Justice and Trusteeship in Islam
 

The said verse consists of common and general commandment that clearly states: ``Allah commands you to deliver trusts back to their owners.'' In the second part of the verse, God issues another order that: ``When you judge between the people, judge with justice.'' TRUST is a comprehensive word that applies to all sorts of material or social or spiritual things, committed or entrusted to some one as a task, duty or charge. A Muslims should by no means betray a trust, be it of a Muslim or of a non-Muslim. Even the learned and the scholars and sages of our society are the trustees of God, who hold the trust of God which is their knowledge and wisdom. After all, our very existence, and all our abilities, are God's deposites that we hold them in trust, and we should be careful about them.

As for the importance of trusteeship in Islam, Hazrat Imam Sadiq (AS) has said: ``If the assassinator of HAZRAT ALI (AS) gives me something in trust, or asks me for an advice, or consults with me about something, if I accept that, I will indeed observe the rights and limits of trusteeship.''

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(( 59 )) 59- O, YOU WHO BELIEVE! OBEY ALLAH, AND OBEY THE MESSENGER, AND THOSE IN AUTHORITY FROM AMONG YOU. THEN IF YOU SHOULD DIFFER IN ANYTHING, REFER IT TO ALLAH AND THE MESSENGER, IF YOU DO BELIEVE IN ALLAH AND THE LAST DAY. THAT IS BETTER AND FAIRER IN ISSUE.

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 59


This verse and the next few verses argue about one of the most important Islamic matters which is the leadership, and the reference points for Muslims when they are in important variances: ``O, believers! obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those who are charged with authourity from among you.'' All ultimate authorities and final decisions rest in God; and men of God derive their authorities from Allah.

Allah is the only leader and guide, and any guidance should have its source and authority from Allah. This is because Allah is the real commander, and the real owner of the Universe and all beings. So in the first degree, every one and everything has to obey Him. Then in a lower grade the obedience belongs to God's Messenger, whom God has charged him to authourity and responsibility, and he can settle the affairs of people through God's inspiration. Then in the lower and the third step, man is to obey his ULI-L-AMR who is the truthful leader and the righteous Imam. As for their differences; Muslims have to refer to Allah, whose

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BOOK which is the Holy Qura"n is among them and they may also refer to Allah's Messenger whose conduct and methodical way is well known to them.

WHO ARE THE VALI-L-AMR

All the Shiite commentators, unanimously, understand VALI-L-AMR to mean the righteous Imams, who are all innocent and infallible, and are chosen by Allah through His Messenger for the leadership of Muslims, and for the settlement of their sacred and secular affairs. And also those who are authorized for various positions by the righteous Imams are to be obeyed, but on conditions. There has been an extensive dispute and hot arguments about the question, that who are the VALI-L-AMR among different sects and schools in Islamic world which makes many voluminous books, and yet the dispute and variance still exists!

(( 60 ))

60- HAVE YOU NOT SEEN THOSE WHO THINK THAT THEY HAVE BELIEVED ON THAT WHICH HAS BEEN SENT TO YOU, AND ON WHAT HAS BEEN SENT BEFORE YOU, THEY WANT TO RESORT TO DEVIL (FALSE GOD AND IDOLATERS) FOR JUDGEMENT, WHILE THEY ARE ORDERED TO DISBELIEVE IN THEM,AND SATAN WANTS TO LEAD THEM ASTRAY INTO FAR ERROR.

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THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO.60)


The immediate reference was to one of the hypocrites who had a difference and dispute with a Jew. The Jew asked to refer the case to Mohammad (AS) for judgement, but the hypocrite who pretended to be a Muslim, disagreed with the prophet's judgement, and preferred KAAB- IBN- ASHRAF a chief Jew, hostile to the apostle; for that purpose! Then to this effect the verse was sent down.

THE GOVERNORSHIP OF DEVIL

This is a complementary to the last verse. Therein, man was enjoined to obey God and his Messenger, and here, he is warned to avoid evil and hypocrisy. Though revealed for the especial case mentioned above, but the words are general, because hypocrisy always and in all ages will exist. The hypocrite claims to be with truth and justice, but secretly intrigues with evil, the mischievous and the morally corrupt chiefs. They even make the rebellious devils their judges and leaders in order to save their personal interests.

