Who are Those Who Have Incurred God's Wrath. and Those Who are Astray?
 

From the nature of the HOLY QURA"N, we understand those gone astray, are those who are misled and out of the way, of truth. As for those who have incurred God's wrath - they are the obstinate and stubborn wrong doers, who have pertinaciously adhered to their wrong opinions, and are not willing to hear any advice or admonition. They never yield to any reason, and in many cases have incurred the curse of God on themselves. The following verse of QURA"N defines and describes them:

``And that HE may punish the hypocrites, men as well as women; and the polytheists, men as well as women, and the cherishers of evil thoughts about Allah. On them is the evil turn, and the wrath of Allah is on them, and HE HAS cursed them, and prepared the Hell for them - an evil destination.''

QURA"N - S 48:6

Anyhow, those who have incurred the wrath of Allah are those who, besides their blasphemy are obstinate and stubborn, and do not even stop injuring and harming the apostles and the Divine Leaders!

THE END OF THE OPENING CHAPTER

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S 2

THE COW (BAQARA)

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MERCIFUL, THE COMPASSIONATE

(( 1 ))

1- A.L.M.

(( 2 ))

2- THIS IS THE BOOK, NO DOUBT IN IT, A GUIDANCE TO THOSE WHO AVOID EVIL. (( 3 ))

3- (THER ARE) THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN THE UNSEEN, AND PERFORM THE PRAYERS, AND BESTOW IN CHARITY A PART OF WHAT WE HAVE GIVEN THEM (( 4 ))

4- AND THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN WHAT HAS BEEN SENT DOWN TO YOU, AND WHAT HAS BEEN SENT (TO THE APOSTLES) BEFORE YOU, AND WHO ARE SURE OF THE LIFE TO COME (( 5 ))

5- THOSE ARE ON GUIDANCE FROM THEIR LORD, AND THOSE ARE THE ONES WHO PROSPER.

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THE COMMENTARY
THE CONTENTS AND VIRTUOUS


This chapter revealed in Medina and consists of 286 verses.

The comprehensiveness of this chapter from the stand point of Islamic tenets and principles; and practicals, such as economical, political and social affairs, can't be denied, Other important contents of the chapter are as follows:

1- Discussions about THEISM & MONTHEISM, especially through pondering over the secrets and laws of creation.

2- Discussions about resurrection and the life to come. giving some physical examples, such as the story of raise and revival of the slaughtered birds by ABRAHAM, as well as the story of EZRA the prophet, who died and then got up a hundred years later!

3- There are in the chapter, also matters about the miracles of the Holy BOOK QURA"N, and the importances there in.

4- The JEWS & HYPOCRITES, and their opposition, and intrigues, against Islam and QURA"N is discussed here in a wider measure.

5- Some interesting historical event of the great prophets especially ABRAHAM & MOSES are narrated here.

6- Several of the Islamic commandments such as: the prayer - the fast - strive and the SACRED WARS - the pilgrimage to Mecca - the change of qibla (from Jerusalem to Mecca) - marriage and Divorce - Trades regulations and laws - usury - Retaliation and Retribution - unlawful meals (SWINE FLESH) - Intoxicating or Alcoholic drinks, and some laws and rules of inheritance and wills are clearly explained in the chapter of the COW.

1- A.L.M.

THE ABBREVIATED LETTERS (AL - MUQATTA-TA")

Certain chapter (SURAS) of QURA"N have certain initials prefixed to them which are called the ABBREVIATED LETTERS.

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These letters have always been looked over as secrets and mysteries. We have not heard of the PAGAN ARABS, or even the hypocrites, to have objected or ridiculed these letters, though the form of their conducts was so, and this means that they have not been much stranger to using such abbreviations.

Recently a number of conjectures have been made as their meaning. Opinions are divided as to the exact meaning of each particular letter or combination of letters, but the most agreed idea about them is that, these abbreviated letters point that; the GREAT, IMPORTANT DIVINE BOOK, that has astonished all the well versed scholars and learned of ARABS and NON-ARABS, who all failed to bring even a chapter the like of it; merely consists of the simple and ordinary letters, that every one has access to them and can use them in writing. On the other hand the words and verses of QURA"N, which are composed of these letters are so elegant, and deep in meaning that they easily pierce in the souls, and penetrate in the depths of the hearts of men! They easily attract the attention and reverence of a Layman, as well as that of a man of wisdom and thought. QURA"N is just like the book of nature which is composed of very simple elements, in which God has brought forth so many wonderful and incredible creatures, such as the beautiful birds, various colours and divers smell and scent. God brings out all these varieties from the same soil of which we can make pots and jars!

