The Universal Law Of Death (VERSE NO. 185)
 

The verse at the beginning points at a general and universal LAW that rules over all the living creatures: ``Every soul will taste their mortality and death, but death will forget none of us at all! Of course the SOUL will not die, but when the body dies, the soul will taste death through separation from the body. In the second phrase the verse says that in our life after death; when our period of probation has been finished, we reach the life stage of REWARDS:

``Then you shall be paid fully your rewards in the Resurrection day.'' Those who have been able to escape the torment of the blazing Fire, shall be admitted to the gardens of bliss in the paradise. The Hell with strong attraction attracts people towards its fire. Among the Hell's attracting chains we may name unlawful sex, prohibited wealth, rank and power, which may all attract any man strongly towards the Fire. The verse ends in that: ``The life of this world is nothing but a stuff of vanity.'' The material world and its enjoyments which can be means for salvation and development, are turned to stuff of vanity by us!

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186- YOU SHALL CERTAINLY BE TESTED IN YOUR POSSESSIONS, AND IN YOUR PERSONAL SELVES, AND YOU SHALL HEAR FROM THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN GIVEN THE BOOK BEFORE YOU, (THE JEWS) AND FROM THE POLYTHEISTS MUCH HURTS. (AND INSULTING WORDS) AND IF YOU BE PATIENT AND AVOID EVIL, (IT IS THE BEST BECAUSE) THESE ARE THE DETERMINING FACTORS IN ALL AFFAIRS.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 186)


When Muslims were forced to leave their hearths and homes and emigrate from Mecca to Medina, the polytheists and pagans confiscated their houses and properties.

In their destination too, which was Medina, they were confronted with the hostility of hypocrites, and abuses and insults of the Jews, especially one of their chief and influentials named KAAB-IBN-ASHRAF, who was a scurrilous, abusive, and vindictive poet, who frequently lampooned the prophet and his companions in his poems. He even made Muslim girls and women the subject and theme of his sexual poetries, and sometimes so much shamelessly that the Messenger of God condemned him to death. So this verse was sent down to encourage the Muslims not to be tired of resistance and patience, and to persevere in spite of all that counter influences and oppositions:

``You shall certainly be tested in your possession, and also in your personal self, and shall hear from the people of the Book and from the polytheists much hurt and abuses; but do not lose your patience and persistence. The concurrence of patience and piety here, may refer to some people that in spite of their patience, they open their mouth to complain and show thanklessness, but the true believers always endure painful events patiently and with consent.

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187- AND WHEN ALLAH TOOK A COVENANT FROM THOSE WHO WERE GIVEN THE BOOK, TO MAKE IT KNOWN TO MANKIND AND HIDE IT NOT. BUT THEY CAST IT BEHIND THEIR BACKS AND SOLD IT FOR A SMALL PRICE, AND VILE WAS THE BARGAIN THAT THEY MADE.

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 187


This refers to another ugly and evil conducts of the people of the BIBLE who were contemporary to OUR prophet, and that was their concealing the facts, and hiding the truth, while they had a covenant with God not to do so, and make message and revelation of Allah known to people. They not only cast the covenant of God behind their ears and entirely ignored it, but on the contrary they twisted and disturbed the facts according to their own fancies and caprices. They tampered with the truth that had come to them, and took what they found it to their personal profit and ignored the rest, and easily sold it for a small price and a miserable profit.

In the first stage the verse refers to the Jewish Rabbis and learned, but in a general sense of meaning it is a notice and a warning common to all the learned, scholars, men of knowledge and in particular the priesthood of all Divine religions; that it is a duty incumbent on them to make known to people the facts and the truth which is sent down through the scriptures to them. In other word, they ought to know that the message of God has to reach to any man or any nation as a matter of sacred trust. It should be broadcasted, published, and preached, and made clear to all mankind within the reach.