(( 61 )) 61- AND WHEN IT IS SAID TO THEM COME TO WHAT ALLAH HAS SENT DOWN (AND JOIN) TO THE MESSENGER, YOU WILL FIND THE HYPOCRITES BARRING THE WAY (OF PEOPLE) TO YOU.

(( 62 )) 62- THEN WHAT SHALL IT BE WHEN THEY ARE AFFLICTED BY AN AFFLICTION, ON ACCOUNT OF WHAT THEIR HANDS HAVE

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SENT BEFORE? THEN THEY COME TO YOU SWEARING BY ALLAH, THAT WE INTENDED NOT, BUT DOING GOOD AND CONCILIATION.

(( 63 )) 63- THOSE ARE THEY THAT ALLAH KNOWS WHAT IS (HIDDEN ) IN THEIR HEARTS. SO, KEEP CLEAR OF THEM, AND ADMONISH THEM, AND WITH EFFECTUAL WORDS SPEAK TO THEM ABOUT THEMSELVES.

THE COMMENTARY
THE RESULT OF DEVIL'S JUDGEMENT


VERSES NO. 61 - 62 - 63.

Following the strict prohibition of referring to devils and to oppressive judges, the result of such contacts and judgements are brought to light in these verses. On the other hand the veil is torn or pushed aside from the two faces of the hypocrites, and the verses show how we must deal with them. To trust them and taking them as friends and intimate, is a dangerous mistake. To kill them somehow may destroy the hope of reforming them. We therefore should keep ourselves clear of their tricks and wile, and meanwhile try to guide them with effectual words and reveal to them their mischiefs and weak points.

(( 64 ))

64- AND WE DID NOT SEND ANY MESSENGER BUT TO BE

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OBEYED BY ALLAH'S PERMISSION. AND IF, WHEN THEY WRONGED THEMSELVES, THEY HAD COME TO YOU, AND ASKED FOR ALLAH'S FORGIVENESS, AND THE MESSENGER HAD ASKED FORGIVENESS FOR THEM, THEY WOULD HAVE FOUND ALLAH FORGIVING, COMPASSIONATE.

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 64


The verse commences with the obedience which the prophets are entitled to, for being the spiritual leaders of the people as well as their secular rulers.

The verse also implies that obeying Allah and His Messenger is for the people's own good, and their disobedience may spoil their own self and soul, preventing them to attain salvation and prosperity. This verse is also a reason against those, who think resorting to the prophets, and seeking their help through intercession is a sort of polytheism. If it was so as they think, how could QURA"N enjoin people to go to the Messenger and seek his help to obtain God's forgiveness?

There is a fine mark here too, that Allah does say to the Messenger: ``You ask my forgiveness for them; but if they come to you for that purpose, let the Messenger for his high position ask Me to forgive them.''

(( 65 )) 65- BUT NOT SO! BY YOUR LORD! THEY WILL NOT BELIEVE (TRULY) UNTIL THEY MAKE YOU JUDGE IN ALL DISPUTES BETWEEN THEM, THEN THEY FIND NOT ANY RESISTANCE IN THIER HEARTS AGAINST YOUR JUDGEMENT, AND SUBMIT A PERFECT SUBMISSION.

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THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 65)


ZOBAIR- IBN- AWAM who was an Emigrant Muslim, fell in a dispute with a nominal Muslim who called himself a helper about irrigation of their palm- grove. They both agreed to refer their difference to the prophet for judgement. The Messenger of God judged between them and issued a decree with justice. The Median Muslim disliked the decree, and said to the prophet: ``you judged in favour of ZOHBIR, because he was your cousin!'' The prophet was angry to hear that, and this verse revealed to this effect to warn Muslims to be careful of what they say, and of what they think.

SUBMISSION TO THE RIGHT

The verse implies that the best of true faith is not mere confession, but to bring all the disputes and variances for judgement to the prophet, and joyfully accept the results of the judgement and the decree, whatever it is, without feeling the least resistance in the heart: ``By your Lord! they will not become true believers until they make you the judge of all their affairs and disputes, and then find not the least amount of resistance or dislike in their hearts against your judgement.''

To trace the course of the verse, two important matters can be deduced as follows:

1- A prophet is innocent and infallible, and therefore he makes no mistake and does no wrong, so he must willfully be accepted and his will, be done.

