Chapter VII: Mubahala (Maledictory Conflict)

Towards the close of the nineth year of Hegira, embassies from all parts of Arabia came uninterruptedly to the Holy Prophet at Medina, to profess Islam and to declare the adherence of their tribes to Prophet Muhammad. (Mention is made in the Holy Quran about this in Sura CX ANN ASR) (The Help).

Uptill now, the Christians of Najraan (a city in the province of Yemen) had kept themselves aloof. The Holy Prophet sent a letter, inviting them to embrace Islam. In response to that letter the Christians counselled among themselves as to what their course of action should be and ultimately sent a representative deputation of fourteen members to Medina to study the facts pertaining to the Prophet of Islam and his Mission. The deputation was headed by three scholars of repute. These were Abdul Maseeh Aaquib, Sayeed and Abdul Haris.

When these deputies reached Medina, they changed their clothes which they had worn on the journey, dressed themselves in silken garments, put rings of gold on their fingers and went to the mosque to greet the Prophet. All of them greeted the Prophet traditionally, but the Apostle of God did not respond and turned his face away from them. They left the mosque and approched Osman and Abdul Rahman Ibn Auf, complaining "your Apostle wrote to us and invited us, but when we went to see him and wished him, he neifter reciprocated our wishes nor replied to us. Now what do you advise us to do? Should we go back or wait for another opportunity?" Osman and Abdul Rehman could not comprehend the situation. At last they took r deputationists to Ali, who advised them to

remove the clothes of silk and the rings of gold that they were wearing and to put on their priestly robes. The Holy Prophet would then willingly see them. Thereupon the Christian delegates changed into humble garments and presented themselves to the Apostle who then responded to their salutations and said, "By the Lord who has appointed me His Messenger, when they first came to me they were accompanied by Satan".

Thereafter the Apostle preached to them and requested them to accept Islam. They asked, "What is your opinion about Jesus Christ?" The Apostle said, "You may rest today in this city and after being refreshed you will receive the replies to all your questions from me." The Apostle was awaiting a revelation in this matter, and the next day the verses of the Holy Quran Sura 3 (A I-E-Imraan) verses 58-59-60 were revealed to him to show the true nature of Jesus Christ.

Verses 58 and 59 read as follows :
"Surely the likeness of Jesus is with Allah as the likeness of Adam;
He created him from dust, then said to him 'Be', and he was.
This is the truth from your Lord, so be not one of the disputers."

When they reappeared before the Holy Prophet, he informed them of the above verses, explaining that Jesus Christ was a Prophet like Adam, he was created from dust and therefore could not be the son of God. After this, the Holy Prophet invited them to embrace Islam. The Christians would not agree and refused to be convinced. Thereupon the following verse No. 60 from Sura 3 was revealed :-
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"If anyone disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge hath come to thee say: Come! Let us gather together, our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves; Then let us earnestly pray and invoke the curse of God on those who lie!"

The unexampled sinlessness and purity of Ali and his family was clearly proved by their selection for the contest out of the entire community of the Muslims.

When the Holy Prophet had informed the deputation of what had been revealed to him by God, he again urged them to accept Islam. As they did not believe his words, he challenged them to a 'Mubahala'. 'Mubahala' means a 'maledictory conflict', and is derived from its Arabic root 'bahlah' meaning 'Curse'. So literally 'Mubahala' means cursing one another. After private consultations, the Christians agreed to the challenge.

At the appointed time and place, when the Christians saw that not only Muhammad, but his daughter Fatima, his son-in-law Ali, and his grandsons Hasan and Husain, (styled as the Holy Panjetan) also came out for this maledictory conflict, they were dismayed and overwhelmed. "Verily I see a divine light on the face of our combatants," said the leader of the deputation to his fellow-priests. "Truth shines in their eyes, I am sure that should they pray for anything, God would hearken to their solicitations, and even move mountains if they ask for it. I sincerely advise you to refrain from this 'Mubahala'. To invoke the curse of God with people like these is to invite sure death."

Having thus changed their minds, they went to the Holy Prophet and informed him of their inability to proceed
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with the contest. The Holy Prophet again extended to them the invitation to accept Islam. The Christians replied, "We have not the conviction of your faith, nor the strength to fight against you. Let us make a compromise and come to terms." At last a treaty was signed by which the Christians of Najraan agreed to pay annual tribute to the Muslims, in the shape of two thousand garments of the value of forty Dirhems each, thirty camels and thirty horses, thirty coats of arms, and thirty lances, every year.

