Why Did Iblis (Satan) Oppose?
 

Satan is a common NOUN, that denotes the first devil, as well as all of them or the devilish power; but IBLIS is a PROPER NOUN, including that very devil who tempted and seduced ADAM and EVE. He was not one of the angels but was a JINN in their line as QURA"N testifies. (According to a definition by OXFORD, JINN is supposed to be s suppernatural being that is able to appear in human and animal form). The following verse shows that IBLIS was a JINN, and not an angel:

``And when WE said to the angels prostrate yourselves for ADAM. They prostrated except IBLIS, who was one of the JINNS, who disobeyed his Lord.'' QURA"N - S 18: 50

His denial and rejection was due to false pride and arrogance, thinking that he was higher than ADAM, in creation and position, and due to such a haughtiness he rejected and disobeyed the commandments of his Lord, and as a result of that; he lost faith and burnt out a life- time of service and worship that he had piled up!!

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WAS THE PROSTRATION FOR ADAM OR FOR GOD?

Prostration which is the act of laying face downwards in submission and worship, belongs only to God, as ``praise belongs only to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds.'' Here in this case Adam must have been some sort of a QIBLEH, towards which the angels have prostrated themselves to God, and this is what is meant by the MONOTHEISM OF WORSHIP. Therefore there is no doubt that the angels did not prostrate themselves to worship ADAM, but rather to praise and glorify God, for having created such a wonderful creature and learned teacher, as ADAM was.

Even if we want to admit that they prostrated themselves before ADAM, in the classical form of prostration, that was of surety, merely a sign of their humility and respect, an exclusive of worship. Imam Reza (AS) has said:

``The angels by their prostration worshipped God and esteemed ADAM, appreciating his worth and merits.'' VERSE NO. 35

After the mentioned events and affairs. ADAM and his wife were ordered to dwell in the GARDEN OF BLISS: ``And we said: O, ADAM! Dwell you and your wife, in the Garden, and eat of the bountiful things therein, wherever you wish, but approach not this tree, lest you be of the transgressors.'' (ZA"LMIN ROOTED IN ZOLM)

(The Arabic word ZOLM, (TRANSLATED TRANSGRESSION)implies harm, wrong, injustice, or transgression, a symbol of which might be darkness. When wrong is due to others, it implies tyranny and oppression)

We understand from the verses in QURA"N, that ADAM was created with the purpose of living on earth, but at first, God settled him in a green, fruitful garden, for the Time being. That garden was one, on, this, our earth. ADAM was not acquainted with the KNOW-HOW of the life on the globe, and he had to ADAPT himself some how to meet the new condition of living on earth. He was therefore told to dwell in that said garden on probation for sometimes, to get himself and his wife ready for their new life and residence. Earth would actually be their home.

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VERSE NO. 36

Adam submitted to divine commandments, but SATAN who was the power of evil with the root of perversity and enmity, tempted them (HE & HIS WIFE) and caused them to slip down from a higher to a lower state, bringing them out of the GARDEN! ``And We said to them: Get you all down, some of you enemies to some other, and on earth will be your dwelling-place, and your means of livelihood for a life time.''

God's decree was the result of ADAM'S deeds and actions. He soon noticed that he had done wrong to his ownself. Although, as an apostle, entitled to Divine Inspiration he was innocent, and free from major sin or guilt; he still had to pay that high price as a penalty for his failure to obey the approved rules and regulations of the GARDEN, and the direct commandments given him.

WHICH GARDEN WAS IT?

Was the garden in which ADAM and EVE dwelt, the promised paradise that is rewarded to the believers? Obviously not; because the promised GARDEN OF PARADISE is an eternal ABODE, and one who enters it, is once and for ever, and he will not be given the sack. The garden in which ADAM and EVE dwelt, must have been a beautiful GARDEN of Abundance and affluence, somewhere on the earth. Emam Sadiq (AS) was asked about that Garden and he said: ``It was a garden of those that were on the earth whereupon the sun and the moon shone. Had it been the promised paradise, ADAM would not be discharged of it.''

WHY DID GOD CREATE SATAN?