2- No strive and investigation or objection is allowed, or is right against clear commandments or instructions of Allah and His Messenger.

(( 66 ))

66- HAD WE PRESCRIBED FOR THEM TO SACRIFICE THEIR

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LIVES, (AS WE DID PRESCRIBE FOR SOME BEFORE THEM TO KILL THEMSELVES) OR TO LEAVE THEIR HOMES, THEY WOULD NOT HAVE DONE IT, SAVE A FEW OF THEM. YET IF THEY HAD DONE WHAT THEY WERE TOLD TO DO; IT WOULD HAVE BEEN BETTER FOR THEM, AND THE MOST STABILIZING. (IT WOULD STRENGTHEN THER FAITH SEVERELY)

(( 67 )) 67- AND IN THAT CASE; WE WOULD GIVE THEM A GREAT REWARD FROM OUR PRESENCE.

(( 68 ))

68- AND WE WOULD HAVE THEM GUIDED TO A STRAIGHT PATH.

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 66 - 67 - 68


The verse No. 66 points at some of the hard tasks of the former people such as the Israelites who worshipped the calf, and were ordered to slay one another to atone for their heinous sin: ``Had we prescribed for them to slay one another, or to sacrifice themselves for the cause of Allah, only a few of them would do that.'' The verse then concludes that; if they had done what they were told to do, it would serve for their own good, and would stabilize and strengthen their own faith.

The latter advantage of stabilization is remarkable that those who step forward towards Allah, every next step of them will serve to strengthen their faith and to stabilize their soul and self. Their stability in faith and perseverance in righteous deeds, increases more and more as they go farther and take further steps in the spiritual

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world. They would finally get a great reward from God's presence, and guidance to a straight way that has no difficulty and trouble in it, till they reach the best of homecoming.

(( 69 ))

69- AND WHOEVER OBEYS ALLAH AND THE MESSENGER, THEN THEY ARE WITH THOSE WHOM ALLAH HAS BLESSED, LIKE THE PROPHETS, THE TRUTHFULS AND THE MARTYRS AND THE RIGHTEOUS WHO ARE EXCELLENT FRIENDS.

(( 70 )) 70- THAT IS A GRACE FROM ALLAH, AND SUFFICES ALLAH FOR A KNOWER.

THE COMMENTARY

OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO.69 - 70)


It is narrated that: SOWBA"N; one of the prophet's companions who loved him ardently, came to his presence perplexed and anxious! The prophet asked what wrong was with him? and Sowban answered: ``To-day I was considering the Resurrection Day; and it came to my thought that: even if I be among those who are admitted to Paradise' still I am not in such a rank and position there, as to visit you or have your company; and anyhow, I have to suffer your separation which is a distressful circumstance with me, and a real pain in my heart.''

Then these two verses appeared, consisting of glad- tidings for those who obey Allah and His Messenger. Then the prophet said: ``Upon my Lord! No one's faith will be completed, unless he loves me more than himself and his father and mother and families.''

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THE FRIENDS IN PARADISE

Friends in Paradise are those who obtain salvation by the obedience of God and His Messenger, and Allah has bestowed on them of His extensive bounties and Grace. Here in this verse four classes of them are specified:

1- The highest and the best is that of the prophets who get inspiration from God in order to teach mankind by example and precept.

2- The next class of the fellowship in Paradise belongs to the lovers of truth who are truthful in their words and deeds. Their deeds prove their words, and their words testify their deeds.

3- In the third category are the martyrs, or those who have been slain for the sake of God, and who testify to people's honesty in the Final Judgement in Dooms Day.

4- And lastly there is the class of the righteous people who are the lovers of doing good, and who do whatever they do in the righteous way. Then the ending of the verse implies that the individuals of the above classes makes excellent friends and intimates in extensive gardens of bliss in Paradise. There is also a fine touch here that; association, friendship, and intimacy is so important a matter that good companionship has marked and ranked among the most important bounties and Grace of God found in Paradise.