THE GOLDEN AGE OF ARABIC LITERATURE

The PAGAN ERA OF ARABS, was the golden age of their literature! Those BARE-FOOTED people, were deprived of all the social and economical advantages, but their hearts were filled with the love of literature, eloquency and oratory. They had a large periodic market, named AKAZ which besides its usual affairs, had turned to a literature center. It served also as an economical and judicial annual CONGRESS.

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In that high council the best and the newest, verses and proses, were rehearsed, for consideration and judgement; and the best ones were chosen to be proclaimed as the poem or prose of the year. In such that golden age of literature, the whole world is challenged to produce a book like QURA"N, but it has not been produced - even by a chapter like unto it, although many have tried hard and have done their best to do so, and have failed!

Say: ``If man and JINNS were to gather together in order to bring the like of this QURA"N; they will not bring the like of it, even if they back up each other with their help and support.''

QURA"N - S 17:88

2- THIS IS THE BOOK, NO DOUBT IN IT, A GUIDANCE TO THOSE WHO AVOID EVIL.

The phrase: `No DOUBT IN IT' is not merely a claim, but rather a real truth. We may consider some of the qualifications of the Book in a quick scan; such as; its truthfulness - Grandeur - Firmness - Eloquency - Deep meanings - sweet and simple explanations, which is seen throughout the BOOK which repels and rejects all doubts; so that, nothing can excel it.

It is worthy of note that, age, and elapse of centuries has not been able to reduce or decrease such qualities and qualifications, and even the progress of science and knowledge has enhanced the BRIGHTNESS and LIGHT of the BOOK!

Such BOOK, NO DOUBT, IS A GUIDANCE OF THE VIRTUOUS PEOPLE.

WHAT IS MEANT BY GUIDANCE?

In QURA"N'S literature, GUIDANCE, appear in two phases of meaning: 1) The guidance through creation, by which anything that comes into being is guided by the creator through the path of evolution and development, in order to reach a final destination and goal.

2) The religious guidance which is fulfilled by the apostles and

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scriptures, and man by such guidance may tread and walk on the path of progress and development.

WHY IS THE QURA"NIC GUIDANCE FOR THE VIRTUOUS EXCLUSIVELY?

True that QURA"N has come down as a guidance for all the mankind, but if to some extent they be void of piety and are not willing to listen and take lesson, how can the scripture, what so ever, profit them? Flowers never grow in a salty soil though it be rained over abundantly. The same is man's farm land of breast. If not clear of obstinacy against efforts to remedy and relieve, nothing can profit him the least! This is why our Lord says: ``THIS BOOK IS A GUIDANCE TO THOSE WHO ARE VIRTUOUS''

3- (THE VIRTUOUS ARE) THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN THE UNSEEN, AND PERFORM THE PRAYERS, AND BESTOW IN CHARITY A PART OF WHAT WE HAVE GIVEN THEM.

THE EFFECT OF PIETY IN BODY & SOUL

At the beginning of the chapter (THE COW), QURA"N divides the people, in relation to Islam, into three groups:

1) The VIRTUOUS who have accepted Islam completely and in all its aspects and respects.

2) The UNBELIEVERS who are opposite to the first group.

3) The HYPOCRITES with two faces, claiming to be a Muslim, when they encounter with Muslims and saying that they believe not when they meet the unbelievers!

Their real attitude is BLASPHEMY and rejection of FAITH, and they are more dangerous to Islam than the unbelievers.

In this verse (NO. 3) the first group are discussed and five qualifications are attributed to them:

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A- THE UNSEEN AND THE SENSUAL WORLD

They believe in the UNSEEN. (world) - Seen and Unseen worlds are the two material and spiritual worlds that are VIS-A-VIS and opposite to each other. To believe in the - UNSEEN which is concealed of our senses, is the first step of separating the believers from the unbelievers; and it holds the followers of the Divine Religions, against those who reject faith in God, and in the INSPIRATION, and RESURRECTION. Therefore the first qualification mentioned here for the VIRTUOUS, is that they believe in the UNSEEN. (WORLD) Those who believe in the UNSEEN, do believe that the creator of this UNIVERSE has an infinite knowledge and power over all things. He is Eternal and Everlasting and controls all through His power and understanding.