Some people ask: ``Why did God create Satan to seduce and tempt, and persuade man in doing evil?'' To answer that, we say: Satan was not created a Satan as he is now with the devilish power. For many years he was a companion and associate of the the angels. He misused his position and power, and began to rebel against goodness and truth, and started doing wrong and evil and finally turned to what it is now. On the other hand; SATAN can systematically not harm or seduce a

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believer unless he is obeyed. As for those who wish to tread the path of truth SATAN is a means of manifesting, and bringing to action the possibilities and hidden power of man; for evolution always establishes through contraction and conflicts!

(( 37 )) 37- THEN ADAM RECEIVED SOME WORDS OF HIS LORD (BY WHICH HE REPENTED) AND HE TURNED TOWARDS HIM BECAUSE HE IS OFT. RETURNING MOST MERCIFUL.

(( 38 )) 38- WE SAID: ``GET DOWN OUT OF IT, ALTOGETHER. THERE COMES TO YOU GUIDANCE FROM ME, THEN WHOEVER FOLLOWS MY GUIDANCE, NO FEAR SHALL BE ON THEM, NOR SHALL THEY GRIEVE,

(( 39 )) 39- AS FOR THE UNBELIEVERS WHO BELIE OUR SIGNS, THEY SHALL BE COMPANIONS OF THE FIRE, AND THERE THEY SHALL ABIDE FOR EVER.

THE COMMENTARY
ADAM'S RETURN TO GOD. (VERSE NO. 37)


After SATAN'S temptation, and ADAM'S being enticed to evil, he observed that he had done wrong and oppressed his very self and soul. He seriously began to think of compensation and correcting his wrong, and therefore, whole hearted and with utmost sincerity he turned to

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God, and asked HIS help through a deep repentance. God's Mercy and Favour came to his help, and as it is said in QURA"N, he received some words of his Lord, and the Oft-Forgiving Lord turned to him in Mercy and pardoned him.

REPENTANCE

The Arabic word TAUBA (TRANSLATED TO REPENTANCE) means TURNING, and in QURA"NIC language, it is turning back to God from sinning. The intensive word TAWWAB for God's forgiveness is from the same root, that we have translated; Oft-Returning, (to His servants in mercy and forgiveness.)
VERSE NO. 38

Although ADAM'S repentance and return to God from sinning was accepted and God forgave him, the effect and consequences of his wrong deeds stood firm and did not change, and he fell from the GARDEN upon the earth and he fell from a higher state of life to a lower state. God said to them both - ADAM & EVE: ``Get down all of you from the Garden! There shall come to you guidance from ME. Whoever follows my guidance, he will be free of fear and shall not grieve - fear of the present and future, and grief and sorrow of the past.''

VERSE NO. 39

But as for those who disbelieve and belie our signs, they shall be companions of the fire, abiding therein for ever. If a soul in spite of the Mercy of the Oft-Returning God goes on sinning against the Divine Light, the inevitable consequence of such a sin and rebellion and open resistance, shall be the blazing fire of Hell. Because his rejection is deliberate, its consequences too, must be of an abiding nature.

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(( 40 )) 40- O, CHILDREN OF ISRAEL! CALL TO MIND THE FAVOUR I HAVE BESTOWED UPON YOU, AND BE FAITHFUL TO YOUR COVENANT WITH ME; I WILL BE TRUE TO MINE, AND HAVE AWE OF ME. (BY PERFORMING YOUR DUTIES, AND OBSERVING THE COVENANT)

THE COMMENTARY
CALLING TO MIND GOD'S FAVOURS (VERSE NO. 40)


The course of events of the children of Israel, then their PASS OVER, and bringing them out of hand of bondage and their settlement in peace and order in the promised land (CANAAN), is in many aspects and respects, similar to that of ADAM and EVE, and therefore God addresses them here saying: ``O, Children of Israel! call to mind the favours that I have bestowed upon you, and be faithful to your covenant with Me, I will fulfill my promise to you.''

*****

WHY ARE THE JEWS CALLED `THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL?'

Israel is an alternate name of JACOB. Non-Muslims have given some false and superstitious description about it: ``Then a man came and wrestled with JACOB until before daybreak. When the man saw that he was not winning the struggle, he struck JACOB on the hip, and it was thrown out of joint. The man said: ``Let me go; daylight is coming.''

