Submission To God's Will is The Soul Of Religion (VERSE NO. 19)
 

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THE COMMENTARY

Following the unity of God, it is applied to the ONENESS of God's religion; saying: ``The true religion with Allah is Islam.'' That is to say; the real and true religion in the sight of Allah is submission to His will, and in any age and time, religion has been nothing save submission to Allah and yielding to right and truth. The verse then refers to the variances of ideas and beliefs; saying: ``The people of the BOOK did not dissent except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them!''

The variance was after knowledge and due to envy and selfish contumacy. As an instance, we may see that besides all the manifest miracles, such as QUR?N, and clear evidences that are found in the very self of Islam, the prophets's signs and symptoms were given in the scriptures, and the sages and rabbis had foretold the advent of Mohammad. When he came to them in person, they found some of their material profits in danger, and denied the Messenger of Allah through envy and out of rebellion. The final fate of such unbelievers is mentioned by the ending of the verse: ``And whoever rejects the signs of Allah - Allah is swift in calling to account.''

(( 20 ))

20- SO IF THEY ARGUE WITH YOU SAY: I HAVE SURRENDERED MYSELF TO ALLAH, AND (SO HAVE) THOSE WHO FOLLOW ME. AND SAY TO THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN GIVEN THE BOOK, AND TO THE GENTILES: `HAVE YOU SURRENDERED? THEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN MUSLIMS (SUBMITTED TO THE WILL OF GOD) THEY

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ARE RIGHTLY GUIDED. AND IF THEY TURN AWAY, YOUR DUTY IS TO CONVEY THE MESSAGE, AND ALLAH SEES THE SERVANTS.

THE COMMENTARY

VERSE NO. 20


The argument proceeds on, now referring to the hot dispute and controversies raised by the people of the scriptures. God says to His messenger: ``If they argue with you tell them; I have surrendered myself to Allah and so have those who follow me.'' Accordingly, the prophet had to stop their arguments and give an end to the useless disputes of the people of the BOOK by saying to them; I have submitted my whole self to Allah, and so have done, and so must do, those who follow me. You too, if submit to the will of God, you are rightly guided. But if you turn in rebellion, then, my duty is only to convey God's Message, and your guidance and acceptance is none of my bussiness.

This verse implies that the way and method of the prophet was not to impose his ideas on others by force majeure and compelling. He would do his best to teach them and make a matter known to them, then he would leave them to think it over and take their decision.

(( 21 ))

21- THOSE WHO DISBELIEVE IN THE SIGNS OF ALLAH AND SLAY THE PROPHETS WITHOUT ANY RIGHT. AND KILL THOSE PEOPLE WHO ENJOIN JUSTICE, GIVE THEM THE TIDINGS OF A PAINFUL TORMENT.

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(( 22 )) 22- THOSE ARE THEY WHOSE (GOOD) WORKS ARE RENDERED INEFECTUAL (BECAUSE OF SUCH HEINOUS SINS) IN THIS WORLD, AND THE LAST. AND THERE IS NO HELPERS FOR THEM.

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 21


The previous verse implied that the Jew, Christians, and Arab Polytheists, who disputed with the prophet were not yielded to the right and truth, and this verse (NO. 21) alludes to three heinous sins of theirs; namely the rejection of faith - slaying the prophets, and killing those people who enjoined justice.

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(Killing the prophets may allude to ZACHARIAS whom they slew between the temple and altar (matt. 23: 35) And also JOHN THE BAPTIST whom they put to jail, then beheaded him and at last his head was presented to a dancing harlot - (MATT 14: 1 -11) They also proceeded to kill Jesus Chirst on the cross, but they failed, and God raised him alive, though some of the Christians still think that Jesus died on the cross to atone for their SINS!) TRANSLATOR'S NOTE VERSE NO. 22

This refers to the punishment decreed for them that, their good works, if they have had any, would fail in this world and in the last, as a result of their heinous sins that they have committed, and they will have no one to help.

