The Most Dangerous Stage in The Battle Of Ohud
 

At the end of the battle of OHUD, the victorious army of the idolaters returned back to Mecca at once and with an amazing speed, as if a great and powerful fresh army was after them! they travelled up to a distance of 15 miles from Medina, and stayed there in order to avoid giving any ground for the impression that they were fleeing from the Muslims. There; Abusofyan, their commander had a chance to think over the matters, and came to know how bad their hurry and return in confusion was! He seriously thought of returning to Medina the town of the prophet. In the next morning by the guidance of Allah, the Messenger of God issued an emergency commandment that:

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``Those who had taken part in the battle of OHUD had to set out urgently in pursuit of the enemy!'' This was a good demonstration of power, for overawing the enemy and inspiring the defeated Muslims with confidence. The Muslims set out of Medina and came as far as HAMR?OLASAD, some eight miles from Medina. HAZRAT IMAM ALI (AS) was badly injured and had more than sixty wounds, small or big upon his body when he heard of the new command. In spite of his strength completely impaired, the Lion of God got up, dressed some of his more dangerous wounds and joined the Muslim forces in time! Most of the Muslim warriors were wounded and completely exhausted, but they did not want to disobay God and His Messenger.

ABUSOFYAN the commander of the heathens, was informed that the prophet's army are chasing them and have approached very near! He was struck with astonishment, and a mysterious fear seized him all over. He thought for a while and then issued an order of decampment. His troops at once and immediately moved on and escaped, leaving some of their heavy things and equipments behind. They made for Mecca with utmost haste and in confusion! When the news of their flee reached the Muslim camp, the prophet predicted that in future GHOREISH will never get another victory like their's in the battle of OHUD. Later on the prophet's prediction proved right and was found true. the above verses revealed in such that critical state to encourage the believers and infuse new blood in their veins and new movement in their blood.

(( 128 ))

128- NONE OF THE MATTERS IS UP TO YOU, (TO DECIDE ON) WHETHER HE TURNS IN MERCY TO THEM, OR PUNISHES THEM, FOR THEY ARE OPPRESSORS.

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THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 128)


When in the battle of OHUD the prophet's tooth was knocked out of his mouth, and his forehead was injured, and muslims were defeated; the Messenger of God became very anxious about the polytheists and idolaters, thinking how could they be guided while doing so with their apostle?! He said: ``How can a people like these prosper when they do such and such to their apostle who calls them to their Lord!'' This verse revealed to give consolation to the apostle.

COMMENTS

Various comments have been made on this verse, but one thing is clear enough; that it came down after the battle of OHUD, and it is related to that war. The incident of OHUD carries great lessons that, God's help will come if we believe in him, and be obedient to his commands and have discipline and patience. If we fail; His Mercy is always open to us, but we should know that it is also open to our enemy, and all his creatures.

(( 129 )) 129- TO ALLAH BELONGS ALL THAT IS IN THE HEAVENS AND IN THE EARTH. HE FORGIVES WHOM HE WILL (DUE TO THEIR MERITS) AND PUNISHES WHOM HE WILL. (FOR THEIR SINS) AND ALLAH IS THE MOST-FORGIVING THE COMPASSIONATE

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THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 129


In fact, this is an emphasis on the preceding verse, saying: ``Forgiveness or punishment is not in the control and hand of the prophet. It is rather through the will of God, that one is pardoned or punished according to their merits and deservedness.'' Creation is His. He owns everything. He is the planner and the Manager, and only He Has the right of punishing or pardoning. The great Commentator TABARSI has written; a scholar was asked: ``Why does god punish a sinner in spite of His infinite Mercy that is?!'' The scholar answered: ``God's Mercy will not overcome or vanquish His wisdom. God's Mercy does not arise from sensations and sympathy like that of man. His Mercy is always mingled with His Wisdom, which necessitates to punish the wrong doers, except in certain cases.''

(( 130 )) 130- O, YOU WHO BELIEVE! DEVOUR NOT USURY, DOUBLED AND REDOUBLED, AND BEWARE OF ALLAH THAT YOU MAY PROSPER.

(( 131 )) 131- AND GUARD YOURSELVES AGAINST THE FIRE WHICH IS PREPARED FOR THE UNBELIEVERS.

(( 132 )) 132- AND OBEY ALLAH AND THE MESSENGER THAT YOU MAY BE TREATED MERCIFULLY.

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THE COMMENTARY
UNLAWFULNESS OF USURY (VERSE NO. 130)


This one plus the next eight verses, consist of a series of economical, social, and educational brief outlines. First of all the believers are addressed and said to them: ``Devour not usury with compound interests, and know that prosperity is not in greed, but rather in giving.'' USURY was deeply rooted in trades and social affairs of the Pagan Arabs, and the Holy Qur?n proceeded to cut it down gradually and in four steps or stages:

1- In the verse; S 30: 39 it has sufficed with a piece of ethical advice that: ``Whatever you get out of usury in order to increase the property of people, it shall not increase with Allah. But whatever you give in charity, desiring Allah's pleasure, you shall have it manifold.''