``I won't unless you bless me! answered JACOB. What is your name?'' The man asked. ``JACOB'' he answered. The man said: ``Your name will no longer be JACOB! you have struggled with God, and with man, and you have won! So your name will be ISRAEL''. (GENESIS32:2628) TRANSLATOR'S NOTE

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Obviously the above mentioned struggle of Israel with God which is quoted from the BIBLE, is a childish false story which is fabricated, and a Divine Scripture cannot contain and carry such false tales. Our famous commentator - TABARSI - has said: ``ESRA'' means servant, and IL is from the root Allah, and therefore it means the Servant of Allah.

(( 41 ))

41- AND HAVE FAITH IN WHAT I HAVE SENT DOWN (THE QURA"N) CONFIRMING THAT WHICH IS WITH YOU, AND BE NOT THE FIRST TO DENY IT, AND SELL NOT MY SIGNS FOR A LITTLE PRICE, (CONCEALING THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF QURA"N AND MOHAMMAD WHICH IS FOUND IN YOUR SCRIPTURES, FOR A LITTLE INCOME!) AND FEAR YOU ME.

(( 42 )) 42- AND COVER NOT TRUTH WITH FALSEHOOD, NOR CONCEAL THE TRUTH WHILE YOU KNOW IT.

(( 43 )) 43- AND PERFORM THE PRAYER, AND PAY THE ALMS-TAX, (THE TITHE) AND BOW DOWN WITH THOSE WHO BOW DOWN. (CONGREGATIONAL PRAYER)

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THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF REVELATION


It is narrated from Imam Baghir (AS) that: ``HAY - IBN - AKHTAB, KAAB - IBN ASHRAF, and a small group of what they called themselves RABBINS, and teachers of the LAW; were respected by the JEWISH LAYMEN, and were entertained in an annual religious festival and banquets. They did not want to lose even that trifling and unimportant advantage by confirming the prophet's mission. On such a basis, they tampered with the verses in their scriptures, misinterpreting the words and the names, in order to deny and negate the signs and symptoms of our prophet that was, and is, in the BIBLE! this was what they have sold for a little price.

THE JEWISH PROFITEERING (VERSE NO. 41)

The revelation says: ``And have faith in what I have sent down confirming that which is with you.'' That is to say that, you have received REVELATION before; and now has come a new revelation cofirming the previous one which is with you. Are you then, going to be the first one to reject it? If the pagan Arabs, reject my revelations, it is not so strange as your rejection by the people of the Book, as I have informed them in my scripture that, I will send a prophet of such that qualifications.

If the Jews were not so much stubbron and obstinate, they should have been among the first people to convert and to cofirm the Divine Mission of Mohammad.

Then the revelation continues saying: ``Sell not my signs for a little price.'' In His fourth commandment, Allah calls them to fear HIM alone; i.e. don't be afraid of your sustenance being barred, or some of the hard liners of the jews to raise their hands against you; only fear Me and obey ME.
VERSE NO. 42

In a fifth commandment through verse NO. 42, Allah says: ``Cover not truth with falsehood.'' in order to cause people to err and mistake; nor conceal the truth while you know it.

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VERSE NO. 43

And finally God's seventh, eighth, and ninth commandments are the perfomance of the prayers, paying the alms-tax (TITHE), and bowing down with those who bow down. (IT IS WORTHY OF NOTE THAT THE CHIEF FEATURE OF JEWISH WORSHIP WAS AND IS, THE BOWING OF THE HEAD-TRANSLATOR'S NOTE) It is remarkble in this verse that it does not say: ``Recite you or rehearse the prayer and by using the imperative verb PERFORM, calls to give the prayers a general applicability in your society by performing it congregationally.''

The latter three instructions consist of having relation and spiritual connection with God through the Daily Prayers - having communication with other people through alms and charity, and finally connection of the individual to every body else through congregational prayers, and bowing down with those who bow down.

(( 44 )) 44- WOULD YOU ENJOIN RIGHTEOUSNESS ON OTHERS, AND FORGET YOURSELVES, WHILE YOU READ THE SCRIPTURE. DO YOU NOT UNDERSTAND?