Authentic Proofs. are quoted below regarding the Ayat of the Holy Quran-Sura 3-verse 60 as given on page 73 Imam Fakhruddin Razi writes in his 'Tafseer-e-Kabeer' (Volume 2) : "When this verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet, the Christians of Najraan accepted the challenge of 'Mubahala' and the Holy Prophet took along with him Imam Hasan, Imam Husain, Janab-e-Fatima and Hazrat Ali to the field of 'Mubahala' ". Alama Zamakhshari writes in his 'Tafseer-e-Kashshaf : "There can be no more authentic and stronger evidence for the holiness of Ashah-eKisa, i.e., Hazrat Ali, Janab-e-Fatima, Imam Hasan and Imam Husain, than this Quranic verse. For in compliance with the order of God, the Holy Prophet summoned his Ahl-ul-Bait, took Imam Husain in his arms, grasped Iman Hasan's hand in his own, asked Janab-e-Fatima to follow him, and Hazrat Ali to follow her. This proved that the Holy Ahl-ul-Bait were those to whom the Quranic verse was directed."

Saad Ibne Waqqas relates : "When this verse was revealed, the Holy Prophet sent for Hazrat Ali, Janab-eFatima, Imam Hasan and Imam Husain, and prayed to God thus: "O my God! These are the very Ahl-ul-Bait of mine." (Sahih Muslim, volume 1, Sahih Tirmizi)
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It. is maintained by the generality of Muslims that only these members of the Prophet's house comprised of his permanent or unchangeable family, whom the Prophet loved dearly and who were distinguished from the rest of the Muslim world, on account of their having been declared purified by God as sinless and faultless in the revelation contained in Sura XXXIII-33, "It has always been the Will of Allah to keep off from you all stigma (of sin, ignorance and disbelief), 0 people of the house, and to purify you with the most perfect purification." This verse is meant as a guarantee and a reassurance regarding the purity of the Ahl-ul-Bait, so that all Muslims should recognise their excellence.


In 632 A.D. the Holy Prophet deputed Ali to undertake the task of propagating Islam in Yemen. For six months Khalid bin Walid laboured in vain to bring the Yemenites to accept Islam. These people were proud of their heritage and culture, and took the greatest pride in their traditions and institutions. The Jewish and Christian colonies around Yemen were notable for their scholars who were well read in the scriptures and were an authority in matters of religion.

Before Ali left, the Holy Prophet personally inspected the three hundred Mujahirs and Ansar volunteers, who had gathered at Qoba, near Medina, to accompany Ali, and presented "The Lion of God" with a black Standard. He then tied a turban on Ali's head with his own hands saying to him, "Now proceed to Yemen and preach among its inhabitants the divine laws of Islam. - You have to
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enlighten the people in the Commandments of God as revealed in the Holy Quran, to teach them the methods of prayers and extend to them the invitation to accept Islam." As Ali made ready to leave, the Holy Prophet said, "I swear by God that one conversion at your hands is far nobler and better for Islam than all the wonders of nature on which the Sun rises and sets."

Ali proceeded to Yemen, and there read the Prophet's letter to the people and delivered his sermon according to the dictates of the Prophet, preaching the doctrines of Islam to the multitudes, with the result that the entire tribe of Hamadanis embraced Islam in a single day. (Ibn Athir, Kamil V. II).

Ali proved as good a preacher as he was a swordsman, and his Mission to Yemen saw his emergence as a religious scholar of the first order. The Christian priests and the Jewish Rabbis who had settled in Yemen held daily discourses with him on religious doctrines and dogmas, and Ali's illuminating sermons on the Unity of God and the Islamic exposition of the values of life made a great impression on those who heard him. After one of his sermons, the Christian priest Ka'b accepted Islam. Ka'b was a distinguished scholar and critic, renowned for his piety and learning. His example was soon followed by many others and soon many Rabbis followed suit. Other neighbouring tribes also embraced Islam, and it clearly proved that "The exposition of Islam and the tongue of Ali were co-related like hand and glove, or like a soul in a body."



It was in the month of Zilhajj 10 A.H. when the Holy Prophet becoming intuitively aware of his approaching end, decided to make a farewell Pilgrimage to Mecca. As the time for the Pilgrimage approached, he started to make preparations for the journey. Hazrat Ali who was in Yemen was asked to complete his work and join the Prophet in Mecca.

The Prophet reached Mecca on Sunday the 4th of Zilhaji 10 A.H. Soon after his arrival, Ali, who hastened back from Yemen ahead of his men, joined the Prophet, who was very glad to see him and affectionately embracing him asked what vow he had taken for the pilgrimage. Ali replied, "I have taken upon me a vow to perform the same pilgrimage as the Prophet, whatever that might be, and I have brought thirty-four camels for the sacrifice". The Prophet joyfully exclaimed, 'Allah-o-Akbar', (Great is the Lord), and said he had brought sixty-six. He added, that in all the rites of the Pilgrimage, as well as in the sacrifice, he (Ali) would be his partner. Thus Ali also performed the Greater Pilgrimage along with the Prophet.