They believe the Death doesn't mean non-existence and annihilation. It rather is a window that opens to a more extensive world. though a materialist may believe that the life and the world is limited to what we can see and touch and feel, and the natural Laws and Rules are effective without any plan, aim, or programme. They believe that Death gives an end to everything, and reduces us to nothing!

Are these two groups of man comparable to each other? Of course not. Because the first party can not avoid his good wishes, and doing good to other people, but the second group sees no reason for doing that. Therefore in the world of the BELIEVER, there is brotherhood and piety, there is help and mutual understandings, while in its opposite world there is colonization and exploitation, blood-shed and plunder and robbery. They have named their RETROGRESSIONS and moving backward as CIVILIZATION, and social development!

The Arabic word GHAIB (translated to UNSEEN) is a very comprehensive word and in some traditions it has also been interpreted to mean the ABSENT EMAM AL-MAHDI (AS).

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B- COMMUNICATION WITH GOD

Another distinguishing mark of the VIRTUOUS PERSON is that he performs the PRAYER which is an effective means of communication with God. The believers who have found and paved their way towards the METAPHISICAL WORLD are permanently kept in contact with the ORIGINATOR through their daily prayers. They only bow down to Allah and no one else. Such a man feels that he has moved up to an upper stage of life, and that he has obtained the rank and value to speak directly to his creator, and this motive serves to develop him the more and the better.

C- CONNECTION WITH OTHER PEOPLE

Another speciality of the VIRTUOUS PERSON is his relation and connection with other people, through bestowing in charity a part of that which God has given him.

Here God does not say that: ``THEY BESTOW IN CHARITY A PART OF WHAT THEY OWN.'' He rather says: ``THEY BESTOW A PART OF WHATEVER ALLAH HAS GIVEN THEM;'' and that consists of MORALS KNOWLEDGE, WISDOM, SOCIAL POSITION and other physical and spiritual power and abilities too.

4- AND THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN WHAT HAS BEEN SENT DOWN TO YOU, AND WHAT HAS BEEN SENT (TO THE APOSTLES) BEFORE YOU, AND WHO ARE SURE OF THE LIFE TO COME.

D- BELIEF IN ALL THE APOSTLES

The fourth distiction of the VIRTUOUS PERSON is his belief in all the apostles of God, and their mission and commandments.

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E- THEY ARE SURE OF THE LIFE TO COME

The fifth qualification of the VIRTUOUS MAN is believing in the RESURRECTION, and what is called the Day of Doom. They are sure of the life to come. They know that they are not created for nothing and without any AIM, or purpose. They know that they are walking over a long path of evolution and development, and that, Death is not the end of that road, but rather a beginning. They believe that God's ABSOLUTE JUSTICE awaits them all, and none of their deeds, bad or good, will be ignored or left unrewarded.

This sort of belief brings mental and spiritual comfort and prevents the stresses of work and responsibility to bother him much, because he is sure that he shall be rewarded for the least of his works in a wider and more extensive life, which is to come from the gateway of Death. The belief in the life to come makes believer brave and even willing and proud to be martyred! It also controls man against SIN and doing wrong - The firmer in such a belief the farther from SIN.

5- THOSE ARE UPON GUIDANCE FROM THEIR LORD, AND THOSE ARE THE ONES WHO PROSPER.

The above verse (NO. 5) points at the results obtained by the VIRTUOUS PERSON who owns the above mentioned five qualifications and specialities - They are upon guidance from their Lord, and they are the prosperous ones. Here the parable of Allah's guidance is like that of an easy paced mount, that takes his rider without much trouble and difficulty into salvation and prosperity.

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF PIETY?

The ARABIC word TAGHWA" (translated to piety) means self control - In other word, it is an internal power that helps man against excess and transgress and passion. In man, piety is, as a BRAKE in a vehicle - a device for applying resistance to the motion of a body. Piety is so important in Islamic culture that the following verse

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of QURA"N, relating it, has turned to a common and everlasting slogan:

``... The most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is the most VIRTUOUS of you.'' QURA"N - S 49: 13

(( 6 )) 6- AS FOR THE UNBELIEVERS, ALIKE IS TO THEM WHETHER YOU WARN THEM (GOD'S PUNISHMENT) OR DO NOT WARN THEM, THEY WILL NOT BELIEVE.

(( 7 )) 7- ALLAH HAS SET A SEAL UPON THEIR HEARTS AND UPON THEIR EARS, AND THERE IS A COVERING UPON THEIR EYES, AND THERE IS A GREAT PUNISHMENT FOR THEM.

