Worship Of Individuals Forbidden
 

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The problem of worshipping the individuals like the kings, presidents, rulers, or even the prophets and saints, is strictly forbidden in Islam; for being one of the most dangerous vermins that threat our social progress. Attachment to a certain person, even if it be the Seal of the Prophets (MOHAMMAD (AS)), will give an end to all hopes and efforts, when that mortal passes away. In this connection the Holy Qur?n clearly announces that:

``Mohammad is no more then a Messenger of God. Other messengers have already passed away before him. Should he die or get killed in the war, do you want to recant?'' And if so, you will not harm Allah for the least.'' If you pay more than human honour to any one at any rank, who dies as a mortal, in the sight of your eternal, ever living Lord, Who watches over you and over all; by that you spoil your soul, and stop the wheels of your prosperity. The verse ends by a mention of those few heroes of distinguished valors, who stayed at the side of the prophet and fought bravely: ``And very soon will Allah reward and recompense those thanks givers.'' VERSE NO. 145

The baseless rumour that the prophet was slain in the field, as we said, frightened all Muslims, and they ran away from the battle-field, and even some of them thought to recant! This verse was sent down to admonish them that, firstly they should know that no one will die without permission of God. The lives of people are all a term fixed and recorded in a book. Even if the prophet was slain in the battle-field it was not something unnatural, or in contrast with the Divine rules and regulations. On the other hand, to escape from a battle is not to escape from death, so also taking part in a battle does not push forward the warrior's death. And this is also a fact that, one who takes part in a

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war, endangers only his own life, but he who escapes from the field, endangers the life of all the army! The verse ends in that; the endeavour and efforts of man will not be wasted or blotted out. It merely depends upon the aim and purpose of the warrior: If he has a material goal, like the archers at Ohud who deserted their battle - posts for the sake of plunder, they might have got some booty; but they put themselves and the whole of their army into jeopardy. Contrary to these, are those who fight with firmness and full discipline for the cause of God; their reward is swift and sure. If they die they get the crown of martyrdom. And if they live, they are heroes honoured in this life and the next.

(( 146 ))

146- AND MANY LARGE ARMIES OF GODLY MEN, HAVE FOUGHT BY THE SIDE OF THEIR PROPHET; AND THEY NEVER DISMAYED BY WHAT BEFELL THEM ON THE WAY OF ALLAH, AND NEITHER THEY WEAKENED, NOR DID THEY GIVE IN, AND ALLAH LOVES THE PATIENTS.

(( 147 ))

147- AND THEIR WORD WAS NOT OTHERS THAN: ``OUR LORD! FORGIVE US OUR SINS, AND OUR EXCESSES IN OUR AFFAIRS, AND MAKE FIRM OUR STEPS, AND GIVE US VICTORY OVER THE UNBELIEVERS.

(( 148 ))

148- SO ALLAH GAVE THEM THE REWARD OF THIS WORLD,

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AND THE FAIRER REWARD OF THE WORLD TO COME, AND ALLAH LOVES THE GOOD-DOERS

THE COMMENTARY
THE FORMER STRIVERS ( VERSE NO. 146)


Following the admonitions and warnings, this is to encourage Muslims to be brave and patient in the hardships and troubles by reference to the records of the early strivers in the way of God: ``And many large armies of the Godly and faithful men, have fought by the side of their prophet without being dismayed and weakened through hardship and misfortune that befell them in the way of God, and yet they never weakened nor gave up, and Allah loves the patients.'' VERSE NO. 147

The early Godly warriors, when due to their mistakes or weak points, were afflicted by some failure or misfortune; when depressed in spirit or courage, instead of wavering or thinking of recantation, they sought refuge to God, and prayed sincerely for His Forgiveness saying: ``Our Lord! Forgive us ours sins, and our excesses in our affairs and make firm our steps, and give us victory over the infidels.'' VERSE NO. 148

By such method of thinking and manner of believing, they would get their rewards from their Lord in this life and in the next - a reward sure and swift, because Allah loves the good - doers.