2- In the verse; S 4:161 USURY is declared as one of the ugly and offensive customs of the Jews: ``And their taking usury though they were forbidden it. And their devouring the properties of people falsely ...''

3- In the verse; S 2: 275-9, all sorts of usury has been forbidden and declared unlawful and is equal to fight against God: ``Those who devour usury cannot arise except as one whom Satan by his touch has driven to madness. That is because they say; trade is like usury....''

O, you who believe! Fear Allah and give up what remains of your demands for usury ... And if you do it not, then take notice of war from Allah and His apostle.''

4- And at last, through this verse (S 3: 130) the unlawfulness of USURY is clearly announced, and one sort of usury which is the worst of all has been referred to, and that is the progressive interest of usury - doubled and redoubled in which the interest is regularly added to the principal, and it is called the COMPOUND INTEREST.

VERSE NO. 131

Once again in this verse, the stress is put on piety and avoiding evil: ``Guard yourselves against the Fire which is prepared for the unbelievers.'' [ 415 ]

VERSE NO. 132

Following the above threat, here is an encouragement that: ``If you obey Allah and His Messenger, you will have God's Mercy and salvation.'' (( 133 )) 133- AND HASTEN TO FORGIVENESS FROM YOUR LORD, AND THE PARADISE, THE WIDTH OF WHICH IS THAT OF THE HEAVENS AND EARTH, PREPARED FOR THOSE WHO AVOID EVIL.

(( 134 )) 134- THOSE WHO SPEND IN CHARITY ALIKE IN PROSPERITY AND IN ADVERSITY, AND THOSE WHO RESTRAIN ANGER, AND FORGIVE PEOPLE, AND ALLAH LOVES THE GOOD-DOER.

(( 135 )) 135- AND THOSE WHO WHEN COMMITTED AN INDECENCY, OR WRONGED THEMSELVES, REMEMBERED ALLAH AND BEGGED HIS PARDON FOR THEIR SINS - AND WHO CAN FORGIVE SINS EXCEPT ALLAH? AND THEY DO NOT KNOWINGLY PERSIST IN WHAT THEY HAVE DONE.

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(( 136 )) 136- THEY ARE THOSE WHOSE REWARD IS SALVATION FROM THEIR LORD, AND GARDENS (OF BLISS) BENEATH WHICH STREAMS FLOW, THEREIN ARE THEY FOR EVER.

THE COMMENTARY
THE RACE TO WIN PROSPERITY (VERSE NO. 133)


After threatening the unbelievers and evil-doers, and encouraging the believers and good doers; mention is made of an spiritual race to win prosperity: ``Hasten to forgiveness and salvation from your Lord.'' Reaching an spiritual rank and dignity needs piety and salvation first, and then the destination shall be settled, which is the paradise, the width of which is that of the heavens and earth. Therefore, don't you ever think of Paradise as an enclosed material garden which lays somewhere in one of the plannets in the skies, that as the verse states, it is as wide as the heavens and the earth!

THE COUNTENANCE OF THE VIRTUOUS (VERSE NO.134)

In the preceding verse the virtuous people were promised to live in the Eternal Paradise. In this verse the virtuous is described and introduced with four characteristics as follows:

1- They spend in charity and alms in all conditions, be they poor or rich.

It is remarkable that the first qualification of the virtuous, has been mentioned as giving alms, and spending for charity, which is contrary and opposite to the ugly and offensive custom of devouring usury.

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2- They restrain their rage and anger.

3- They forgive people their wrongs.

Restraining the anger is good, but not enough, because rancour and hatred may remain in the depth of one's heart as a glowing piece of fire beneath the ashes. Therefore taking in, the rage, and restraining the anger, should accompany with forgiveness to bear sweet fruit. 4-They are good-doers, and Allah loves those who do good.

VERSE NO. 135

When they commit an indecency or do something wrong, they remember God, and beg his pardon for their sins. This implies that as far as a servant remembers God, he will do no wrong and will commit no sin. And that, the forgetfulness in the righteous, and men of piety is something temporary and lasts no long, because sooner or later they call Allah to mind, and beg His pardon for their sins and correct their wrongs and amend their faults and deeds. In other word: When the righteous finds himself fallen into sin or error, he will not lose hope and persist in doing that, but repents and returns to God, asking His Forgiveness. The faith of the virtuous encourages him in that blessed return.