(( 45 )) AND SEEK YOU HELP THROUGH PATIENCE AND PRAYER. (BY PERSEVERANCE AND CONTROLING INTERNAL CAPRICES AND PASSIONS, AND RESORTING TO GOD. YOU WILL OBTAIN THE NECESSARY POWER)

IT MAY BE HARD THING EXCEPT FOR THE HUMBLES.

(( 46 )) 46- THOSE WHO KNOW THAT THEY WILL MEET THEIR LORD, AND THAT TO HIM THEY WILL RETURN.

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THE COMMENTARY YOU ENJOIN ON OTHERS, AND FORGET YOURSELVES!

The Rabbis and Jewish teachers of the LAW, used to make the Jews to wait for Mohammad to appear as their expected king and saviour before Mohammad was born. So, in the beginning of the prophet's mission, they advised their converted families to have patience, and be steadfast in their belief in Islam, but they refrained themselves from testifying Mohammad's (AS) prophethood! For such twofold acts and roles, God has admonished them in the Holy QURA"N saying: ``Would you enjoin righteousness (Islam) on others, and forget yourselves, while you read the scriptures. Do you not understand?''

These rabbis and preachers and teachers, were afraid of losing their rank and position through their open conversion, and therefore began to misinterpret the marks and signs of the promised prophet in their scripture! As a matter of fact, the best way for priest or rabbi or any preacher is to show what he says practically and through his good deeds. Emam Sadiq (AS) said: ``Call people to us by your deeds and conduct, and not by your tongues!''

VERSE NO. 45

To enable man to overcome and control his internal caprices and harmful passions, particularly his blinding wishes for rank, power, and wealth; QURA"N, advises him to seek help through patience and prayer, though it might be difficult a thing, except for the humbles. (The Arabic word, SABR, translated patience, is a very comprehensive word that implies many shades of meaning, such as patience, constancy, resistance, firmness in purpose and aim, steadfastness. Even the FASTING OF RAMAZAN, is some how called SABR in the BOOk, for needs of suffering and patience.

VERSE NO. 46 In this, verse it is pointed out as who the HUMBLE ONES (mentioned in the last verse) are. They are described as those who know that they will meet their Lord, and that to HIM they return!

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HOW CAN ONE MEET GOD?

The phrase MEETING ALLAH, has frequently been revealed in QURA"N, to mean being present in the scenery of Doom's Day which is the day of final judgement. Evidently, and necessarily, meeting Allah is not seeing Him by the sense of sight, as we do in case of seeing one another. God is not a material body, so as to be felt or seen by the senses. He can never be seen by human eyes, though He can see the eyes and whatever else. In the field of resurrection day all may evidently see and come to know HIS power, mercy, and judgement. We may clearly see His rewards and punishments, but not his very essence and substance.

Meeting HIM might also mean some sort of visit through internal and spiritual power of vision, because many a time happens that MAN comes to know the existence of God with utmost surety and certitude, as a fact unquestionably established.

HOW TO OVERCOME DIFFICULTIES?

To overcome most of our difficulties, two strong elements or foundations are recommended by Holy QURA"N - an internal and one external - these two are PATIENCE AND PRAYER. PATIENCE is constancy, perseverence, and being steadfast in pursuit of an under-taking or an aim. PRAYER is a stronghold, or an asylum - a state of retreat and security which establishes our connection and communication with our Merciful Creator.

Imam Sadiq (AS) has said: ``When you have a deep sorrow or grief, perform the ablution and go to the mosque and rehearse the prayer, and through supplication, entreat your Merciful Lord to remove your anguish, because He, Himself has said: And seek help through patience and prayer.''

(( 47 )) 47- O, CHILDREN OF ISRAEL! CALL TO MIND THE FAVOUR WHICH I BESTOWED UPON YOU, AND I EXALTED YOU ABOVE THE NATIONS.

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(( 48 ))

48 - AND GUARD YOURSELVES AGAINST A DAY WHEN ONE SOUL SHALL NOT AVAIL ANOTHER, AND NO INTERCESSION SHALL BE ACCEPTED FROM IT, NOR ANY COUNTERPOISE BE TAKEN, NEITHER SHALL THEY BE HELPED.