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188- AND DO NOT THINK THOSE WHO REJOICE FOR WHAT THEY HAVE DONE, AND WISH TO BE PRAISED FOR WHAT THEY HAVE NOT DONE - DO NOT THINK THEM SAVED OF PUNISHMENT; FOR THEM AWAITS A PAINFUL TORMENT.

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189- AND TO ALLAH BELONG THE KINGDOM OF THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH, AND ALLAH HAS POWER OVER ALL THINGS.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 188)


A group of the Jews, when tampering with some of the verses of their scriptures, and concealing some others, seemed to rejoice for that devilish work that they were doing against their Lord and religion! Meanwhile they loved to be called with praiseworthy titles, such as the learned, the scholar, and the Rabbi. This verse condemned their devilish deeds, and baseless demands and vanities.

THE SELFISH MEN

There was a group of self-loving and selfish men among the Israelites who frequently caused mischief and misery to others - and in particular to Muslims. They used to alter the standards of worship to cover their fancies and caprices, through which they sought a miserable material or social profits. Meanwhile they loved and expected to be praised for their mischief and the virtues that they did not possess!:

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And think not that those who rejoice for what they have done of mischief and evil deeds, and love to be praised for what they not have done, and for the virtues that they have not got, that they can escape the consequences of their evil deeds, and God's punishment. On the contrary for them awaits a painful punishment.''

VERSE NO. 189

This verse contains some sort of glad-tidings and good news for the believers, as well as a threat and warning for the unbelievers: ``the kingdom of the heavens and the earth belongs to God, Who has power over all things.'' So there is no reason for the believers to tread the by-passes and go zigzag to attain their goal of salvation and reach their progressive destination. By walking along their straight path of truth and using lawful and correct means they will prosper.

(( 190 )) 190- AND IN THE CREATION OF THE SKIES AND THE EARTH, AND IN THE ALTERNATION OF NIGHT AND DAY, THERE ARE SIGNS FOR MEN OF UNDERSTANDING.

(( 191 )) 191- THOSE WHO REMEMBER ALLAH, STANDING, SITTING, AND LYING DOWN ON THEIR SIDES, AND REFLECT UPON THE CREATION OF THE SKIES AND THE EARTH, SAYING: `OUR LORD! YOU HAVE NOT CREATED THIS IN VAIN. GLORY BE TO YOU! SAVE US THEN FROM THE TORMENT OF THE FIRE.

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(( 192 )) 192- OUR LORD! WHOEVER YOU CAST INTO THE FIRE YOU HAVE DESPISED HIM, (IN ETERNAL SHAME) AND THERE ARE NONE TO HELP THE OPPRESSORS.

(( 193 )) 193- OUR LORD! WE HAVE HEARD THE CALL OF ONE CALLING PEOPLE TO FAITH, SAYING: `BELIEVE IN YOUR LORD! AND WE BELIEVED. OUR LORD! THEN FORGIVE US OUR SINS, AND COVER FOR US OUR EVIL DEEDS, AND MAKE US DIE WITH THE RIGHTEOUS.

(( 194 )) 194- OUR LORD! AND GRANT US WHAT YOU PROMISED US THROUGH YOUR MESSENGERS, AND ABASE US NOT IN THE DAY OF RESURRECTION, THAT YOU WILL NEVER BREAK YOUR PROMISE.

THE COMMENTARY
THE BRIGHTEST WAY TO MONOTHEISM (VERSE NO. 190)


Qur?n's verses are not only for reading and reciting, but mainly for reflection and studying. In fact, reading is a prelude to understanding and knowledge. Therefore the verse begins with the glory and creation of the skies and the earth. The infinitely extensive space that contains countless celestial bodies, that ever man's imagination cannot reach or estimate! And then the verse refers to one

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of the most striking phenomena - the alternation of night and day. The change of light and shade that results from the circling and spinning of our planet and our sun, which is regular and yet changing in duration with seasons and the latitude of our globe: ``In the creation of the skies and the earth, and the alternation of night and day are signs for men of understanding.''