(( 149 ))

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149- O, YOU WHO BELIEVE! IF YOU OBEY THE UNBELIEVERS, THEY WILL TURN YOU BACK UPON YOUR HEELS, THEN YOU WILL BECOME LOSERS. (( 150 ))

150- (DON'T THINK THAT THE INFIDELS WILL SUPPORT YOU) BUT ALLAH IS; YOUR PROTECTOR, AND HE IS THE BEST OF HELPERS. (( 151 ))

151- SOON SHALL WE CAST TERROR INTO THE HEARTS OF THE UNBELIEVERS FOR THEIR ASSOCIATING WITH ALLAH WHAT FOR WHICH HE SENT NOT ANY AUTHORITY. AND THEIR ABODE WILL BE THE FIRE, AND WHAT A BAD PLACE IS THE ABODE OF THE OPPRESSORS. (POLYTHIESM IS THE GREATEST OF OPPRESSION)

THE COMMENTARY
REPEATED NOTICES (VERSE NO. 149)


At the end of the battle of Ohud, when the enemy left the field and went away, the internal enemies of Islam and especially the hypocrites and the jews raised many new questions and started with a series of poisonous propaganda in the form and beneath the cover of sympathy, and showing feeling of pity for the suffering of others, and through that they sowed the seeds of variance and disunion, and

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induced in people a pessimistic view of Islam. So the verse is to admonish Muslims, and warn them not to lend their ears to enemy's suggestion, and disobey not their prophet, and leave such disputes which are the causes of losing courage. O, you who believe! if you follow the infidels and obey them, they will drive you back to blasphemy and recantation, and in that deal, you will be the losers!''

And what a loss can be greater and the worst than giving faith for blasphemy, prosperity for adversity, and truth for falsehood? VERSE NO. 150

Then stress is put on relying only upon the support of Allah, and to know that He is our only protector and that He is the best of Helpers. So we shouldn't rely on this and that for protection, and waver here and there to obtain some false supports. Our Lord is that protector who never fails, and no power can overcome His power. VERSE NO. 151

This refers to the miraculous rescue of Muslims from a sure rout or defeat, due to a fright and feeling of a sudden and mysterious fear that was induced in the hearts of the heathens: Soon shall we cast terror in the hearts of the infidels.'' The next phrase of the verse points to the cause of that terror, which was their polytheistic belief:

``For their associating with Allah that, for which Allah sent not any authority.'' The verse then ends in showing the unbelievers' final destiny and destination, which is the Fire of Hell! ``And indeed a bad abode is that of the oppressors.''



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(( 152 )) 152- AND ALLAH FULFILLED HIS PROMISE TO YOU (TO MAKE YOU VICTORIOUS IN OHUD) WHEN BY HIS LEAVE YOU SLEW THEM, UNTIL YOU ENFEEBLED, AND DISPUTED ABOUT THE ORDER, AND DISOBEYED IT, AFTER HE HAD SHOWN YOU THAT WHICH YOU LOVE. AMONG YOU ARE SOME WHO INTEND THIS WORLD, AND OF YOU ARE SOME WHO INTEND THE LAST. THEN HE DIVERTED YOU FROM THEM, (FROM YOUR FOES) IN ORDER TO TEST YOU. AND HE FORGAVE YOU, AND ALLAH IS GRACIOUS TO THE FAITHFULS.

(( 153 )) 153- WHEN YOU WERE GOING UP (YOU FLED IN PANIC AND WERE GOING UP THE MOUNTAIN OF OHUD) WITHOUT CASTING A GLANCE TO ANY ONE, AND THE MESSENGER WAS CALLING YOU IN YOUR REAR. THEN SMOTE YOU GRIEF AFTER GRIEF, THAT YOU MAY NOT SORROW FOR WHAT ESCAPED YOU (OF BOOTY) AND NEITHER FOR THE ILL THAT HAD BEFALLEN YOU, AND ALLAH IS AWARE OF WHATEVER YOU DO.



