Occasion Of The Relevation /VERSE NO.4650
 

There was a quarrel between a Jew and a hypocrite. The Jew asked him to refer their case to the Messenger of God for judgement. The hypocrite rejected the proposal saying: ``Mohammad will not observe the justice between me and you, for being cross with me for lack of faith, and with you for rejecting his religion.'' To this effect the above verses revealed. The immediate reference of the first (NO.46), is to the perspicuous verses of the Glorious Qura"n that are all expressed clearly, and they express things clearly too. These verses are the true signs of God by which, Allah guides to Himself those who obtain the necessary merits and qualifications:

``Verily We have sent down perspicuous signs; and Allah guides whoever He will.'' To obtain the honour of being faithful, the first condition is to conform the tongue with the heart, and to bring both in harmony and agreement; Not to continue a nominal Muslim, or become a hypocrite who say: ``....We believe in Allah and in the Messenger, and we obey; and then turn away. Such are not believers indeed.'' In fact, these are the real hypocrites who play fast and loose according to their selfish aims. Their belief is in the tip of their tongue. They claim to be Muslims and to be obedient to the Messenger, but in time of need and in emergency cases, they prove to have a heart that is beyond, and against, their tongue!

According to the above occasion of revelation, when it is said to them: ``Why don't you come to the Messenger of God for judgement?'' They bring excuses for their turning away. But when they are sure that the judgement would be in their favour, they readily come and ask the [ 363 ]

Messenger of God to judge between them. This proves that they are looking for a judge to be flexible enough to lower the balance in their favour. They don't like justice or a judge who would not be open to bribery, gifts, or at least flattery! To this effect, such people are merely hypocrites and are far from being a believer, or even a Muslim. And all these faithlessness and hypocrisy, is due to a sickness which is in the bottom of their heart; A disease, the pain of which is manifested in their continuous doubt and wavering.

(( 51 ))

51- THE ONLY WORD OF THE BELIEVERS, WHEN THEY ARE CALLED TO ALLAH AND HIS MESSENGER TO JUDGE BETWEEN THEM IS THAT, THEY SAY; ``WE HEAR AND WE OBEY'' AND THEY ARE THE PROSPERERS.

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52- AND WHOEVER OBEYS ALLAH AND HIS MESSENGER, AND FEARS ALLAH AND IS CAUTIOUS OF HIM, THEN THEY ARE THE WINNERS.

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53- AND THEY SWORE BY ALLAH, THEIR STRONGEST OATH THAT IF YOU WOULD ORDER THEM, THEY WOULD COME OUT. (LEAVING HOME FOR EMIGRATION)

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TELL THEM: ``DON'T SWEAR. REASONABLE OBEDIENCE, (IS ENOUGH) FOR ALLAH IS AWARE OF WHATEVER YOU DO.''

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SAY; OBEY ALLAH AND OBEY THE MESSENGER. AND IF YOU TURN AWAY, HE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR WHAT HE DOES, AND YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR WHAT YOU DO. BUT IF YOU OBEY HIM YOU WILL BE GUIDED. AND THE MESSENGER HAS NO DUTY OTHER THAN MANIFEST DELIVERY. (OF GOD'S MESSAGE)

THE COMMENTARY
FAITH AND ABSOLUTE SUBMISSION TO TRUTH

VERSE NO.5154

The above verses are complementary and contrary to the previous ones which dealt with the nonbelievers and hypocrites. The argument here is about the believers and their behaviour in their obedience: ``The only word of the believers when they are called to Allah and to His Messenger to judge between them is that, they say: ``We hear and we obey'' and they are the winners.''

This, however is contrary to the creed of a nominal Muslim or a hypocrite, who will say openly and loudly: ``We hear and obey'' but their [ 365 ]

hearts deny their tongues, and they do not obey in time. Contrary to them are the believers who eagerly wait for the prophet's order to hear and perform it perfectly.

When the previous verses revealed some of the hypocrites who were anxious of their social position among Muslim, came to the prophet and swore by Allah their strongest oath, saying: ``They would obey and follow the prophet's commands by all means; but in fact they were liars because they had not the light of faith and truth in their hearts.''

Idle swear, when you believe not in the sworn, will have not the least value. Instead of boastings, supported by strong oath, you better have your mouth closed and open your hands. Instead of claiming we better be up and doing: ``....Tell them don't swear. Reasonable obedience will do; because Allah is aware of whatever you do.''

Of course, things are to be done by Man with his Free Will. No one forces us to obey God's order and religious commandments which have been explained to us by His apostles. The mission of the Messenger of God is only to convey and explain clearly whatever of Message he has received from our Lord. Therefore the responsibility for our conduct rests entirely upon ourselves, and we have to taste the reaction of our actions.