VERSE NO. 191

The attractive and wonderful plan and form of the universe, and the unity of design in that limitless nature, so strongly attracts the hearts and minds of men of knowledge and understanding, that they cannot avoid pondering and reflecting upon the creator, creation, plan, and the planner and designer of the universe!:

``Those who remember Allah standing, sitting and lying down on their sides, and reflect upon the creation of the skies and the earth, saying: `Our Lord! Glory be to you! You have not created this in vain.'' Then they think of themselves being a miserable creature standing among the infinite beauties of nature and wonders of creation; then seeing their responsibilities, and feeling God's Mercy throughout the universe, they sincerely and from the depths of their hearts say: ``Glory be to You! Save us from the torments of the Fire!'' VERSE NO. 192

``Our Lord! whoever you cast into the FIRE You have abased him. (in eternal shame and humiliation)'' This implies that the greatest punishment of God is the infamy and public disgrace that despises the unbeliever in the life to come. VERSE NO. 193

Those who are men of wisdom and understanding, when they knew the aim and object of their creation, they came to know that, the way to evolution which is full of acclivities and declivities, cannot be

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traversed without having the leadership and guidance of the prophets. Therefore, they are always on call, to hear the call of the Godly men, and Divine Leaders, in order to answer them and to follow their orders and instructions, and so they say: ``Our Lord! We heard the call of one calling people to faith, saying; Believe in your Lord! and we have believed. Our Lord! Now that we are on our way towards you; there are so many dangers of sin, slip, error, and evil, in our way, and the storms of our various and irresistable instincts and nature threatening our success and salvation, Then our Lord: ``Forgive us our sins, and cover for us our errs, and wrongs, and make us die with the righteous.'' VERSE NO. 194

In their last stage and station, and after their travel along the long road of monotheism and FAITH, and having answered the prophets positively by doing their duties, their prayer is: Our Lord! Now grant us what you promised us through your Messengers, and abase us not in the Day of Doom, that you will never break your promise.''

The five above mentioned verses are among the most beautiful and inciting verses of the Glorious Qur?n, that with a fine tone, mingled with supplication are composed to a Divine song, and in the traditions narrated from the household of the prophet, these verses are recommended to be rehearsed in the night prayers.

(( 195 )) 195- SO THEIR LORD ANSWERED THEIR PRAYER, (AND SAID): ``I WILL NOT WASTE THE WORK OF A WORKER AMONG YOU, WHETHER A MALE OR FEMALE - THE ONE OF YOU IS AS THE

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OTHER. THEREFORE THOSE WHO EMIGRATED AND WERE EXPELLED FROM THEIR HABITATIONS, AND THOSE WHO WERE HURTED IN MY WAY, AND FOUGHT, AND WERE SLAIN; I WILL COVER THEIR FAULTS, AND WILL ADMIT THEM TO GARDENS (OF PARADISE) BENEATH WHICH STREAMS FLOW - A REWARD FROM ALLAH, AND WITH ALLAH IS YET BETTER REWARD

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 195)


OMME SALAMA, the prophet's wife asked him that: ``In the Holy Qur?n, men's fight and strive, emigration and self - sacrifices, are widely appreciated, but what about the women! Can they have any portion or share in such affairs? The verse was revealed to this effect, and to answer her.

THE RESULT OF WISE MEN'S PROGRAMME

The result of what men of understanding and wisdom have strived on and done, is God's merciful answering: ``So their Lord answered their prayers and supplications.'' But in order that the God's answer might not be mistaken by them, and the connection between man and his deeds be not disconnected; immediately after His answering their prayer Allah says:

``I will not waste the work of any worker among you be it male or a female; the one of you is as the other.'' This implies that the favour and Mercy of Allah through His rewards is in equity divided and according to deservances, so that one may not say; Islam is the religion of man and has nothing to do with women, or that women are excluded from all Islamic affairs! As a matter of fact, in Islam, the equal status of the sexes is not only recognized, but insisted on. If there be any distinction between man

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and woman, it is that of their nature and creation, and not in their rights, duties, responsibilities, rewards or punishments. (( 196 )) 196- LET DELUDE YOU NOT TO AND FRO GOINGS OF THE UNBELIEVERS IN THE CITIES.