* * * *

(In Islam the highest position or rank which is the prophethood is held by Mohammad Mustafa only, and by no one else. In a lower grade, there are countless Muslims who are either truthful and the lovers of truth, Martyrs, who witness and testify, and the Righteous who do good, that are all specified in the above verses. There are also twelve saints who are Mohammad's descendants through his beloved daughter Fatima and her husband Imam Ali (AS). All these saints have all the excellent qualifications that believers must have, and besides that, they all have the three above mentioned virtues. Let us take HAZRAT IMAM ALI as an instance:

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He was the first man who became a Muslim, believed in God and His Messenger, and testified the oneness of God and the prophethood of Mohammad. He always, throughout his life, practically proved to be truthful in his belief. He was martyred in the sanctuary of mosque of KOFFEH, when he was performing his prayer.

In QURA"N - S 66: 4 he is called SALIHUL MOMENINE, which means the righteous of the believers or he who is the lover of doing good, and his fine and gentle behaviour, and good manly conducts is now a general topic of admiration among friends and foes. (TRANSLATOR'S NOTE)

(( 71 )) 71- O BELIEVERS! BE EVER ON YOUR GUARDS, THEN GO FORTH IN COMPANIES, OR MOVE FORWARD ALL TOGETHER.

THE COMMENTARY
BEING ON CALL PERMANENTLY (VERSE NO. 71)


Here Muslims are addressed generally, and two vital instructions are issued for their well being and safety:

1- It bids them to pay attention and be always on guard, while making necessary preparations, and taking precautions against the enemy.
2- Wants them to use various tactics such as moving forward in small groups or all together.

(( 72 )) 72- THERE ARE SOME AMONG YOU (THE HYPOCRITES) WHO LAG BEHIND. THEN IF A MISFORTUNE BEFELL YOU HE SAID: ALLAH

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HAS BEEN GRACIOUS TO ME THAT I WAS NOT PRESENT WITH THEM.

(( 73 ))

73- BUT IF A GRACE FROM ALLAH COMES TO YOU, HE WILL SAY; AS IF THERE HAD NEVER BEEN ANY AFFECTION BETWEEN YOU AND HIM, ''WOULD THAT I HAD BEEN WITH THEM TO WIN A GREAT VICTORY!''

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 72 AND 73


Although the believers are addressed here, but the hypocrites and the nominal Muslims are aimed. The beginning phrase of the verse: ``There are some among you,'' discloses that the hypocrites are hidden among the true believers. The hypocrites and the nominal Muslims always detach and disengage themselves in thought and action from the main body of Muslims' society. In times of hardship and misfortunes whether a war or a natural calamity, they give no hand or help to the main body. If an affliction afflicts people, they are happy for not taking part in the incident. On the contrary, when the main body wins a success, they will not share the general happiness of the community. They are rather sorry, and pity that they have lost the material share and profits of the success. They say what Qura"n says in them: ``They will say: (as if there had never been any affection between you and him,) ``Would that I had been with them to win a great victory.''

Such selfish men are of no use and value in any community, and should never be considered as a source of power or means of success.

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(( 74 ))

74- SO LET THOSE WHO SELL THE LIFE OF THIS WORLD FOR THE HEREAFTER, TO FIGHT IN THE WAY OF ALLAH AND WHOEVER FIGHTS IN THE WAY OF ALLAH AND IS SLAIN OR CONQUERS, SOON SHALL WE GIVE HIM A GREAT REWARD.

THE COMMENTARY
PREPARING THE BELIEVERS FOR FIGHT IN THE WAY OF ALLAH
(VERSE NO.74)


In this verse and the next few ones, the believers are encouraged with effective and enthusiastical words, to get up and fight for the cause of Allah:

``Those may fight for the cause of god who can sell the mortal life of this world, for the everlasting life of the Hereafter. They are willing to sacrifice their lives, and all their interests in this life which is of little value, for the sake of next life through which they may obtain honour and glory in the sight of God. It makes no difference for them whether they be slain or victorious! In both cases they seek the pleasure of Allah, and Allah's nearness is the price of their sacrifice. Lo! what a gainful bargain! if they get killed they will be admitted to paradise and if they win a victory they will live a honourable life sound and secure. Such a fighter knows no defeat; and his only alternatives are either an everlasting life in Paradise, or victory and glory in this mortal life.''