(( 55 ))

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55- ALLAH HAS PROMISED THOSE OF YOU WHO HAVE BELIEVED, AND HAVE DONE RIGHTEOUS DEEDS, THAT HE WILL SURELY MAKE THEM SUCCESSORES IN THE LAND, AS HE HAD MADE THOSE WHO WERE BEFORE THEM SUCCESSORS. AND THAT HE WILL ESTABLISH FOR THEM, THEIR RELIGION WHICH HE HAS CHOSEN FOR THEM. AND THAT HE WILL CHANGE THEIR FEAR TO SECURITY, SO AS TO WORSHIP ME AND DO NOT ASSOCIATE WITH ME ANYTHING. AND HE WHO DISBELIEVED AFTER THAT, THEN THEY ARE THE DEBAUCHERS.

THE COMMENTARY
OCCASION OF THE REVELATION


VERSE NO.55

Almost all the commentators have narrated that, when Muslims emigrated to Medina from Mecca, all the Arabs raised against them, except some who lived in Medina. So the believers lived in a state of anxiety and fear, so much so that they could not leave aside their arms even when they wanted to sleep.

They were asking one another that how long could that awful and uneasy situation last? Then the above verse revealed to console and encourage them, and to inspire them with the hope for a good future.

THE TRUTHFUL BELIEVERS WILL UNIVERSALLY COME TO POWER

Here the verse with stress and emphasis foretells that, those believers who do righteous deeds, will inherit the land and will become [ 367 ] the successors with authority and power to rule, as God made those who lived before them Khalifs, such as Solomon and David. Here three promises have been given in this verse to the believers who do righteous deeds, namely:

1They will inherit enough power and authority to rule all over the land, in order to maintain the law and justice.
2The religion chosen by Allah which is Islam, the submission to God's will, is to be openly established.
3The righteous believer will live in peace and security and shall have a comfortable opportunity to worship Allah, without being forced to serve anyone else besides Allah.

We Shiites are of opinion that such a perfect and universal rulership of the believers, as God has promised here, will not come to pass, except with the advent of ``AL-MAHDI (AF)''. When he appears the final goal of Man's creation will be attained, which is to worship Allah without associating partners to Him, and without the least amount of anxiety and fear.

(( 56 ))

56- AND PERFORM THE PRAYER, AND PAY THE ALMS-TAX, AND OBEY THE MESSENGER, PERHAPS YOU MAY RECEIVE MERCY.

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57- DON'T YOU THINK THAT NON-BELIEVERS ARE ABLE TO FRUSTRATE (ALLAH IN HIS PLANS), ON THE EARTH, AND THEIR ABODE IS THE FIRE, AND WHAT A BAD ABODE.

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THE COMMENTARY
IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO ESCAPE PUNISHMENT
VERSE NO.5657

The above verses will instruct people how to provide for the aformentioned promises of inheriting the governorship of the earth. To start for that goal, they have to perform the prayer as it is taught by the prophet, and to pay the alms-tax and to obey the prophet's instruction in general, and whatever he has ordered them to do in any position.

Performing these instructions may bring God's Mercy upon the performers and provide for his spiritual and physical progress. Then they may obtain the necessary merits for such a promised universal rulership. We may think in this course of endeavour that the enemies of truth may make obstructions and prevent God from carrying on His promises. Here we ought to know that: ``....The unbelievers are not able to frustrate Allah in His plans and promises on the earth. Their obstruction only will lead them to their doom and destination which might be the blazing Fire in Hell.''

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58- O, YOU WHO HAVE BELIEVED! LET THOSE WHOM YOUR RIGHT HAND OWNS, AND THOSE OF YOU WHO HAVE NOT REACHED PUBERTY (YOUR CHILDREN), ASK YOUR PERMISSION ON THREE TIMES (FOR COMING TO YOUR PRIVATE ROOM),

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BEFORE MORNING PRAYER, AND WHEN YOU TAKE OFF YOUR CLOTHES IN (THE HEAT OF) NOON, AND AFTER THE NIGHT PRAYERTHE THREE TIMES OF PRIVACY FOR YOU. THERE IS NO FAULT IN YOU, NOR ON THEY OUTSIDE OF THOSE TIMES TO MOVE ROUND ABOUT, ATTENDING SOME OF YOU SOME OTHER. SO DOES ALLAH MAKE CLEAR TO YOU THE SIGNS (OF ETHICS), THAT ALLAH IS ALL-KNOWING, ALL-WISE.