Before completing the rites of the Pilgrimage, the Holy Prophet addressed the assembled multitude from the top of the Jabal-ul-Arafat in words which yet live in the hearts of Muslims. As the various ceremonies were to be treated as models for future guidance, the Prophet observed rigorously each rite, whether in compliance with revelations or in accordalce with the patriarchal usage. Thus,

when the hundred camels were to be sacrificed, they were offered by him and Ali conjointly. A repast, prepared from the meat of the sacrificed camels was served, the Prophet sat down with no other but Ali to partake of it. The ceremonies of the pilgrimage ended with shaving of the heads and paring of the nails after the sacrifice of animals. The pilgrim's garb was then removed and Ali, who rode on the Prophet's Duldul, proclaimed that the restrictions of Pilgrimage were over.

The Sermon at Ghadir-E-Khum and the Last Declaration
Bidding farewell to his native city of Mecca, the Prophet set out for Medina on the 14th Zilhajj, 10 A.H., accompanied by the same congregation of Muslims.

Now as his swift camel sped on with its long swinging strides, a life of tireless toil was nearing its end, a mission of mercy and devotion was approaching its culmination and the seeds of Divine dispensation were about to begin to bear fruit. His mien and bearing showed the signs of sublime peace, coupled with an overwhelming sense of gratitude and an insatiable yearning for his Creator and Cherisher.

Yet on close scrutiny, his serene features could not have failed to disclose the signs of deep contemplation as if he was weighing the pros and cons of some momentous decision.

What could be the cause of this restlessness? Had he not accomplished all that he had set his mind to do? The Unity and Justice of God had been convincingly instilled into the hearts of men; the belief in the angels, the

Scriptures, the Prophets, the resurrection of the dead, and the Day of Judgment had all been authoritatively expounded.

But with the meticulous thoroughness of his genius, Prophet Muhammad realised that the most important part of his task still remained unfulfilled, and it was this which made him restless at the moment of his greatest triumph. He saw that the sands of time were running out and the cup of his life was filled almost to the brim. This being so, the most important task was to ensure the continuity of his life's work by someone endowed with all the moral values which he had upheld, or else all his miraculous achievements during the twenty-three years of his apostolic ministry stood in danger of being irretrievably undone. It was a matter of prime importance that Divine guidance should continue after him and that the Divine sovereignty should be exercised by the chosen ones of God, to be appointed by the Prophet.

He had already designated his Ahl-ul-Bait on several occasions, as the Ark of Noah, the strong rope of God, the door of forgiveness, the purified ones, and made the love of these holy ones incumbent upon his followers. He had similarly, on many occasions, pointed out Ali as "My brother and Successor", "The door of the city of knowledge", "The most equitable judge", "The embodiment of faith", and having the position in relation to himself as "Aaron was to Moses".

Were these pronouncements in the course of time going to be forgotten, misinterpreted or ignored by his followers after him? Could the Prophet allow them to be set aside by power-seekers? He knew that he had to make a final and unchallengeable declaration regarding his successor. The choice of the appropriate moment,

however, depended not on him but on Divine Inspiration. With these thoughts in his mind he marched on towards Medina.

As he arrived at Ghadir-e-Khum, suddenly the signs of a revelation appeared. The voice of Archangel Gabriel was heard saying :

"O thou esteemed Messenger, impart the guidance that has been revealed unto thee",* and in order to impress the urgency of the command, Gabriel went on to say :
"For if thou doeth it not, thou hast not imparted His Message at all";

and again in the same breath to allay his fears and misgivings the angel added :

"God will protect thee from the evil designs of men". (Ch. 5 verse 67)

It is held that the Prophet had already been commanded to proclaim Ali as his successor, but he had postponed the announcement for some suitable occasion to avoid misinterpretation. 1

* It refers to the Commandment contained in Sura xclv of theo Quran, which says

1. Have We not opened thy breast for thee?
2. And put off thy burden from thee,
3. Which galled thy back?
4. And have We not raised thy name for thee?
5. Then verily, with trouble cometh ease,
6. Verily, along with trouble cometh ease;
7. And when thou art eased, set up (thy successor),
8. And turn to thy Lord with fervour.

1 Tafsir Kabir ; Tafsir Durr-al-Manthur ; Tafsir Neshapuri; Sirat-al-Halabia.
In the 7th verse, God has commanded the Prophet to appoint his successor.