(( 197 )) 197- A LITTLE ENJOYMENT, THEN THEIR ABODE IS HELL, THE WORST OF THE CRADLES.

(( 198 )) 198- BUT AS FOR THOSE WHO FEARED THEIR LORD, FOR THEM AWAITS GARDENS OF BLISS, BENEATH WHICH STREAMS FLOW, ABIDING THERE FOR EVER, AN ENTERTAINMENT FROM THEIR LORD, AND THAT WHICH IS WITH ALLAH IS BETTER FOR THE RIGHTEOUS.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 196 & 197)


Most of the polytheists of Mecca, and the Jews of Medina were merchants and lived in affluence and opulence. While the Muslims due to their especial case and critical situation, and also their emigration or being expelled from their homes and habitations, lived in poverty, hardship and serious necessities. Comparing these two groups of rich and poor people raised the

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question that; why should a believer who is supposed to be a friend of God, live in such that needs and hardship while his opponent is drowned in luxuriencies and affluence? To give an answer to this common question the verses revealed.

A VEXING QUESTION

The question mentioned above in the cause of the revelation is a general one, and many people may ask it in any time or any age. They may compare the rich man who believes not in God or His final Judgement, and his comfortable life with profuseness of bounties; with a faithful righteous man, who is poor and needy - This question may somehow induce a doubt in the heart of a weak minded believer. If we ponder over the question a little, we will soon get various convincing answers; some of which are mentioned through the verses that are topics of our discussions:

Let delude you not the, to and fro goings, of the unbelievers in the cities!'' There is a limited use and short period of enjoyment for the unlawful material incomes. The wordly successes are indeed brief and fleeting, and their happiness is very sadly transient and swiftly passing; as the hardship and misery of the believer too, passes with the same speed and hurry, But the end and destination of the two groups differs the difference of night and day, darkness or light: ``A little enjoyment they will have, and then their abode is the blazing Fire of Hell! The worst of the abodes.''
VERSE NO. 198

And those people who feared their Lord, and avoided evil deeds, they shall have the best of destiny and destination, because for them awaits gardens of bliss in the Paradise, which is watered by the streams that flow beneath its trees, and they will live therein for ever, and no death, illness, old age or any sort of hardship and troubles can ever threat their life! This is an entertainment from their Lord, and they also may have other kind of gifts and entertainment from their Lord that no eyes have ever seen, no ears ever heard and no thought

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has imagined! To make it short, the faithful lives with a short period of hardship and a long and everlasting time of felicity, but the faithless enjoys himself a little, and has to suffer an everlasting painful torment!

(( 199 )) 199- AND CERTAINLY THERE ARE AMONG THE PEOPLE OF THE BOOK, THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN ALLAH, AND IN THAT WHICH HAS BEEN SENT DOWN TO YOU, AND IN THAT WHICH HAS BEEN SENT TO THEM (THEY ARE) HUMBLES TO ALLAH, NOT SELLING THE SIGNS OF ALLAH FOR A LITTLE PRICE. THESE ARE THEY WHOSE REWARD IS WITH THEIR LORD, THAT ALLAH IS SWIFT AT THE RECKONING.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 199)


When the heathens and polytheists of Mecca increased their tortures and pressures upon the new converts, so much so that their oppressions and torments were no more endurable; the prophet ordered some of the believers to emigrate to ABYSSINIA ruled by a democratic, just, and faithful Christian king. In the Arabic month RAJAB 5 A.H. a group of eleven Muslims, Leaded by JAAFAR-IBN-ABUTALIB a brother to Emam Ali (AS) left Mecca as pioneers to pave the way for the others.