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59- AND WHEN YOUR CHILDREN REACH (THE AGE OF) PUBERTY, THEY SHOULD ASK FOR PERMISSION (TO ENTER YOUR CHAMBERS) AS THOSE WHO WERE BEFORE THEM ASKED FOR PERMISSION. SO DOES ALLAH MAKE CLEAR TO YOU HIS SIGNS, THAT ALLAH IS ALL-KNOWING, ALL-WISE.

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60- AS TO THE WOMEN WHO ARE SO OLD THAT DO NOT EXPECT MARRIAGE, THERE IS NO FAULT IN THEM IF THEY PUT OFF THEIR GARMENT, WITHOUT REVEALING THEIR ADORNMENT, AND IF THEY BE MODEST, IT IS BETTER FOR THEM; AND ALLAH IS ALL-HEARING, ALL-KNOWING.

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THE COMMENTARY
THE RULES OF ENTERING THE PRIVACY OF PARENTS
VERSE NO.5860

Generally, the object that is followed throughout this chapter of light, is the challenge against the sexual contaminations, and observing the general rules of chastity and modesty in the community. Here too, some rules have been recommended to support that object of chastity, which is very essential to a refined human life. These are the rules against entering the bedroom of parents and elders, and disturbing their privacy. In the sight of Islam respecting the privacy of other people is essential and very important a matter. Observing the rules of ethics, and conformity to accepted standards is a must, and a part of our religious duty to our Lord. Even our children and servants are not exceptionable in this order. That is to say, they are not allowed to enter their parent's chamber of privacy, without permission, in certain times of day and night:

``O, you who have believed! Let those whom your right hand owns, and even your children that have not attained yet the age of puberty, ask your permission for coming to your private rooms in three times; before morning; and when you take off your clothes in the heat of noon; and after the night prayer. These are the three times of privacy for you, that you might be undressed.''

Some commentators have understood; ``Those whom your right hand owns'' to be those who have to render personal service to their masters and mistresses by day and night; because, nowadays there are no slaves in the master's houses.

The children who have not attained the age of puberty are not to be necessarily our own children. All the children who are somehow [ 371 ]

within our house must conform to the standards of the refined Islamic life. Of course, by children here both sexes are meant, be a girl or a boy.

By the age of puberty, the state or quality of being capable of begetting or bearing offspring is wanted here. But even before sexual maturity is reached, which is under the age of say, fourteen, still the children in the house must take leave for the said three times, in order to enter the bedroom of their parent, or elders. In other word; parents should not think that their children are child, and know nothing of the affairs. It certainly will put a negative effect in their mind, if they suddenly open their eyes or the door, and see their father and mother in a critical state of sexual intercourse!

In the last verse, the rule of modesty for old women has been explained. For young woman in the house the rules of dress, do not exactly apply to the old one, who do not expect a marriage. So, they may have their garments off without intending to be showy. In the sight of Islam, modesty is always becoming to women, young or old.

(( 61 ))

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61- THERE IS NO FAULT IN THE BLIND, AND THERE IS NO FAULT IN THE LAME, AND THERE IS NO FAULT IN THE SICK, NEITHER IN YOURSELVES, THAT YOU EAT OF YOUR OWN HOUSES, OR THE HOUSES OF YOUR FATHERS, OR THE HOUSES OF YOUR MOTHERS, OR THE HOUSES OF YOUR BROTHERS, OR THE HOUSES OF YOUR SISTERS, OR THE HOUSES OF YOUR PATERNAL UNCLES, OR THE HOUSES OF YOUR AUNTS IN FATHER SIDE, OR THE HOUSES OF YOUR UNCLES IN MOTHER SIDE, OR THE HOUSES OF YOUR MATERNAL AUNTS, OR WHEREVER YOU OWN ITS KEYS, (OR THE HOUSE OF) YOUR FRIEND. THERE IS NO FAULT IN YOU WHETHER TO EAT TOGETHER OR SEPARATELY.

THEN WHEN YOU ENTERED HOUSES, SALUTE ONE ANOTHER WITH A GREETING, BLESSED AND PURE, FROM ALLAH. SO DOES ALLAH MAKE CLEAR FOR YOU THE SIGNS, PERHAPS YOU BECOME WISE.

THE COMMENTARY
THE HOUSES IN WHICH TAKING MEAL IS ALLOWED
VERSE NO.61

The aformentioned verses were about the admission or permission of entering the private room of parents in certain time of day and night. Here in this verse, an exception of taking leave to enter some houses has been explained. It says that we are allowed to enter to [ 373 ]

the houses of a certain group of our near relatives, and even we can take meal with the households there: ``There is no fault in the blind, and there is no fault in the lame, and there is no fault in the sick, neither yourselves, that you eat of your own houses, or....'' Why then the first reference here is to the blind, lame, and sick?