THE SECOND GROUP

These are the obstinate and stubborn unbelievers who stand exactly in opposite to the above mentioned VIRTUOUS PERSONS. Their qualifications in brief is said in the above verses. (NO. 6 & 7) The verse says: ``THEY BELIEVE NOT'' and it is alike to them whether you warn them of the chastisement of God, or do not warn them - they are so stubborn that they do not accept a truth even if they see it clearly! This is because, mentally, they are not ready for such acceptances.'' The next verse, (NO. 7) indicates the reasons for such an obstinacy and rejection of truth by saying:

``Allah Has set a seal upon their hearts, and upon their ears, and there is a covering upon their eyes, and there is a great chastisement for them.'' A man who has not reached to such a condition, may still be liable to guidance; but when he lost his power of comprehension and distinction, there remains no way for his salvation. Such a man, for

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losing all the means and instruments of understandings and grasping the fact; will meet a natural torment, or heavenly chastisment.

NOTES

1- IS NEGATING THE POWER OF DISTINCTION, SOME SORT OF COERCION, TO NULLIFY MAN'S FREE WILL?

If according to the above verse, Allah HAS set a seal upon the hearts and upon the ears, and has covered the eyes, preventing them to see, such men are forced to remain faithless! Does this not mean that God HAS deprived them of their free will, and that they are held under compulsion?

This question has already been answered by QURA"N, through many verses; that losing their power of distinction is a reaction proportional to their actings. Their continuous obstinacy and rejection - Their pride and vanity - Their frequent transgresses and excesses - Following their lusts and caprices, and their causeless and sudden changes of mind - And to make it short their DOING WRONG, has led them to such a misfortune and disaster.

WHAT IS MEANT BY SEALING THE HEARTS?

In the said VERSE (NO.7) and several other verses, losing the power of distinction and comprehension is notified by setting a seal upon the hearts.

When usually people put something in a pocket or sack, they plumb it and seal it, for wanting not to be opened or touched. In Arabic language, such a plumb or seal is called `KHATM'. This is a simile of the obstinate rejectors of faith, that due to continuous sinning, their minds are closed to advices and sealed and their hearts are plumbed so that no truthful words can penetrate in them. Man should therefore be careful about himself, when even he does something wrong. He should wash out the wrong or the fault, what ever it is; with the clean water of repentance, and doing good deeds for amendment.

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THE MEANING OF THE HEART

BY HEART, in QURA"NIC LANGUAGE, sometimes UNDERSTANDING is meant, (S 50: 37), some times the SOUL is intended - (S 33: 10) and elsewhere the MIND is wanted. (S 8: 12).

EXPLANATORY NOTE

It seems that there are two powerful important centers in the human body:

1) The BRAIN, whose duty is sensual perceptions through the nerve system, and also controlling the movements of the limbs through the muscles.

2) The HEART, is a hollow organ with muscular walls, settled in the chest. Heart is the functional center of senses and emotions, and it physically reacts on strong feelings. When we encounter a tragical event, we feel its PRESSURE upon our hearts, and also when we meet something that pleases and makes us happy, we feel its PRESSURE through the nerves of our heart.

(( 8 ))

8- AND THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE WHO SAY:

WE BELIEVE IN ALLAH AND THE LAST DAY;

AND YET THEY ARE NOT BELIEVERS.

(( 9 )) 9- FAIN WOULD THEY DECEIVE ALLAH AND THOSE WHO BELIEVE, AND ONLY THEMSELVES THEY DECEIVE, AND THEY ARE NOT AWARE.

(( 10 )) 10- IN THEIR HEARTS IS A DISEASE, THEN ALLAH HAS INCREASED THEIR DISEASE, AND THERE AWAITS THEM A

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PAINFUL CHASTISMENT FOR THAT THEY HAVE CRIED LIES.

(( 11 )) 11- WHEN IT IS SAID TO THEM: DO NOT MAKE MISCHIEF IN THE LAND, THEY SAY: WE ARE BUT PEACE-MAKERS

(( 12 )) 12- KNOW THAT THEY THEMSELVES ARE THE MISCHIEF MAKERS, BUT THEY ARE NOT AWARE.

(( 13 )) 13- WHEN IT IS SAID TO THEM: BELIEVE AS THE PEOPLE HAVE BELIEVED, THEY SAY: SHALL WE BELIEVE AS THE FOOLS HAVE BELIEVED? KNOW THAT THEY THEMSELVES ARE THE FOOLS IF THEY BUT KNEW IT.