Soon after, another group of eigthy three people accompanied by their household and families, took refuge to ABYSSINIA. The Negus of

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Abyssinia, was a truthful, devout Christian, who ruled his country with utmost justice and democracy. He welcomed the Muslim refugees, and gave them shelter, work, and food, and made their positions safe and secure. He listened not to the vilifications of their foes who had come there to chase them and to arrest them, and take them back. The Negus was so kind and fair to the Muslim refugees, that some commentators and historians, believe that he recognized Islam and was a real Muslim, concealing his faith for prevention of social and political agitations and revolt, that could be caused by the priests.

When the said Negus of Abyssinia died, the prophet got the bad news through inspiration. He called the Muslims on a congregational prayer in respect and esteem of the Negus who had been so kind to the Muslim refugees. The prophet, in accompany with a group of his companions went to the grave yard BAGHIEA, and performed the prayer, and the remote burial ceremony. Some of the hypocrites of Medina objected saying: ``The Messenger of God performs the prayer and ceremonial rites for a non-Muslim and a heathen whom he has not seen him yet! So the verse came down to this effect.''

COMMENTS

This verse is about the faithfuls among the people of the scriptures, and defines a minority group of the people of the Book who joined the prophet of Islam. For them five distinct virtues are proved which are as follows:

1) They are a people who believe in God, and the only one God.

2) They also believe in the Holy Qur?n and whatever has been sent down to Muslims from Allah.

3) Their faith in Mohammad the Messenger of God is due to their faith in their own scripture.

4) They have surrendered to the will of Allah and are humbled to HIM.

5) They never sell the signs of God for a small price as the others do.

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And allah is swift at the reckoning; so, neither the righteous confront with difficulty to get their reward, nor the evil-doers will have their punishment delayed for any reason.

(( 200 )) 200- O, YOU WHO BELIEVE! BE PATIENT (AGAINST HARDSHIP AND CAPRICES) AND BE STEADFAST AND FIRM (IN FRONT OF YOUR ENEMIES) AND BEWARE OF ALLAH, THAT YOU MAY PROSPER.

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 200


This is the last verse of the long chapter of ALLI-IMRAN (THE HOUSE OF IMRAN), and it consists of a comprehensive instruction in four articles as follows:

1) At the beginning, the believers are addressed that they ought to be patient against hardship, misfortune and caprices.

2) In the second article, the instruction given by Qur?n, is to be steadfast and resistive against the enemies.

3) The third instruction to Muslims is to be on-call and stand-by; paying permanent attention to the borders of Islamic countries and territories. This is to avoid being surprised or attacked unaware. They have to pay attention and beware of the attacks of Satan and his hosts.

4) And the last and fourth instruction, is like an umbrella that will cover the other three, and that is to guard themselves against evil deeds and become pious and godly. The result of observing the above instruction is `FAL?H', translated here to prosperity, but in a wider sense it may mean success in mundane and earthly affairs, as well as spiritual progress, and salvation.

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4

WOMEN


IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MERCIFUL, THE COMPASSIONATE

(( 1 )) 1- O! PEOPLE! BEWARE OF YOUR LORD WHO CREATED YOU FROM A SINGLE PERSON, AND FROM HIM CREATED HIS MATE, AND FROM THE COUPLE SCATTERED MANY MEN AND WOMEN. AND BEWARE OF ALLAH THROUGH WHOM YOU DEMAND ONE OF ANOTHER, (AND ALSO BEWARE OF CUTTING AND UNTYING) THE TIES OF RELATIONSHIP - THAT ALLAH IS EVER WATCHING OVER YOU!

THE COMMENTARY
SOME INTRODUCTORY REMARKS


Before we proceed on the commentary, we think it necessary to give our esteemed reader a few notes about this chapter (4) which is named after the WOMEN.