According to some narrations about the superstitions of the Pagan Era, the blind, and the lame, and some people afflicted with certain diseases were cursed by gods, and no one dared to associate with them, or take meal with them for fear of bad omen! The lame and blind themselves too, refrained from associating others for being shy, and wanting not to bother the healthy people. It was also regarded as an ill omen, to take meal in the houses of near relatives. Islam enjoined hospitality and gentle fellowship in each other's houses, and in particular enjoined the observation of bonds of relationship.

(( 62 ))

62- THE (TRUE) BELIEVERS ARE THOSE WHO HAVE BELIEVED IN ALLAH AND HIS MESSENGER, AND WHEN THEY ARE WITH HIM FOR A COMPREHENSIVE MATTER, THEY DO NOT GO AWAY UNTIL THEY ASK HIS PERMISSION. VERILY THOSE WHO ASK YOUR PERMISSION, THEY ARE THE ONES WHO BELIEVE IN GOD AND HIS MESSENGER. THEN WHEN THEY ASK YOUR

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PERMISSION FOR SOME OF THEIR PERSONAL AFFAIRS, PERMIT THOSE OF THEM WHOM YOU WILL, AND ASK FOR ALLAH'S FORGIVENESS FOR THEM, THAT ALLAH IS ALL-FORGIVING, COMPASSIONATE.

(( 63 ))

63- DO NOT CALL (ADDRESS) THE MESSENGER AMONG YOU AS YOU CALL EACH OTHER.

VERILY ALLAH KNOWS THOSE OF YOU WHO SLIP AWAY, CONCEALING THEMSELVES BEHIND OTHERS. THEREFORE, LET THOSE BEWARE, WHO OPPOSE HIS ORDER, LEST A TRIAL SHOULD BEFALL THEM; OR A PAINFUL PUNISHMENT AFFLICT THEM.

(( 64 ))

64- KNOW THAT; TO ALLAH BELONGS ALL THAT IS IN THE HEAVENS AND EARTH.

HE KNOWS WELL ON WHAT (KIND OF PLAN OR INTENTION) YOU ARE. AND THE DAY WHEN THEY SHALL BE RETURNED TO HIM, THEN HE WILL INFORM THEM OF WHAT THEY DID, AND ALLAH HAS THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL THINGS.

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THE COMMENTARY

OCCASION OF THE REVELATION


VERSE NO.6264 Commentators have narrated that the verse (NO.62) was revealed about the incident of HANZALIH, whom angels bathed.

He was a young true believer who had a date for his marriage with the girl he loved just when the battle of OHUD began. The young man asked for prophet's permission in order to attend his marriage ceremony, when the prophet was in a military council for war. The Messenger of God gave him the permission, and he left the battle-field of Ohud to join his marriage festival. In the next day, he anxiously and urgently left his bride alone, and joined the prophet in the battle field. He needed ceremonial ablution for sexual intercourse with his bride but had no time to find water and wash out his body. He fought bravely and was at last martyred. The prophet said that he had seen the angels bathing him and hence his famous Islamic title of GHASIL-AL-MALA"EKEH which means the, ``bathed by angels.''

DON'T LEAVE THE PROPHET ALONE

Now the verses will teach us how to behave in the presence of the prophet and before his successors in general. When calling the prophet or even the religious leaders who at present may lead us to the way of our prophet, we should be of characteristics of highly cultivated and refined, and in addressing them we must use proper terms of respect:

``Do not call the Messenger among you as you call each other.''

The first of the above verses (NO.62) which was revealed on the above mentioned occasion, implies that we should not leave the prophet (or his successor) alone, and go away when he is occupied with a comprehensive and important social matter, in which our presence is needed:

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``The true believers are those who believe in Allah and his Messenger, and when they are with him for a comprehensive matter, they do not go away until they have his permission.''

Comprehensive matters could have been those common and important matters which pertain to the whole community, such as declaring a sacred war against enemy's intrusion, as it was the case with the incident of Ohud. Other reason too, such as the congregational prayers have also been mentioned, but all these are only parts of the whole meaning, which drives at a joint consultation with a view to a joint venture. As a matter of fact, this is a disciplinary order that no one should ever neglect it. Sometimes it will be essential to sacrifice a personal benefit to save a more important social profit, for the whole community.