VERSE NO. 136

In this verse the reward of the righteous has been described, which is salvation from their Lord, and the eternal garden of bliss, beneath which streams flow for their abode - an excellent recompense for those who have worked well.

(( 137 ))
137- MANY WERE THE WAYS OF LIFE BEFORE YOU THAT PASSED AWAY. THEREFORE TRAVEL IN THE EARTH AND

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OBSERVE HOW WAS THE END OF THOSE BELIERS. (( 138 ))

138- THIS IS A DECLARATION FOR PEOPLE, AND A GUIDANCE, AND ADMONITION FOR THE VIRTUOUS.

THE COMMENTARY
STUDYING THE PAST HISTORY (VERSE NO. 137)


The Glorious Qur?n holds the connection of the thoughts and culture of the present generation, with that of those who have passed away, as something very necessary. This is because, that connection will make clear the duties and responsibilities of the future generation: ``Many were the ways and methods of life before you that have passed away.''

By studying those ways of life, it can clearly be seen and sensed that some people have had great progress due to their faith and good deeds, and for avoiding evil through piety. On contrary, some have had destruction, and declination, through their faithlessness, and evil-deeds. and all these are recorded in the history of man. From this motive instructions are issued for Muslims, to go on journeys, and travel in the earth, to study the end of those who rejected faith and did evil deeds. VERSE NO. 138

This verse implies that whatever we have said so far are plain statement and clear declarations for all the people, and means of guidance and advices for the virtuous ones who are God-fearing. These advices and instructions are general and useful for every body, but only the virtuous will take lesson, and use them.

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(( 139 )) 139- DISMAY NOT, AND GRIEVE NOT, FOR YOU ARE THE SUPERIOR IF YOU BE FAITHFUL.

(( 140 )) 140- IF (IN THE BATTLE OF OHUD) A WOUND TOUCHED YOU, OF SURETY A SIMILAR WOUND HAD TOUCHED THE OTHERS, AND SUCH DAYS (OF VARYING FORTUNE) WE ALTERNATE THEM BETWEEN PEOPLE, SO THAT ALLAH MAY MAKE KNOWN THOSE WHO (REALLY) BELIEVE, AND TAKE WITNESSE FROM AMONG YOU, AND ALLAH LOVES NOT THE OPPRESSORS.

(( 141 )) 141- AND THAT ALLAH MAY PURGE THOSE THAT ARE TRUE IN FAITH, AND BLOT OUT THE INFIDELS.

(( 142 )) 142- OR DID YOU SUPPOSE YOU WOULD ENTER PARADISE, WHEN ALLAH HAS NOT YET MADE KNOWN THOSE WHO HAVE STRIVED (WHO HAVE FOUGHT FOR THE CAUSE OF ALLAH) FROM AMONG YOU, AND THE PATIENTS.

(( 143 )) 143- AND YOU WERE DESIRING DEATH (IN THE WAY OF ALLAH)

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BEFORE YOU MET IT. THEN YOU SAW IT, AND WERE WATCHING IT. (BUT YOU DID NOT CATCH IT BECAUSE YOUR DEED IS FAR FROM YOUR WORD)

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVEALTION (VERSE NO. 139)


This one, and also the next four verses are the continuation of the argument about the battle of OHUD; which was indeed a great test for the new Muslim community. At the beginning, the battle went well for the Muslims ..... The enemy wavered and were at the verge of defeat, when the Muslims archers in disobedience of their orders, left their battle-posts, in order to join in the pursuit and to share in the booty. Soon the enemy managed to take advantage of opening left by the archers, and there was a severe hand-to-hand fighting in which numbers told in the favour of the heathens - Many of the Companions of the prophet, and his Helpers of Medina were martyred, but fortunately there was no rout. Among the Muslim martyrs, mutilated, was the brave faithful HAMZEH the prophet's uncle in father side. the Messenger of God himself was wounded in the forehead, and one of his front teeth was knocked out.

In the same night the prophet proceeded to recognize the mutilated martyrs and bury them with religious ceremonies, He sat besides their corpse shedding tears and burried them with grievance at the battle-field, at the foot of the OHUD mountain. It was in such that critical state, in which Muslims were deeply in need of coolness, courage and hope that these verses were sent down.

THE RESULTS OF THE BATTLE OF OHUD

Through this verse, (No. 139) God had admonished Muslims

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that they should take lessons of their success, as well as their failure, and through the lessons amend and make well all their weak points: ``Dismay not, and grieve not, for you are the superior if you be faithful.''
VERSE NO. 140

Here is another lesson to be taken to reach a final success: That is a fight which is for the truth, if you are harmed and injured, you should know that your enemy has also been hurt, and more so because he has no faith to give him hope and keep him up on the foot: ``If a wound has been afflicted you, a similar wound has also afflicted your adversary, therefore there is no room for your excess in grievance and despair.''