(( 75 ))

75- AND WHAT IS WRONG WITH YOU THAT YOU DON'T FIGHT IN THE WAY OF ALLAH, WHEN THE HELPLESS (THOSE WEAKENED

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BY OPPRESSORS) MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN, SAY: OUR LORD! RESCUE US FROM THIS TOWN WHOSE INHABITANTS ARE OPPRESSORS; AND APPOINT TO US A PROTECTOR FROM YOUR PRESENCE, AND APPOINT TO US A HELPER FROM YOUR PRESENCE.

THE COMMENTARY
SEEKING HELP FROM HUMAN SENTIMENTS. (VERSE NO.75)


The Arabic word `MOSTAZAAF' translated here to `HELPLESS' has its root in the weak or weakness, but it does not mean a weak person lacking physical strength. MOSTAZAAF is the man or woman who has been weakened through oppression and injustice. Therefore the cause of God is also the cause of justice and the cause of the oppressed.

After the emigration from Mecca to Medina, some of the Muslims who were weakened by the pagan oppressors of Mecca were not able to leave their home and hearths like the others, and remained there when the persecutions were redoubled for them. They were threatened, assulted, beaten, put into chains, and cast into jails. They even could not perform their prayers and other religious duties! They cried and prayed for a protector and helper from God. God answered their prayer and through this verse encouraged Muslim fighters to rush to their help and rescue:

``And what is gone wrong with you that you don't fight in the way of Allah when the helpless men, women, and children who are under the savage pressure of the pagans, cry and pray to God to be rescued from Mecca whose inhabitants were then the oppressor heathens and idolaters.''

(( 76 ))

76- THE BELIEVERS FIGHT IN THE WAY OF ALLAH, AND THOSE

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WHO DISBELIEVE FIGHT IN THE WAY OF DEVIL (SUCH AS THE IDOLS AND THE INFIDELS) FIGHT THEREFORE AGAINST THE FRIENDS OF SATAN. OF SUERTY THE GUILE OF SATAN (HIS DECEITFUL CUNNING) IS WEAK.

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 76


This verse separates the lines of the fighters, saying: ``The believers strive for the cause of God, and the infidel fights for the cause of Satan. Life is never free of contest and physical struggle and strive. The order of God is to fight against Satan and his friend who are the supporters of injustice and evil.''

Fight bravely and fear not because the cunning of Satan and the guile of his friends are weak. This is because the godly is concordant with the laws of nature and are harmonious with the rules of creation and creator, whereas the oppressors, rebels, and evil doers who are intimates of Satan, follow their caprices, and obey their passions and lusts and are exposed to defeat and annihilation.

(( 77 ))

77- DO YOU NOT SEE THOSE TO WHOM IT WAS SAID: ``RESTRAIN YOUR HANDS (LAY DOWN YOUR ARMS) AND PERFORM THE PRAYER, AND PAY THE ALMS.- TAX. (THE TITHE) THEN WHEN FIGHTING WAS PRESCRIBED FOR THEM, A GROUP OF THEM FEAR PEOPLE AS THEY SHOULD FEAR ALLAH

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OR EVEN MORE. AND THEY SAID OUR LORD! WHY HAVE YOU PRESCRIBED FIGHTING FOR US? WHY DIDN'T YOU GIVE US A RESPITE UNTIL THE NEAR TERM? (IN ORDER TO LIVE OUR SHORT LIFE IN PEACE)'' SAY: ``THE ENJOYMENT OF THIS WORLD IS VERY LITTLE, AND THE WORLD TO COME IS BETTER FOR HIM WHO BECAME PIOUS AND YOU SHALL NOT BE OPPRESSED THE HUSK OF A DATE.- STONE.''

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO.77)


IBN- ABBA"SS has narrated that a group of Muslims who were in Mecca before the emigration, were impatient for want of fighting. They wanted to fight for personal gains; such as plunder, spoils, taking vengeance, and etc. Fighting was not yet prescribed, though fight for such motives and personal interests, has never been commanded and is unlawful at any time and any age. They who were under the persecution of the heathen said to the prophet: ``Before our conversion, we were respected here and greatly valued; but now we have lost all that honour and regards! Then give us permission to fight in order to restore our esteem and prestige.''

The prophet said: ``I am not ordered to fight yet.'' When after the great emigration, the command for fight was issued and the testing time came by, and they saw that they seriously had to take part in the war, and not for personal gain, but for a sacred cause and its own rules and regulation, they trembled with fear and held back!

