVESTIGATE; THAT, ALLAH IS AWARE OF WHATEVER YOU DO.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION. (VERSE NO. 94)


In RAMAZAN 7 A.H. the prophet sent a group of warriors, commanded by GHA"LIB- IBN - ABDULLAH to extinguish a revolt of two tribes, who had recently rebelled, ASA"MAT- IBN- ZAID was also among the forces. Muslims made an assault with full forces, and defeated the enemy, and obtained a lot of spoils. In this expedition ASA"MAT- IBN- ZAID

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confronted with a warrior among the enemy, whose name was MORDAS, and proceeded to fight him. MORDAS stood still and did not defend himself! He then exclaimed: `LA"- ELA"H- ELLA- ALLAH.' declaring to be a Muslim. ASA"MAT, did not believe him in spite of his confession, and wildly rushed and killed the defenceless man! When the prophet was informed of that incident he became so sorry and so sad that ASAMAT trembled with fear. The prophet said to him angrily: ``ASA"MAT! Who told you to kill a man who testified the Oneness of God?!''

ASA"MAT who was shivering all over with fear answered: ``O, Messenger of God! He testified that by the fear of my sword!'' The prophet who was filled with sorrow, said again: ``Did you split his heart to see that there was no truth in it?'' ASA"MAT has narrated that the prophet repeated his word many times that: ``Did you split his heart, ``Did you split his heart, ``Did you split his heart, so much so that I was willing to give all the good deeds that I had done throughout my life, to make an atonement for that single sin of mine!'' And it was to this effect that the above mentioned verse was sent down.

COMMENTS

The immediate reference is connected with what ASA"MAT had done of wrong in JAHA"D,( SACRED WAR) but words are general, and can be applied to any cirumstance in which man may fall through vanity and pride, forgetting what he was, and what he is, while he is none the less sinner than the others. In war or peace, we all should study and investigate our important problems and then decide. It is not wise of us to drive to get glory and booty by killing our supposed foes, just because their name is enemy! Man's strive and sacred fight is not limited to the battle fields. There are many other fields of struggle and strive, such as economical fields - knowledge and culture fields science and industrial fields and etc. In some of the fields we have to defend and in some we have to assault, but always our defence or attack must be reasonable, and we should avoid going into the traps of extremes.

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(( 95 ))

95- NOT EQUAL ARE THOSE BELIEVERS WHO SIT DOWN (AT HOME) NOT HAVING ANY LOSS, AND THOSE WHO STRIVE IN THE WAY OF ALLAH WITH THEIR PROPERTIES AND THEIR PERSONS. ALLAH HAS RAISED BY HIS GRACE, THOSE WHO STRIVE WITH THEIR PROPERTIES AND THEIR PERSONS, OVER THOSE WHO SIT DOWN; TO A HIGHER GRADE. YET ALLAH HAS PROMISED ALL OF THEM A GOOD (REWARD), BUT FAR GREATER IS THE REWARD OF THOSE WHO STRIVE, FROM THAT OF THOSE WHO SIT.

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 95


Here is a comparison between two classes of the faithful. There are believers who are weak in will and prefer to sit down, or stay at home, and do the minor religious duties. Yet there are others who are resolute and determined to challenge with difficulties and gripple with obstacles. In the time of war, they fight bravely and are willing to sacrifice their lives and properties in the way of Allah. Although God's Mercy and goodness is promised to all the believers, but those who strive, are in the front line, and are accounted more glorious than those who sit down:

``Allah has promised all of them a good reward; but far greater is the reward of those who strive, and give to sacrifice their possession and self.''

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(( 96 ))

96- RANKS BESTOWED BY HIM, WITH FORGIVENESS AND MERCY; THAT ALLAH IS FORGIVER, COMPASSIONATE.

(( 97 ))

97- AS TO THOSE WHOM THE ANGELS CARRY OFF, (THEIR SOULS FROM THEIR BODIES) WHILE THEY HAVE OPPRESSED THEMSELVES; (THEY DIED IN SIN) THE ANGELS SAID TO THEM: `WHAT WERE YOU DOING?' THEY REPLIED: `WE WERE WEAKENED IN OUR LAND.' THE ANGELS SAID: `WAS NOT THE EARTH OF ALLAH SPACIOUS ENOUGH FOR YOU TO EMIGRATE ELSEWHERE?' THEY ARE THOSE WHOSE ABODE IS THE HELL, AND BAD IS THAT HOMECOMING.

(( 98 ))

98- EXCEPT THOSE HELPLESS AMONG MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN, WHO CAN DEVISE NOTHING, AND ARE NOT GUIDED TO A WAY.

(( 99 )) 99- THOSE ARE THEY THAT ALLAH MIGHT FORGIVE THEM; FOR ALLAH IS THE PARDONER THE FORGIVER.

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THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION. (VERSE NO. 97)


COMMENTS

The immediate occasion for this passage was the question of those who claimed to be a Muslim, but they were not willing to fulfill the commandment of migration that Allah had issued. Death caught them in sin and in the oppression to themslves: ``Those whom the angels carry off their souls from their bodies while they were in sin, and oppressed themselves, the angels said to them: `What were you doing?'.''

The plural use of angel in the above passage, implies that the angel of death is not only one single angel, but there are many angels whose duty is to cause man to die. If EZRAEL is known to be the angel of death, it is because he is the arch angel, and the chief leader of the angels of death.

Then Mecca was a place wherein Islam was being persecuted and suppressed, and therefore the Muslims inhabited there, were ordered to emigrate from Mecca to Medina, which involved of forsaking their hearths and homes. Muslims were required, and are required to wage a compaign of resistance, and of unceasing strive and struggle against evils and bad conducts. If they were and are barred of doing so, they had and they have, to put themselves in a place that such campaigns would be possible - they will have to emigrate. In Mecca some of the Muslims sought excuses, and failed to decide on performing God's Command. So the flood of unlucky events drove them right into the whirlpool of damnation.

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