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(( 154 ))

154- THEN AFTER THE SORROW HE SENT DOWN SECURITY UPON YOU, A SLUMBER OVERCOMING A PARTY OF YOU, WHILE ANOTHER PARTY WERE WORRYING ABOUT THEIR SELVES, (SO MUCH SO THAT THEY COULDN'T GO TO ASLEEP) THINKING UNJUST AND PAGANISH THOUGHT ABOUT ALLAH; SAYING: `IS ANYTHING OF THIS AFFAIR FOR US?' SAY: `THE AFFAIR BELONGS TO ALLAH ENTIRELY. (EVERYTHING IS IN THE HANDS OF ALLAH.) THEY CONCEAL IN THEMSELVES THAT WHICH THEY NOT REVEAL TO YOU .... THEY SAY: `HAD WE ANYTHING OF THE AFFAIRS (ABOUT WHICH ALL DECISIONS WERE TAKEN BY ALLAH AND HIS MESSENGER- T.N.) WE WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN SLAIN HERE.' (IN THE BATTLE - FIELD OF OHUD) SAY: `EVEN IF YOU WERE IN YOUR HOUSES, THOSE FOR WHOM SLAYING WAS PRESCRIBED, WOULD BE OUT, TO GO TO THEIR GRAVES NEVERTHELESS.' (THEY WOULD BE SLAIN ANYHOW!) AND THAT ALLAH MIGHT TEST WHAT WAS IN YOUR BREASTS, AND THAT HE MIGHT PURGE WHAT WAS IN YOUR HEARTS. AND ALLAH KNOWS WHATEVER IS IN THE CHESTS.

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THE COMMENTARY
DEFEAT AFTER VICTORY (VERSE NO. 152)


As we have already stated; in the beginning the battle of OHUD went on favour of Muslims. They slew many of their enemies, and the rest were withdrawing from action, when the Muslim archers who were ordered strictly to maintain discipline and leave not their posts; they disobeyed the prophet's order, and ran in pursuit, attracted by the prospect of booty and plunder! Here the enemy's cavalry took advantage of the opening left by the archers, and after a severe hand-to-hand fight, they killed more than seventy Muslims, and injured many more than that, but in spite of all that, there was not a rout, due to the mettle, wisdom, and managing power of Mohammad.(AS).

When Muslims were returning back from Ohud to Medina, they were engaged in some dispute that: `Allah had given them the promise for their success, and victory, but His promise had not been carried out!' The above verse (No. 152) revealed to answer such childish questions or foolish objections, that some of the hypocrites or simple - minded put forth on discussion, and also to explain the causes of Muslim's failure in that war:

``Allah did fulfill His promise of giving you victory, when you slew them by His leave, and made them to run away and escape in panic.'' God's promise was on work until you observed discipline and order, obeying your leader. But you should never think that victory comes for nothing and ON NO condition! You could have the final victory provided you had followed the orders and observed the necessary discipline which had been made incumbent upon you by your Lord:

But when you saw what you loved (of success and booty) you disputed about the command of your commander and disobeyed it.'' It was that disorder and disobedience of yours that caused your failure and defeat; but at last through His Extensive Mercy, Allah forgave you that and prevented your annihilation.

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VERSE NO. 153

When the enemy's cavalry, commanded by KHALID-VALID, were dashing forward through the gaps in the passes, where Muslim archers should have been; attacked from the rear; those who were chasing the enemy and engaged in collecting booty. They were struck with astonishment, and severely confused, and in a state of panic they scattered here and there, and some of them tried to gain the hills. They had a double loss of being balked of their prey which was the booty, and also having their own lives, and the lives of their whole army endangered! The Muslims, who were running in panic, had hardly time to think of anything other than their own life, and hence the verse:

``When you were going up (the hills in panic) and the Messenger was calling you from behind, (but none of you listened to his call, nor took notice of him) therefore grief upon grief smote and seized you, to tell you not to be anxious for the booty you lost or for the wounds that touched you.''

VERSE NO. 154

The night after the battle was a painful and sad night, full of sorrow, repentance, and anxiety - Some of Muslims had shown a great courage and mettle, and had fought so bravely that their enemies felt a deep fear in their hearts and withdrew to their camps; but still some of the Muslims felt anxiety and fear for expecting the enemy to renew their attack. Then there was a lull - the wounded could have a rest. Those who had fought a hard fight were so tired that soon a kind sleep overcame their eyes:

``Then after the sorrow Allah sent down security upon you - a slumber overtook a party of you, while another band of you were still anxious about their life!'' These were thinking of nothing but to save their own lives. They said to one another: ``In spite of this our painful and hopeless condition how can we expect a victory?''