Then comes the ending of this passage that: ``....Then when they ask your permission for some of their personal affairs, permit those of them that you will, and ask for Allah's forgiveness for them, that Allah is All-forgiving, Compassionate.'' In such emergency cases, even those who would leave the field of war or the site of work, they still have some shortcomings, and defects, in doing their duty because of their absence or leave. Therefore, they still need the prophet to pardon them and to ask God to forgive them for their defect.

*****

MORE ABOUT HANZALIH, THE BATHED BY ANGELS

HANZALIH, one of the famous companions of our prophet, was a very sincere and truthful young believer who was in love with a girl. The couple had an appointment for their wedding ceremony, which became coincident at the arrival of GHORAISH for the battle of OHUD.

[ 377 ] HANZALIH was wavering and in unsettled state of mind, as what was the right to do in that critical condition concerning whether to fight and die, or to marry and live. In one side, he had his dearly loved fiancee waiting for him in her marriage ceremony. On the other hand, he had the Messenger of God involved in a defensive war with unequal forces, and also the sabotages of the Jews and hypocrites. So he could not decide what was the best thing to be done. After a long contemplation, he went to prophet and asked his opinion about that? In answer, the prophet told him: ``Go and do the marriage, for the marriage will save half of the religion of a young man or woman.''

When HANZALIH got the prophet's permission, he happily left OHUD, and came to his bride, and the marriage ceremony was performed, and the young couple became husband and wife.

Soon the nuptial night sleep elapsed; so sweet and so quick. When it dawned, HANZALIH woke up to perform his morning prayer. Then he looked through the window and saw the bright Arabian stars in the sky, and he said to himself: ``No! I must go! I should not leave the Messenger of God with his cruel enemies, and lay down here.'' Hearing that, his bride was waken up, and she anxiously asked: ``What did you say my dear? Where you want to go which is a must!?'' He gazed at the bewitching beauty of his bride, and said after a pause: ``I must go to the battle-field, where the prophet and my Muslim brothers are in danger. I must join them as soon as possible.''

``But you said that the prophet has given you permission to marry and live with your bride. Didn't you?'' asked his bride. ``Yes my dear! It was really so.'' Said HANZALIH, ``But I can't consent and satisfy my heart to leave the prophet with our enemies, and enjoy the company of my bride in peace.'' ``But you are just married'', said the bride, ``And you have every right to live with your bride, if not for a month, at least for a honey-week- a bride that you have frequently said that you are in love with her!'' [ 378 ]

``It is true that I do love you but if the heathens win to slay the prophet in my absence, and I lose the opportunity of defending him and die in his cause, I can never pardon myself, and even with a sweet heart as you are, life will seem deadly bitter to me.''

He then wore his armour, and wavered his sword, and kissed his dearest for good-bye! She burst into hot bitter tears and said: ``O, you my husband! If so do not hasten then! Wait a minute for I have something very important to tell you!'' She then drew her tucker over her bosom to conceal her adornment and quickly went out of the house. After a few minutes, she returned with two men from the neighbouring friends! Then in the presence of the two men she asked her husband, saying: ``Please tell the truth! Did you have intercourse with me as your legal wife last night?'' ``Yes of course'', said HANZALIH, ``But why do you ask that?'' The bride said: ``I want the two gentlemen to bear witness when necessary, perhaps I bear a child after you''and then she burst into bitter tears. Then she tried hard to hold her control and at last she said:

``My dear HANZALIH! I do not hope to see you again, for last night I dreamt a curious dream! I dreamt that the door of heavens opened at once, and several angels came down on the ground! The angels then took you up in the skies with themselves. I take my dream to mean that you shall be martyred in this sacred fight.''

HANZALIH smiled and said: ``What a good news!'' He then hastened to the battle-field. It was just the time when Muslim had been defeated and scattered round about, and there was the strong rumour that Mohammad (SA) had been killed!follow him, for life is only faith, and strive for that faith. He then roared like a lion, but his roar was nothing than; ``ALLAH-HO-AKBAR'', and attacked the enemy fearlessly and lonely, and bold enough not to fear death. He killed two of the enemies and wounded many and he was then martyred. Some of the pagans went to mutilate him but one of them shouted: ``Don't mutilate him for he is HANZALIH the son of ABU-A"MIR!'' So they left the bridegroom drowned in his sacred blood.

After the war was over, it was found that most of the Muslim martyrs like HAZRAT HAMZIH had been mutilated. The prophet prayed on his body and buried him and then said to his companions:

``I saw that the angels bathed HANZALIH and gave him his necessary cleansing ablution.'' HANZALIH was therefore nicknamed, ``GHASILATOL-MALA",EKEH'', which means the one who got ablution by the angels, or we may take it as the one babtized by the angels.


THE END OF SUREH THE LIGHT (24)


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