(( 23 )) 23- HAVE YOU NOT SEEN THOSE WHO WERE GIVEN A

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SHARE OF THE SCRIPTURE. THEY WERE CALLED TO ACCEPT THE JUDGEMENT OF ALLAH'S BOOK, THEN A GROUP OF THEM TURNED AWAY, SWERVING ASIDE. (( 24 ))

24- THIS IS BECAUSE THEY SAID: `THE FIRE WILL NOT TOUCH US EXCEPT FOR A LIMITED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND THEIR FORGERIES DELUDED THEM IN THEIR RELIGION. (( 25 ))

25- THEN HOW WILL IT BE WHEN WE GATHER THEM FOR A DAY WHEREON IS NO DOUBT (i.e. THE DOOMS DAY) AND EVERY SOUL WILL BE GIVEN WHAT IT HAS EARNED, AND THEY SHALL NOT BE WRONGED.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 23)


IBN-ABBASS has said: ``In the prophet's life time, a Jew and a JEWESS committed adultery. Both of them were eminents and among the grandees, and the chiefs and influential Jews didn't want to penance them, which was stoning according to the Mosaic LAW. A suggestion was to refer that case to our prophet (perhaps the stone could be reduced to lashes) But the prophet appealed to the authority of their own scriptures. They all agreed. Then the prophet ordered that part of the scripture which was about such affairs be opened and rehearsed by a learned Jew whose name was IBN-SURIA.''

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The rabbi who was aware of the whole incident, read the paragraph of the BOOK loudly, and when he reached the phrase of stoning the adulterer, he covered it by his fingers and by-passed the phrase, and jumped the words over! ABDULLAH-IBN-SALAM another learned Jew, who was now a Muslim, was present and noticed how IBN-SURIA prevaricated the verse. He got up and took the scripture and read it correctly and as it was. Then the prophet sentenced the adulterer and the adulteress to death by stoning according to the Mosaic Law (BY WHICH THEY HAD ALSO MARRIED). So to this effect the verse (NO. 23) was revealed.''

As for the phrase: `` (A SHARE OF THE SCRIPTUR), it may imply that during the life time of Mohammad (AS) the scriptures with the Jews and Christians has been only a part or a portion of a whole book, the most of which must have been either lost or tampered with and changed.'' The Jews did not even accept their own Mosaic law and refused to perform the commandment.

VERSE NO. 24

This verse points at the reason of their rejection, which was relying on some vicious ideas and doctrine forged out of their fancies which are not conformed to any reason; such as their false claim that: ``Fire will not touch us except for a number of days!'' It was such forgeries that delluded them in their religion and turned them aside from the straight path of truth. VERSE NO. 25

This verse draws a cancelling red cross over all the forgeries and false ideas that they had fabricated and then ascribed to God and His Revelations; saying: ``But how will they fare when we gather them together for a day about the coming of which there is no doubt?'' The day of Doom in which, each soul will have the consequences of his deeds - good or bad - and its earnings will be given it without being wronged or oppressed.'' In that day, all shall be called to the court of justice and every one is held in pledge of his own deeds. Then they will come to know that they have no advantages over the others.

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(( 26 )) 26- SAY: ``O, ALLAH! OWNER OF THE KINGDOM! YOU GIVE KINGDOM TO WHOM YOU WILL, AND TAKE AWAY THE KINGDOM FROM WHOEVER YOU WILL. YOU EXALT WHOEVER YOU WANT AND ABASE WHOM YOU WILL. IN YOUR HAND LIES THE GOOD, AND YOU HAVE POWER OVER ALL THINGS.

(( 27 )) 27- YOU CAUSE THE NIGHT TO ENTER INTO DAY, AND THE DAY TO ENTER INTO NIGHT. YOU BRING OUT THE LIVING FROM THE DEAD, AND YOU BRING OUT THE DEAD FROM THE LIVING, AND YOU GIVE SUSTENANACE TO WHOM YOU WANT WITHOUT RECKONING.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 26)


After the conquest of Mecca, the prophet gave the glad tiding to Muslims, for their future conquest of Roman Empire and Persian Kingdom! The hypocrites ridiculed the good news and made a laughing - stock of it. To this effect the verse was revealed.

EVERYTHING LIES IN HIS HAND

The verse denies the consecration of the people of the BOOK especially the Israelites who claim to be the elect of God, with the advantage of being immune from the touch of the Fire; saying: ``O, Lord!

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You are the Owner of the kingdom, and everything that exist, You give kingdom to whom you will, and take it away from whom you want. You exalt and abase whoever you like, and in Your hand lies all good.'' To make it short and one word; the key to all the good is in Your hand, for having power over all things. The meaning of the phrase: ``WHOM YOU WILL'' `or `WHOEVER YOU LIKE'' evidently is not so that God's will and want is without account or reason. His will is rather based on wisdom, measure and right. God's will is the standard and scale of good and goodness. And evil is the negation of God's will. His will is done according to His wisdom and His rightful plan. We may not see or comprehend God's whole plan, but we have faith that his plan - whatever it be - is based on wisdom and goodness.