(( 14 )) 14- AND WHEN THEY MEET THOSE, WHO BELIEVE, THEY SAY: `WE ARE BELIEVERS', BUT WHEN THEY ARE ALONE WITH THEIR DEVILS, THEY SAY: `WE ARE WITH YOU, WE WERE ONLY MOCKING'.

(( 15 )) 15- ALLAH WILL MOCK AT THEM, AND LEAVES THEM IN THEIR TRESPASSES BLINDLY WANDERING ON.

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(( 16 )) 16- THOSE ARE THEY THAT HAVE BOUGHT ERROR AT THE PRICE OF GUIDANCE, AND THEIR COMMERCE HAS NOT PROFITED THEM, AND NOR ARE THEY ON THE RIGHT PATH.


THE COMMENTARY
THE HYPOCRITES


We now come to a third class of people, the HYPOCRITES, who are untrue to themselves as well as to the others! In a certain part of HISTORY, Islam encountered with a group of people who were insincere. They had not enough insight and discernment to recognize a fact and believe it, nor the intrepid courage and necessary braveness to oppose openly! The HOLY QURA"N has called them THE HYPOCRITES, for having two different and opposite faces. They misrepresent their opinions and characters, and pretend to be what they are really not. Such people could not easily be recognized for pretending to be a Muslim, but the HOLY QURA"N, has given their signs and marks by which the Muslims could know them well.

One phase of the hypocrites which is underlined by QURA"N, is their DUPLICITY, and double - dealing - i.e. their deception by pretending to entertain one set of feeling, and acting under the influence of another:

And there are some people who say: ``We believe in Allah and the LAST DAY, and yet they are not believers''. They know this sort of tricks and tactics an advantage of their wit and quickness of mind. By that stratagem, they think that they deceive Allah and the believers, but they only deceive themselves, and are not aware of that. (VERSE - 9)

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QURA"N, says that there is a special disease in their hearts, and Allah increases their disease as a result of their pretence and hypocrisy. (VERSE NO. 10)

The insincere man who thinks he can get best of both worlds, by compromising with good and evil, only serves to increase the disease of his heart, because he is even untrue to himself. They are LIARS; and telling lies, is their basic capital, and their best profit and the results of commerce is a dreadful chastisement that awaits them.

Another phase of the hypocrites indicated in the HOLY BOOK, is that they are MISCHIEF - MAKERS but they call themselves PEACE - MAKERS. ``When it is said to them: `Do not make mischief in the land'. they say: `We are only peace makers.'' (VERSE NO. 11) Much mischief is sometimes caused by people who may think to have a mission of peace, while they have not even a true perception of right and wrong! So by their ignorance and arrogance, they blindly depress the good and encorage the bad.

Another weak point, and mark, of the hypocrite is that: he thinks too much of himself, and too less of the others, being an egotist he knows himself very wise and says that: faith is good enough to fools: ``When it is said to them: `Believe as the people have believed' they say: - Shall we believe as the fools have believed?! Know that they themselves are fools if they but knew.''

Their third symptom is change of colour every now and then, and pretending conformity with this and that, or any class of man whom they meet, They are the jack of all fields and the master of nothing. Wavering all the time - not to these, not to those, they are distracted in mind. When they meet those who believe they say we are believers (VERSE NO. 14) but when they are alone with their devils, they say we are with you, we were only mocking.

Their dreadful fate and distressing destiny shall be such that QURA"N says: ``Those are they that have bought error at the price of guidance, and their commerce has not profited them, nor are they on the right path.'' To make it short, their duplicity and double - dealing, and the contrast of their inside and outside, which affects their word and work, is an

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obvious indication of their hypocrisy: but such a bad disease may have a wider range, and covers a more extensive field of one's character and acts. Through a tradition we read: `There are three marked qualifications of hypocrisy. Even if these be found in a Muslim who prays and fasts; he is a hypocrite. These are:

1) Betrayal in deposits, or anything entrusted to the care of one.

2) Telling lies and being a liar.

3) The break of promise.'

Imam Sadiq (AS) has said: `Pretence and hypocrisy is nothing but polytheism.' Hypocrites deceive their conscience, and ignore BLAME WORTHINESS of their conducts by their internal feelings. They have the false consolation of thinking that they are peace-makers in order to keep quiet the reproachful voice they sometimes hear from their conscience or inner side.