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They were thinking unjust thoughts, and cherishing Paganish ideas about Allah; that: ``If we had anything of the affair in our control, we would not have been slain here.'' As if they thought their defeat in Ohud was a reason that Islam was not the truth from God! The answer of QUR?N was that: ``Everything, and all your affairs lay in the hands of God, and even if you were in your houses instead of being in the battle-field, those for whom slaying was prescribed, would be out to get killed and to go to their graves.''

This incidents should have happened for a test to reveal what was hidden in the hearts, and also to purge and purify the minds of the believers from unbecoming ideas about Allah and the truth though Allah knows whatever is hidden in the chests of people.

(( 155 ))

155- THOSE OF YOU WHO RAN AWAY THE DAY IN WHICH THE TWO HOSTS ENCOUNTERED; WERE SEDUCED BY SATAN, ON ACCOUNT OF SOME EVIL THEY HAD DONE. BUT ALLAH HAS PARDONED THEM; THAT ALLAH IS FORGIVING, FORBEARING.

THE COMMENTARY
EVERY SIN IS A SOURCE OF ANOTHER SIN (VERSE NO. 155)


This verse reveals another fact that man's slides due to Satanic seductions, are the effects of former sins; because Satanic temptations will have no effect upon a pure and clear believing heart:

``Those of you who ran away in the battle of Ohud, were seduced by Satan, on account of some bad deeds they had done.'' Of course they were not as bad as the hypocrites who took away their forces before the encounter, or

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those who raided against Allah and His Messenger, or even those archers who thoughtlessly disobeyed the prophet's command, but still they have failed in their duty, and committed a heinous sin by running away, and yet we see that the Merciful Lord has forgiven them, to give them a chance for amendment.

(( 156 ))

156- O, YOU WHO BELIEVE! BE NOT LIKE THOSE WHO DISBELIEVE, AND SAID IN THEIR BROTHERS WHEN THEY TRAVELED IN THE EARTH, (UPON EXPEDITIONS) OR WERE ENGAGED IN A FIGHTING; HAD THEY BEEN WITH US, THEY WOULD NOT HAVE DIED, NOR WOULD THEY HAVE BEEN KILLED!

THAT ALLAH MAY TURN THAT TO A REGRET IN THEIR HEARTS. IT IS ALLAH THAT GIVES LIFE AND DEATH, AND ALLAH SEES WHATEVER YOU DO. (( 157 ))

157- AND IF YOU SHOULD BE SLAIN OR DIE IN THE WAY OF ALLAH; FORGIVENESS AND MERCY FROM ALLAH IS BETTER THAN THAT WHICH YOU AMASS. (( 158 ))

158- IF YOU SHOULD DIE OR BE SLAIN - TO ALLAH SHALL YOU BE MUSTERED.

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THE COMMENTARY
THE HYPOCRITE'S EXPLOITATION (VERSE NO. 156)


The incident of Ohud provided a ground for the enemies of Islam to spray poisons, which caused the revelation of several verses, in order to neutralize such poisonous propagandas: ``O, you who believe! Be not like the unbelievers who said in their brothers, when they travelled for an expedition or were engaged in a fighting in the way of Allah; if they had stayed with us at home, they would not have died or been killed there!'' Such wrong suggestions or ideas, is due to want of faith, and nothing can happen without God's will, because it is Allah that gives life and death, and sees whatever we do.

VERSE NO. 157

The keys of life and death are in the hands of God. If God's will wants you to die; your staying at home will not spare you. If on the other hand, God's will is that you should live, danger will bring nothing to you but glory and reputation. VERSE NO. 158

In the sight of man of faith, death is not annihilation or reducing to nothing. It means rather a new beginning to a more important and glorious world. The faithful knows that death will drive him nearer to his beloved and Merciful Lord: ``If you die or be slain for the cause of Allah, you all shall be mustered and brought together. There you shall meet with all your dear ones in faith, and you will have a surer reunion than is possible down here.''