On hearing this imperious command, the Prophet made up his mind instantly. He motioned the muezzin Bilal to stop and recite the Azan with the words, "Hayya' ala Khair il'amal" (hasten cowards the best of deeds). for. surely the acceptance thereof was to he a crucial event upon which the perpetuity of the Prophet's Mission depended.

As the Prophet pulled up his reins, the whole entourage came to a halt. Those who had gone ahead were summoned back and those who followed gathered round casting inquiring glances at each other. The Prophet soon dismounted and ordered his followers to clear the ground. The pebbles and thorns that lay scattered about were promptly brushed aside. Others, on receiving his express directions, began to untie the saddles from the backs of their camels, and to pile them one on top of another. so as to make a pulpit. The arrangements thus completed, the throng squatted upon the bare ground, some spreading their cloaks below to protect themselves from the burning sand, others holding up their handkerchieves to shield their eyes from the sun's glare, for it was nearly midday.

The people having clustered round the pulpit, the Prophet stepped forward and on his right was Ali, whose turban, black in colour, with its ends hanging over both of his shoulders, was arranged by the Prophet himself. Then obeying the Divine Injunction to the letter, he addressed the multitude in the following memorable words. 1
"All praise belongs to God. In Him do I put my faith and from Him do I crave support. Him do I trust and His
1 Sayid Safdar Husain.

protection seek against the malice of our souls and evils of our deeds. The misguided have no guide save Him, and those who are guided by Him can never go astray. I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship save Him and that I, Muhammad, am His slave and Messenger."

"O ye folk, behold, the All-knowing God hath informed me that the days of my life are coming to an end and the time is fast approaching when I shall be called away from your midst towards the eternal abode. But you and I, each one of us is answerable unto God for all things are due unto Him from us. What then do you say?"

And the listeners answered, "we bear witness that thou hast done thy duty and never stinted to guide and advise its according to the Divine Will."

"Then do ye bear witness", asked the Prophet, "to the Unity of God and the Apostleship of this servant of God, who now speaks to you by His command, and do ye not hear witness that the resurrection and judgment, heaven and hell and the life hereafter are certainties?"

And they all answered, "Yea, verily Yea."

"Now then", continued the Prophet, "Listen to me carefully; I have been commanded to tell you that I will soon be taken away from your midst, but I leave unto you my Legacy of two grand precepts, each of which surpasses the other in its grandeur-God's Holy Book (The Quran) and my Ahl-uI-Bait (my irrevocable Progeny, consisting of Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain). Never shall they separate from one another until they reach me in Heaven at the Fountain of Kausar, and so long as you will adhere unto both my legacies, you will never be led astray after me. Therefore, 0 ye folk, it is my last Will and Testament unto
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you that you should always remain faithful to the Holy Quran and my Ahl-ul-Bait as true Muslims until death."

By these portentous words all those who loved their teacher and benefactor were moved to tears.

And he continued, "Do not lag too far behind them and do not walk ahead of them, for in either event you will go astray. But follow them and walk in their footsteps and they will guide you along the Straight Path."
Then he asked, "Who do you think is more worthy of obedience than your souls?"

And they answered, "God and His messenger know best."

And he continued, "Lo! God is my Master, and am I not worthy of obedience from you?"

And they all said, "Yea, verily Yea."

Then the Prophet bent down and lifted up Ali in his hands, showing him to the crowds on all sides of the pulpit, and proclaimed,

من كنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه
"Man Kunto Maulaho fa haatha Ali-yun Maulah"

"Of whomsoever I am the Master (Mania), this Ali is his Master (Maula)". So saying the Prophet raised up his hands heavenwards and prayed, "O our God, love those who will love Ali, despise those who will despise him; support those who will support him; and reject those who will reject him. 1"
1 Suyuti has reported thus : "O God ! Befriend him who is a friend of Ali, and be an enemy to him who is an enemy to Mi."

Announcing this thrice, he got down from the raised platform, and seated Ali in a tent, where the people did him homage. Omar bin Al-Khatab was the first to congratulate Ali and to acknowledge him 'Guardian of all Believers' 1


"Bakhin bakhin laka ibne Abi Talib Asbahta Maulayee
Wa Maula kulla Momineen wa Mominaatin."
"Greetings be to thee 0 son of Abu Talib!
Thou hast dawned as my Leader and the Leader of all faithful men and women."

After the men, came all the women to congratulate Ali. At the conclusion of this installation ceremony, the Holy Prophet asked the congregation, 'Have I not truly and faithfully delivered unto you the Message?"