COMMENTS:

The above mentioned group of hypocrites, or if you want you may

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call them nominal Muslims, frankly said: ``Our Lord! Why didn't you give us enough respite to pass over our natural term of life which is by itself short enough.'' The verse in answer to them clearly implies that; first of all they are such cowards who fear people more than fearing them Allah. Secondly; in any case, life here is short and the pleasures and enjoyments of this world are very little, and that if any one is afraid of death, he won't be able to escape it by his fear.

(( 78 ))

78- WHEREVER YOU BE, DEATH WILL OVERTAKE YOU, EVEN IF YOU BE IN STRONG (SECURE) TOWERS.

AND IF ANY THING GOOD BEFALLS THEM, THEY SAY: ``THIS IS FROM ALLAH.'' AND IF ANYTHING BAD BEFALLS THEM THEY SAY: ``THIS IS FROM YOU'' (FROM MOHAMMAD) SAY: ``ALL ARE FROM ALLAH.'' WHAT IS THE MATTER WITH THESE PEOPLE THAT THEY FAIL TO UNDERSTAND A NARRATION.

(( 79 ))

79- WHATEVER OF GOOD HAPPENS TO YOU, (O, MAN!) IT IS FROM ALLAH, AND WHATEVER OF BAD BEFALLS YOU, IT IS FROM YOURSELF. AND WE HAVE SENT YOU AS A MESSENGER TO PEOPLE; AND ALLAH IS YOUR ALL-SUFFICIENT WITNESS.

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THE COMMENTARY
VERSES NO.78 AND 79


These two verses are also with reference to the inconsistent hypocrites who were hidden among the believers. They feared to take part in the battles as cowards fear. They did want to escape death, but of no use. If the secure and lofty towers could prevent a few accidental deaths, how could they prevent the natural death of man?! When due to their folly and blindness a disaster happened, they blamed the prophet and other Muslims, but if anything good befell them they said; God gave them that for their merit and superiority. The verses imply that Allah is the ultimate cause of all things, and in God's hand lays all good. On the other hand the cause of misfortune and bad luck, lay some how in our follies, wrongs, and shortcomings, and Allah will not oppress His servants the least, and as much as the husk of a date stone.

(( 80 )) 80- HE WHO OBEYS THE MESSENGER HAS OBEYED ALLAH, AND HE WHO TURNS AWAY,WE HAVE NOT SENT YOU TO BE THEIR GUARD.

(( 81 )) 81- THEY SAY: ``OBEDIENCE'' (ON THE TIP OF THEIR TONGUES) BUT WHEN THEY GO AWAY FROM YOUR PRESENCE, THEY HOLD SECRET NIGHT MEETINGS, ON PURPOSES OTHER THAN WHAT YOU SAY. ALLAH WRITES ALL THEIR NIGHT PLOTS. SO TURN AWAY FROM THEM, AND PUT YOUR TRUST IN ALLAH. AND ENOUGH IS ALLAH FOR AN ADVOCATOR.

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THE COMMENTARY THE PROPHET'S METHODICAL WAY IS BASED UPON DIVINE INSPIRATION (VERSE NO.80)

The prophet's duty is to convey the Message of God. If man insists to disobey that Message; he has in fact disobeyed God who has given the Message. In the same way; he who obeys the Message has obeyed Allah. He is not obliging the Messenger, but merely he performs his duty to Allah. This verse signifies that the prophet's methodical way is based upon Divine Inspirations, and therefore the traditions narrated from the prophet; supposing them to be indeed true and from him, are as valid as the Qura"nic Verses.
VERSE NO. 81

This refers again to hypocrites whose religious avowal is on the tip of their tongue, and not in the depth of their hearts. When they were in the line of Muslims, headed by their prophet, they repeated the word `OBEDIENCE' to protect their personal interests thereby. They said so, but believed it not, because in their nightly meetings which they held privately, their argument went on against the prophet's ideas and purposes.

Allah advises the prophet to turn his face away from these men of double faces, and that to put his trust in Allah. This is because if we trust people who are not true and faithful, in emergency cases, they will hinder instead of help. We should therefore put our trust in Allah, and have our confidence in Him who is All-good, All- knowledge and knows the inner working of events more than all.