Then it refers to another Divine Custom that the sweet and bitter fortunes and misfortunes of life are not durable, and such days and times alternate between people through the plans of God - you had your day and now they have their day, which very soon ceases to be. These are similar to broken beams of light, and only God's light of truth will last long and for ever, and will gain the mastery at the end. Then the verse implies that; by bringing forth such unpleasant events in the life of His servants, God intends to KNOW, i.e. TO MAKE KNOWN, who is who - Who strives and who fights sincerely for the cause; and else who wavers and turns away. This is to distinguish the evil doers from the virtuous and the truth from the falsehood.

A nation that gives no sacrifice for its liberty, independence, and rights, will think little of such virtues, but when he strives hard, and gives high prices for its honour, and existence, that nation's present and future generations will look at such virtues with respect and regards.
VERSE NO. 141

This verse alludes to another natural cause of the Muslim's

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failure in the battle of OHUD in order to reveal the weak points and amend them: ``So that Allah through that incident might purge those who are true in faith, and meanwhile blot out the infidels.'' The purge or separating and carrying off whatever is impure, was in two aspects: 1) It cleared out the hypocrite from the ranks of the Muslim warriors, because in the battle of Ohud there was an open treachery on the part of 300 hypocrites led by ABDULLAH-IBN-ABISELUL who deserted Muslims troops. 2) That bloody failure and effective test strengthened the faith of the weak and wavering, by showing them the worth and value of order and discipline, in the battle-field and in all fields of living.

VERSE NO. 142

This verse applies to the correction of a mistake that Muslims might have had in their minds: ``Do you suppose that you would enter PARADISE without Allah's testing and making known those who have strived from among you and the patients?''

How can we enter the Garden of Bliss, without going into such trials that came - to those who were before us and have passed away. They encountered sufferings and adversities and were so shaken in their hearts and spirits that even their apostles and their followers exclaimed: ``When will the help of Allah come.'' (S 2: 214) VERSE NO. 143

After the incident of BADR, and the honourable martyrdom of some of faithfuls, Muslims held meetings to their memorial, and therein mentioned their names with high esteem and respect. In these meetings and discussions many a Muslim said that he wished he would be a martyr. As it is usual in such cases, some of them were not truthful in their assertions, because at the battle of Ohud they wavered, and run away leaving the prophet alone in the middle of the

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Had it not been for the firmness, courage, coolness and bravery of the prophet and the four or five man and one woman with him, everything would have been lost?: ``And you were desiring death in the way of Allah before you met it. Then you saw it and were watching it!'' You run away leaving the prophet with the enemy!

(( 144 )) 144- AND MOHAMMAD IS NOT EXCEPT A MESSENGER. THAT, OTHER MESSENGERS HAVE (ALREADY) PASSED AWAY BEFORE HIM. IF HE SHOULD DIE OR BE SLAIN, WILL YOU THEN TURN BACK ON YOUR HEELS (RECANT)? AND IF ANY ONE SHOULD (RECANT AND) TURN ABOUT ON HIS HEELS, HE WILL NOT HARM ALLAH THE LEAST, AND SOON WILL ALLAH REWARD THE THANKS GIVERS.



(( 145 ))

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145- AND NO ONE CAN DIE EXCEPT BY THE LEAVE OF ALLAH. (EVERY LIFE IS) A TERM FIXED. AND WHOEVER SEEKS THE REWARD OF THIS WORLD, WE SHALL GIVE HIM OF IT, AND WHOEVER SEEKS THE REWARD OF THE LAST, WE SHALL GIVE HIM OF IT. AND SOON WE SHALL RECOMPENSE THE THANKS GIVERS.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 144)


This refers to another incident that happened in the course of the battle of OHUD, when a cry was raised that Mohammad was killed: ``It so happened that, one of the heathens killed MASAAB-IBN-UMEIR, who was the standard bearer of Muslims, and also he had some physical resemblances to the prophet. When so; the heathen exclaimed in strong emotion and a very loud voice that, upon the glory of HOBAL, our great idol, I killed Mohammad! He then ran this way and that, repeating his news happily.''

A confusion and bad disorder followed the announcement, wherein most of the Muslims; even the prophet's near companions (``like OMAR and OTHMAN'') abandoned the prophet and left the battle-field and run away. The Messenger of God was indeed severely wounded, but through his unexampled bravery and faith, his courage and firmness, he saved the Muslim army from a rout. In that sad incident only a very few of the prophet's companions; namely: HAZRAT ALI (AS) - TALHA - ABUDAJJANNEH and NASEEBEH, a water carrier woman stayed at his side and fought bravely. This verse is to reproach and admonish those multitude, and majority who wavered and ran away, leaving the prophet alone in the battle-field for the enemy!