(( 17 ))

17- THEIR PARABLE IS LIKE THE PARABLE OF ONE WHO KINDLED A FIRE, (TO FIND WAY IN A DARK DESERT) AND WHEN IT LIT ALL ROUND HIM, ALLAH (RAISED A STORM) AND TOOK AWAY THEIR LIGHT, AND LEFT THEM IN DARKNESS UNSEEING. (( 18 )) 18- DEAF, DUMB, AND BLIND, SO THAT THEY WILL NOT TURN BACK.

(( 19 ))

19- OR AS CLOUD BURST OUT OF THE SKY IN WHICH IS

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DARKNESS, AND THUNDER, AND LIGHTNING. THEY PUT THEIR FINGER IN THEIR EARS AGAINST THE THUNDER CLAPS, FEARFUL OF DEATH, AND ALLAH ENCOMPASSES THE UNBELIEVERS. (THEY ARE ALL UNDER HIS CONTROL) (( 20 ))

20- THE LIGHTNING ALMOST TAKES AWAY THEIR SIGHT. WHENEVER IT FLASHES UPON THEM THEY WALK ON, BUT AS SOON AS IT DARKENS THEY HALT. HAD ALLAH WILLED HE WOULD HAVE TAKEN AWAY THEIR HEARING AND THEIR SIGHT; FOR ALLAH HAS POWER OVER ALL THINGS.

THE COMMENTARY
TWO REMARKABLE SIMILITUDES APPLYING TO THE HYPOCRITES


A- The first similitude is that of a man, who in a very dark night has kindled a fire for want of light. The fire produced a blaze, and lighted all around him, (VERSE NO. 17) but it did not last long. Allah took away their light and left them in utter darkness, so that they could see nothing! they thought that they could do with that weak and dying light, but when a storm raised and the flame extinguished, as it was inevitable, the darkness covered them more intensely.

The light was that of faith and MONOTHEISM, that by instinct exists in them internally, but they soon put it out when it appears; by their hypocrisy, deception and arrogant compromise with evil. They who have ended like the blasphemers, finally grope their way along their dark road, dumb, deaf, and blind. (VERSE NO. 18)

These verses show that hypocrisy, deception or duplicity may win

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temporary applause and approbation, but it will sooner or later show its real face which is merely falsehood. B- In the second parable, another phase of hypocrisy is shown. There is a dark and dangerous night. It rains cats and dogs. Flashes of lightning is followed by crashes of thunder. Fain would the thunder - crash, tear the membrane of their ears. They are perplexed and wandering their animal course. They put their fingers in their ears against the thunder-claps fearful of death. (VERSE NO. 19) Wherever they move or go, they are encompassed by Allah, and move under His control. In the intervals between deafening crashes, and blinding flashes, there are moments of steady light through which they take a few steps, but again they are plunged into darkness and are forced to halt. (VERSE NO. 20)

Every now and then, they might be target of thunder-flashes and be burnt to ashes! Had Allah willed, he would have taken away their sights, for Allah has power over all things. Alas! That they have not sought a safe and secure asylum to spare themselves the fearful chastisement of Allah.


(( 21 )) 21- O, YOU PEOPLE! SERVE YOUR LORD WHO CREATED YOU, AND THOSE THAT WERE BEFORE YOU, PERHAPS YOU MIGHT AVOID EVIL.

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(( 22 ))

22- (THE LORD) WHO MADE THE EARTH A RESTING PLACE, AND THE SKY A CANOPY, AND HE SENT DOWN WATER FROM THE SKY, WHEREWITH HE BROUGHT FORTH FRUITS FOR YOUR SUSTENANCE, THEN DO NOT SET UP COMPEERS TO ALLAH KNOWINGLY.

(SUCH CO-SHARERS AND IDOLS, HAVE NEITHER CREATED YOU, NOR DO THEY GIVE YOU SUSTENANCE)

THE COMMENTARY SERVE YOU SUCH A GOD:

After explaining the situation of the three classes of people, namely the VIRTUOUS, the HEATHEN, and the HYPOCRITE, the BOOK, refers to the line of the first group which ends to SALVATION; saying: ``O, People! Serve your Lord who created you, and those that were before you, perhaps you might avoid evil.''

The addressing phrase: `O, PEOPLE! has been repeated throughout the HOLY BOOK for about 20 times. This is a comprehensive addressing, to indicate that QURA"N, has not been revealed for only a certain class, group, race, or tribe of people. Its invitation and call, is almost to all mankind, calling them generally to the Service and Worship of the only one God, Who has created them all. (VERSE NO. 21) It also challenges to fight with all sorts of POLYTHEISM and deviation from the path of truth.

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