(( 159 ))

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159- IT WAS DUE TO A MERCY FROM ALLAH THAT YOU WERE MILD TO THEM. HAD YOU BEEN HARSH OR HARD HEARTED, THEY WOULD HAVE SCATTERED FROM AROUND YOU. SO PARDON THEM, AND PRAY FORGIVENESS FOR THEM AND TAKE COUNSEL WITH THEM IN AFFAIR, AND WHEN YOU ARE RESOLVED, (BE SERIOUS AND) PUT YOUR TRUST IN ALLAH, THAT ALLAH LOVES THOSE THAT TRUST HIM.

(( 160 ))

160- IF ALLAH HELPS YOU, NONE CAN OVERCOME YOU; AND IF HE FORSAKES YOU (REFUSE TO HELP YOU) WHO THEN CAN HELP YOU AFTER HIM? AND UPON ALLAH SHOULD THE BELIEVERS RELY. (PUT THEIR TRUSTS)

THE COMMENTARY
THE GRANT OF AMNESTY (GENERAL PARDON)
(VERSE NO. 159)


When the war of Ohud was over, those who had fled from the field came back to the prophet with repentance, and begged his pardon, and asked him to pray for God's forgiveness too. The prophet who has the title of: `A MERCY TO ALL CREATION'; through his kind and gentle behaviour, declared amnesty and pardoned them all, and accepted their repentance: ``It was by the Mercy of Allah that you became clement and gentle to them. Had you been harsh and rigorous to them they would have scattered from about you.''

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Following the general pardon, in order to cherish their personality and to maintain their prestige, the verse wants the prophet to take counsel with them in the affair. Being mild and gentle in consultation is a virtue but when decision has been taken, one should be resolute and serious in action: ``Pardon them and pray forgiveness for them, and take counsel with them in the affair, but when you are resolved, then be serious, and put your trust in Allah.''

This verse also implies that relying on God, and putting trust on Him is in a stage after consultation, and making use of natural means and provisions.

THE RESULT OF RELIANCE ON GOD (VERSE NO. 160)

This verse implies the soul and fruit of reliance on God ... Allah's power and abilities is superior to that of all. If He give you a hand, no one can ever subdue or suppress you, and if He forsakes you, and refuses to help you; who then can help you against His will? Therefore upon Allah should the believers rely.

THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSULTATION

Although our prophet was connected to the Divine Inspirations, and had the title of: ``THE GENERAL OR WHOLE WISDOM he always enjoined consultation in the affairs, and did it himself practically. A quotation of his saying is: `When your rulers are the best ones from among you, and your rich persons are generous, and your actions and works are by consultation, being on the ground (alive) is better for you than being under ground (dead). On the contrary; When your rulers are the worst of you, and your wealthy ones are stingy, and you avoid consulting each other, being under ground, (DEAD) is better for you than being over it! (alive).''

UMAR'S CONSULTING COUNCIL

When UMAR, the second khalif of Islamic world was in his death-bed, he held a council of six Muslims from among his

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companions in order to decide on, and choose a successor for him or the third Khalif as he was called. Some of the Sonni Commentators (followers of UMAR) have reckoned that consulting council of UMAR something in accordance with the verse of consultation (No. 159). Although this subject is a religious tenet and a principle of belief, and should be dealt with elsewhere, here we mention a few points in this account:

1- Choosing a vicegerent or a successor for the prophet of God, is none of man's business, because the prophet's successor, or what we call an Imam, is an infallible and innocent man, whom God will elect and introduce to people, (and not a council of six laymen.)
On other word, just, as one man cannot choose a prophet for God, so also he cannot decide on the successor of the Messenger of God.

2- The council of six persons, was not at all conformed with the principles of consultation, the Qur?n could approve; because:

* - If the object was to consult all Muslims, what does it mean to consult with only six of them?

* - And if the aim was to consult with men of thought, knowledge and wisdom in the Muslim community, why did UMAR not call the men such as SALMAN, ABUZAR, IBN-ABBASS and etc. Who were the nearer advisors and dearer companions of the prophet? Restricting that council that was the most important one at the time, to only six persons of the lower religious class, was nothing more than forming a political faction to cover the truth by falsehood or diplomacy, which is an artful management in securing advantages without arousing hostility.