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A- The chapter of WOMEN is the second one in the length of words and sentences. (THE COW IS THE LONGEST IN QUR?N). It revealed in Medina, and consists of 176 verses.

B- It is named the chapter of WOMEN, for dealing with various LAWS, commandments and discussion about the women, such as their family rights, marriage ties, and their inheritance rules.

C- Broadly speaking, different discussions of the chapter can be summerised as follows:

1- Calling to faith, justice, and cutting the ties of friendship with stern enemies.

2- Advanture stories of old for giving lessons to Muslims.

3) Supporting the needies, such as the orphans.

4- the LAW of inheritance based on justice and nature.

5- The law of marriage and guarding general modesty and chastity.

6- Introducing the enemies of the Islamic Society, and giving some warnings to Muslims.

7- Islamic government and obeying the leadership.

8- The importance of emigration and cases wherein it necessitates.

CAMPAIGNING AGAINST UNJUST DISTINCTIONS (VERSE NO. 1)

It begins with addressing the whole mankind, calling them to piety and avoiding evil deeds: ``O, people! Beware of your Lord who created you from a single person.''

The Arabic `NAFS' translated here to person, may mean; soul, self, person, but here it implies the first man, that we know him by the name of ADAM, who was the first father of man. Then the verse continues with saying: ``From him, God created his mate.''

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This does not mean that Eve, who was Adam's mate, was created from a part of Adam's body, as it is mentioned clearly in the Biblical story of creation of Eve from the rib of Adam. Hazrat Imam SadiQ (AS) has seriously refuted that view, and has said that: ``Eve was created after Adam and from the remainder of the material and soil from which her husband was created.'' In other word, the verse implies that man and woman are created from the same soil and material: ``And from the couple He scattered so many men and women.'' This phrase of the verse implies that all men and women are the offspring of Adam and Eve, and nothing else has interfered or affected their creation.

Then to put an stress upon piety and God-fearing, once again the verse repeats: ``Beware of Allah! Fear of your Lord! and take care of your duties to Him, that He is ever watching over you.''

After that the verse applies to the ties of relationship and family:

And also beware of cutting the joint of family and untying the ties of relationship.'' And this is a mark that observation of bonds of relationship is one of the most important principles enjoined by the Glorious Qur?n.

HOW DID ADAM'S CHILDREN MARRY?

As we mentioned above, all men and women are the offspring of Adam and Eve, and nothing else has interfered or affected the creation of men and women. If so; there is the question of the marriage of Adam's children. When it is unlawful for sister to marry her brother, what has happened then? And who has been the children's mates? There are two answers to be considered here: 1) In emergency cases, unlawfuls can temporally be considered lawful such as the flesh of swine which is declared unlawful, but if one's life is endangered by starvation and want of food, he may serve to save.

So was the emergency case with Adam's children, and they could

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marry each other for their especial case.

2) According to some Islamic traditions, ADAM, has not been the frist man that has appeared upon the earth. Scientific researches show that man has been living on the globe for several millions of years, while the history of Adam and Eve goes back to a few thousands! Therefore we have to admit that before Adam and Eve there must have been mankind and other human generation living here, and Adam's children could have been married with these pre-human beings. In other word, Adam was not the first human being that was created on the earth. He rather was the first God's elect and apostle, chosen from among those semi-wild human generation that the earth was inhabited by them. And therefore Adam must have been the first civilized, godly man, inspired and given social and religious law and regulations.

(( 2 ))

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 2)


A man from the tribe of BANIGHATF?N, lost his wealthy brother, and as a guardian to his brother's orphan, he took over all that brother left behind.

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When his brother's son reached maturity and became due, the uncle refused to give him his inheritance back. The case was refered to the prophet and the verse (NO. 2) revealed to this effect. When so, the guardian repented and restored the orphan's properties, saying: ``I seek refuge to God from the great sin of devouring orphan's properties.''