VERSE NO. 27

Following the above meaning here it adds: ``Allah causes the night to enter the day, and he causes the day to emerge out of the night.'' By entering the night into the day and vice versa, we understand the ordinary difference of day and night, light and dark, as well as the variance of them throughout the solar year, due to some 23 degrees which the globe makes in its orbit with its axis. So in every solar year, the night gains on the day after the summer solstice, and the day gains on the night after the winter solstice.

As for the meaning of the phrase: ``He BRINGS OUT THE LIVING FROM THE DEAD'' we understand it to mean the ordinary appearance of the animal life from the inanimate and lifeless materials. The organs in our body continuously change the lifeless material that we eat or drink, into living cells and tissues. So also bringing dead out of the living is something that we always have it before our eyes.

(( 28 ))

28- LET THE BELIEVERS NOT MAKE FRIENDS WITH INFIDELS

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RATHER THAN THE BELIEVERS. HE WHO DOES THAT, HAS NOTHING TO HOPE FOR, FROM ALLAH; UNLESS BY WAY OF PRECAUTION, THAT YOU MAY INTEND TO GUARD YOUR SELVES. (FROM THEM) AND ALLAH WARNS YOU OF HIS SELF, AND TO HIM YOU SHALL RETURN.

THE COMMENTARY
NO CONNECTION WITH INFIDELS (VERSE NO. 28)


We have read in the preceding verse that, both, honour and abjection lie in the hand of God. Now this verse warns Muslims not to make friends with the infidels. It also has a social and political lesson that we should not rely upon the unbelievers as our friends and helpers. Faith is a fundamental tenet with our religion Islam. Therefore our friendship and association must be with those who share our faith in our brotherhood. But there is an exception with the commandment that; where there is the matter of self-defence, and self precautions, assistance of those who share not our faith is permissible. The verse ends in a warning of Allah's wrath and that if we disobey his commands we at last have to return to him:

``The believers should not make friends with the infidels instead of the believers. He who does that has nothing to hope from Allah, except by way of precaution and dissimulation. Allah warns you of His self and to Him you will all return.''

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29- SAY: `WHETHER YOU HIDE WHAT IS IN YOUR HEARTS OR

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REVEAL IT, ALLAH KNOWS IT. AND HE KNOWS WHATEVER IS IN THE HEAVENS AND WHATEVER IS IN THE EARTH. AND ALLAH HAS POWER OVER ALL THINGS. (HE CAN DO WHATEVER HE WANTS)

THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 29


In the preceding verse, an exception of making friends with those who share not our faith, was made; that on the basis of precaution and self - defence, the assistance and friendship of an infidel might be accepted by a Muslim. Here in this verse, (NO. 29) in order to warn people against misusing and misapplying the exception, it is said: ``Whether you hide or reveal the contents of your hearts and minds, it makes no difference for God, Who knows them all - not only all that is hidden in your hearts, but all that is in the heavens and in the earth, God knows them.''

(( 30 ))

30- THE DAY (WILL SURELY COME) WHEN EACH SOUL WILL FIND PRESENT WHAT IT HAS DONE OF GOOD, AND WHAT IT HAS DONE OF EVIL. IT WILL WISH THAT THERE WAS A FAR DISTANCE BETWEEN IT AND ITS EVIL DEEDS. AND ALLAH WARNS YOU OF HIS SELF. AND ALLAH IS COMPASSIONATE TO THE SERVANTS.

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THE COMMENTARY
VERSE NO. 30


This is a complementary to the foregoing verse, that the good and bad deeds are made present in the last judgement, and then the evil doer will wish to have a long distance between himself and his evil deeds. In this verse fears and hopes are mingled. From one side, Allah warns people to beware of Him, and on the other side, He reminds that He is compassionate to the servants

(( 31 )) 31- SAY: IF YOU LOVE ALLAH FOLLOW ME, AND ALLAH WILL LOVE YOU, AND FORGIVE YOU YOUR SINS. AND ALLAH IS FORGIVING COMPASSIONATE.

(( 32 )) 32- SAY: OBEY ALLAH AND THE MESSENGER. THEN IF THEY TURNED BACK, ALLAH LOVES NOT THE UNBELIEVERS.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION (VERSE NO. 31)


In the presence of the prophet, some of the Muslims claimed to be in love with God, while they less seemed to perform God's Commandments. This verse and the next one revealed, considering such futile and flimsy claims.