* - Even if one should say: `UMAR chose six of the influentials and potents, whose views could be accepted by the majority of Muslims; still this is wrong, because personalities such as SAAD-IBN-EBADEH, who was the despotic headmaster of the helpers (ANS?R) and ABUZAR who was

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the absolute chief of the tribe of GHAFFAR, were excluded from the council!

3- After all; for that consultation very hard and dangerous conditions and terms had been established by UMAR! As an instance; those who were not in harmony with that council were threatened to death, and UMAR had strictly ordered them to be beheaded! This is while in Islamic consultation there is no room or meaning for such threats. (and wild behaviours)

(( 161 ))

161- AND NO PROPHET CAN EVER BETRAY. (IF YOU THINK THAT THEY MAY) AND WHOEVER BETRAYS, WILL COME WITH HIS BETRAYAL WITH HIM IN DOOMS DAY; THEN EVERY SOUL SHALL BE PAID IN FULL WHAT IT HAS EARNED, AND THEY SHALL NOT BE OPPRESSED.

THE COMMENTARY
NO BETRAYAL OF ANY KIND ( VERSE NO. 161)


When the archers in Ohud, proceeded to desert their posts in their craving for booty; their commander told them not to do so; because the prophet will consider you and your share in division of the spoils. The commander stayed firm until he was martyred, but some of the archers with low motives, showed suspicion and doubt about the prophet's division of the spoils, and left their battle-posts! To this effect this verse was sent down to say: ``Do you really think that the prophet may divide the spoils unjustly and betray you in your share of booty!? Not so! not

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ever so! `No prophet can ever betray.'' And in particular the prophet of Islam, Mohammad, who besides his gentleness of nature and adherence to justice, was known from his earliest life for his trustworthiness; so much so that his people and citizens gave him the title of `Amin' which means the trustworthy.

Of course it is evident that betrayal of any kind, and from anyone, is a bad characteristic and morally condemned, be it from a saint or a layman, but because the hypocrites, and objecters, in relation with the failure in Ohud aimed at the prophet, the verse begins with exonerating the prophet saying: ``NO prophet will, and can, ever betray anyone in anything.'' And as for those other than the apostles who may betray; they will come on the stage of the Dooms Day, carrying the burden of their betrayal with them, and have to give an account of it. There in the Resurrection every soul shall be paid in full what it has done or earned, and no one shall be oppressed the least in the final judgement. To say it in other word; men of God do not act from unworthy motives, and should not be judged by the same standards that are used on the men of greed.

(( 162 ))

162- IS THEN HE WHO FOLLOWS THE CONSENT OF ALLAH, LIKE HIM WHO HAS INCURRED A WRATH FROM ALLAH, AND WHOSE ABODE IS HELL, AND THE WORST DESTINATION? (( 163 ))

163- FOR THEM IS VARYING GRADES WITH ALLAH, AND ALLAH SEES WHAT THEY DO.

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THE COMMENTARY
THOSE WHO TOOK NO PART IN THE SACRED WAR
(VERSE NO. 162)


Now the reference is made to the hypocrites, and those Muslims who were weak in mind and faith, who took no part in the sacred defensive war of Ohud. Here the object is that the two parties - those who followed the consent of Allah, and those who incurred the wrath of Allah upon themselves, are not alike and equal in rank and grade.

VERSE NO. 163

Each of the two said parties are not equal and alike. For the hypocrites and for the strivers in the way of Allah, there are varying grades and rank in the sight of Allah, and He can see them and see whatever they do.

164- INDEED ALLAH CONFERRED A GREAT FAVOUR ON THE BELIEVERS, WHEN HE RAISED AMONG THEM A MESSENGER FROM THEMSELVES, WHO RECITES TO THEM HIS SIGNS (REVELATIONS), AND PURIFIES THEM, AND TEACHES THEM THE BOOK AND WISDOM; WHILE BEFORE, THEY WERE IN MANIFEST ERROR.