THE COMMENTARY
THE JEWISH FUTILE CONJECTURES (VERSE NO. 47)


A general account of God's favours to the children of Israel is given here, through a series of successive verses starting thus: ``O, Children of Israel! call to mind the favour I bestowed upon you, and I exalted you above the nations.'' Such favours were very extensive, consisting of God's Guidance, relieving them from the bondage of Egypt, which was indeed a tremendous trial - and the PASS OVER - and being exalted among and above the nations!

VERSE NO. 48

Hereby, God nullifies the Jewish false and futile conjectures by saying: ``Be on your guard, or guard yourselves against the Day of Doom, and the Day of Final Judgement!''

This is to say: ``Don't think that My Especial Favours will exempt you from your personal responsibilities, or you can escape my punishment if you mischief or do wrong. The Jews were, and are, of opinion that they would be saved of God's chastisement through the intercession of their ancestors who were prophets or apostles, such as ABRAHAM, ISRAEL or ISAAQ.''

They may also think that they can offer counterpoises or some sort of redeeming, in order to be delivered from sins and its due punishments, just as they could do so in this life with the aid of

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BRIBERY! Qura"n, plainly admonishes them not to rely on false and superstitous conjectures, and to fear the day of judgment in which no intercession shall be accepted, and no redeeming or counterpoise will be taken, and no one save God can help.

To make it short; the judge in the Dooms Day is One who will accept nothing but pure faith and good deed. In this world, the sinners may resort to different means for rescue, such as paying ransom, or seeking help through intercessions, or giving bribes, or finally they may seek to indemnify or compensate losses. But QURA"N proclaims that the rules and regulations of judgment is of a different nature in the Resurrection Day, and means of salvation is pure belief, and the measure of judgment is our good or bad deeds, and resorting to God.

In order to clear and clean themselves from their sins, the Jews used to resort to superstitious acts, or sacrificing some sheep, goat, or a couple of pigeons!

QURA"N, AND THE PROBLEM OF INTERCESSION

Obviously God punishes not for vengeance, nor mere shortcoming. There are degrees in good and evil deeds. God's punishment is also a shade of His infinite Mercy, and some sort of a guarantee to stop miscarriage or non-fulfilment of the LAW and commandments' which may result in evolution and developement of MAN. So also the doors of return of the SINNER should not be entirely and sternly closed. They should have access to some chances, and means to amend and correct themselves and return to salvation.

The intercession, in its most correct form is to look after such a balance, and be a means for urging the sinner to repent and return to God and piety; though some think that it may embolden the guilty to increase his making mischief. Some people take intercession as a sort of partnership to intercede for a wrong doer with a king or a tyrant ruler!

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INTERCESSION HAS ITS OWN CONDITIONS

The intercession made known by the HOLY QURA"N is not without formal conditions. There are degrees in good and bad deeds; the interceders or intercessors, are in different rank and classes. For example the sin, such as oppressions are out of the order and realm of intercession, and Qura"n says that: ``Oppressors have no intercessors.'' The following verse which is revealed to this effect may put light upon some dark shades of intercession:

``They (intercessors) speak not before HE speaks, and they act by God's command - and they offer no intercession except for those who are acceptable, and they stand in awe and reverence of HIS GLORY!'' QURA"N - S 21: 28

That is to say: The apostles, saints, or truthful servants, of God who are in a position to intercede for some one; will never say anything before they receive God's order to say it. Those servants who intercede have conformed themselves to the will of God, and for intercession they first win the approval of their Lord. Therefore, the interceded for; should have some spiritual connection with their intercessor, and this might be a factor of construction and development for the sinner.

(( 49 ))

49- (AND REMEMBER) WHEN WE DELIVERED YOU FROM THE FOLK OF PHARAOH, WHO SUBJECTED YOU TO SEVER TORMENT, SLAUGHTERING YOUR SONS AND SPARING YOUR WOMEN, AND IN THIS THERE WAS A GREAT TRIAL FROM YOUR LORD.

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THE COMMENTARY
FREEDOM; THE GIFT OF GOD


In this verse, (NO. 49) God points at another valuable GIFT, and important FAVOUR of HIS, bestowed on the Israelites, and that was their freedom: ``When we saved you from the folk of PHARAOH, who subjected you to severe torment killing your males and sparing your females, to be used in their services.''

The bondage of the folk of Pharaoh was indeed a tremendous trial and torment for them.

THE SLAVERY OF GIRLS IN THE PAST AND PRESENT

Qura"n has named the Egyptain's wish to spare the lives of Israel's females, when their males were on the altar, a severe torment. It was through Allah's favour that they were freed from that tremendous trial, and bitter agony. Freedom is a bounty and a gift from God. It is as if Allah wants here to advise man to obtain his freedom in any possible price. To this effect HAZART Imam Ali (AS) has said: ``For you, living and being subjected, is in fact being dead, and your death in the way of obtaining freedom, is life and living.''

The difference of present and past in this relation is that: ``Pharaoh; through his particular despotism and tyranny, would take the males, and leave free the females of his opposition group. In our time, the spirit of manliness is slaughtered in the male bodies, and females are maintained to serve in satisfying the passion of dirty men of rank, power, and wealth!'' (About slaughtering the males and sparing the females we read in the Holy Bible: ``Finally the king issued a command to all his people: Take every new born HEBREW boy and throw him into the Nile but let all the girls live.

TRANSLATOR'S NOTE - EXODUS - 1 :22

(( 50 )) 50- (AND REMEMBER) WHEN WE PARTED THE SEA FOR YOU, AND SAVED YOU, AND DROWNED PHARAOH'S FOLK, WHILE YOU WERE WATCHING.

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THE COMMENTARY
THE PASS-OVER AND RESCUE


In the last verse, there was only a hint of the rescue, and now more detail is given of that incident saying: ``Remember you, when We divided the sea for you, and saved you, and drowned Pharaoh's people within your sight.The event of PASS-OVER and RESCUE has been mentioned through many verses in different chapters of QURA"N, such as: S 7: 136 - S 8:103 - S 63,66 - s 42:55 and s 44: 17''

In these chapters, the event that; the Israelites escaped from Egypt, and were pursued by Pharoah and his host, and then by a miracle, the sea parted, and Israelties crossed it, but Pharaoh and his host were drowned; is mentioned with different aspects and specifications. But in this verse here (NO. 50) it is merely refered to as a favour of Allah to the Israelties, in order to encourage them to believe in the new revelations. It also may teach a lesson to MAN, that if he relies upon God and has confidence in HIM; He will help man in his most dangerous and critical conditions and affairs.

(( 51 )) 51- (AND REMEMBER) WHEN WE APPOINTED WITH MOSES FORTY NIGHTS, (TO GET THE COMMANDMENTS) THEN YOU TOOK THE CALF (FOR A GOD) AFTER HIM, AND YOU WERE OPPRESSORS (TO YOURSELVES)

(( 52 )) 52- THEN WE PARDONED YOU AFTER THAT PERHAPS YOU MIGHT GIVE THANKS,

(( 53 )) 53- (AND ALSO REMEMBER) WHEN WE GAVE MOSES THE BOOK, AND DISTINCTION (BETWEEN TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD) PERHAPS YOU MIGHT BE GUIDED ARIGHT.

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(( 54 ))



THE COMMENTARY
ISRAELITE'S GREATEST DEVIATION. (VERSE NO. 51)


Through this verse (NO. 51) QURA"N mentiones of the greatest swerve of the Israelites in the FAITH, saying: ``When we appointed with Moses forty nights, and in his absence you took the calf for worship!'' This was when Moses was asked up into the Mount Sinai, and he was there for forty days and forty nights, but the HEBREWS got impatient of his delay, and one of them named SAMARITAN made a calf of melted gold, and they offered worship and sacrifice to it.

VERSE NO. 52

God pardoned them their major and heinous sin, to render them thankful, but the forgiveness was not given that easy! VERSE NO. 53

Here in this verse God reminds them of another important gift of HIS, saying: ``And call to mind when We gave Moses the scripture and criterion, perhaps you may be guided aright. (FORGHAN - translated to, distinction or criterion, is some signs. and

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standards for distinguishing between truth and falsehood - TRANSLATOR'S NOTE) VERSE NO. 54

In this connection, and to prepare the background for a truthful repentance for the Hebrews, God says: ``Moses said to them: O, My People! you have indeed wronged yourselves by worship of the calf. So turn in repentance to your creator, and slay one another! that will be better for you in the sight of your creator. And after that incident Allah turned towards you in forgiveness, for HE is Oft,returning, Most Merciful.''