And they answered, "Yea, verily Yea."

Then the Prophet said, "Go now, and let those who have been present here today repeat and convey to those who are absent all that they have seen and heard."

At this moment the Divine Inspiration again descended upon our Holy Prophet with the memorable words that read, "This day have I perfected unto you your religion and completed upon you My Blessings, and I am well-pleased with Islam as your religion." (Ch. 5, Verse 3).

The tone and purpose of these two religious revelations, firstly, the verse commanding the Prophet to deliver the Message with the warning that any omission on his part would be a complete failure of his mission, and secondly, this last revelation, declaring the Lord's pleasure at the
1 Mishkat; Khasais Nasai; Rawdzat-al-Ahhab; Rawdzat-al-Sala.

fulfilment of the task, clearly indicate that they relate to some matter of prime importance and not merely to some abstruse detail of ritual. It is only in the light of the Hadith-e-Ghadir that these two passages of the Holy Quran can be properly understood in their true importance and full significance. By consensus of the exegesis these two verses were revealed after the Prophet's last pilgrimage.

Authentic Proofs
In Mishkat, a tradition of Bara'a Bin Azib and Zaid is quoted here for further clarification from the Musnad of Ahmed Ibn Hanbal : The Companions state, "We were accompanying the Apostle on his journey. When we reached the oasis of Ghadeer-e-Khum, the announcer called 'Assalato Jamia', (come to congregational prayer). The earth under the trees was swept for the Apostle. Then after the Zohar prayer was over, the Apostle held the hand of Ali Ibn Abi Talib and said, "O people! Do you know that according to every believer I am superior to his soul?" All of them replied, 'It is a fact, 0 Messenger of Allah! To every believer you are superior to his soul'. Then the Apostle said, 'Ali is also the Lord of him whose Lord I am. 0 Allah! Befriend him who befriends Ali and be alien to him who is alien to Ali.' Thereafter Omar met Ali and, said, "Hail to thee! 0 son of Abu Talib, today you become the Lord of all believing men and women."

Wahidee in Asbab-un-Nuzool; Suyuti in Tafseer-eDurr-i-Mansoor; Shaukani in Tafseer Fathul Qadir and Sideeq Hasan Khan in Fathul Bayan mention a tradition noted by Ibn Abi Hatim and other scholars from Abu Saeed Khudri in which it is stated that the verse "O Messenger! Make known what has been revealed unto you by

your Lord and if you do not do so you have not made known your message." The Quran Ch. 5, verse 67-was re aled on the occasion of the event at Ghadir-e-Khum in h n our of Ali. Moreover in another tradition which has been quoted by Aini in his annotation of Saheeh Bukharee, this verse is paraphrased as "O Messenger ! Proclaim the order which your Lord has passed and revealed unto you in honour of Ali lbn Abu Talib." So when this verse was revealed the Apostle held Ali by his hand and said, "Ali is also Lord of him who has taken me as his Lord."

Many similar quotations are given by historians and the names of a few are mentioned below:-

Abul Fida, Ibn Khallakan in Wafiyat-ul-A' yaan; Hakim in his Mustadrak; Nasaee in Kitabul Khasais; lbn Hajar Makki in Sawaiq-i-Muhriqa; Rawdzat-ul-Ahbab; Naishapuri in Tafseer Gharaibul Quran, Hafiz Ibn Mardwaih and Hafiz Abu Naeem from Abu Saeed Khudri.

Muhammad Ibn Saalim Hanafi remarks in his marginal note on Sirajul Muneer-i-Azeezee, an annotation of Jam'i Sagheer of Suyuti, that when the Apostle delivered his speech "Ali is also the Lord of him who has me for his Lord, and some of the people inquired of the Holy Prophet, "Was it not sufficient for us to profess the 'Creed of evidence, say our prayers and give alms with strict regularity, that the superiority and Lordship of Abu Talib's son is now being imposed upon us? Do you commission us in this matter of your own accord, or is it ordered by Allah?" The Apostle replied, "By Him other than whom there is no one to be worshipped, this is the order of Allah".

Tafseer-o-Sa'labi, Noor-ul-Absar, Seerat-ul-Halabiyah and Mustadrak relate that when on that day a man named

Haris, son of No'man Filth refused to acknowledge Ali as his leader and disputed with the Holy Prophet on this matter and said, "O Allah! If this be truly Thy Command then either rain down stones from heaven upon Muhammad or punish us." A large stone fell upon him from heaven so that he was killed, just as the army of Abraha and their elephants had been killed before.

The following verse was revealed on that occasion:
"A questioner asked for the inevitable punishment to befall the disbelievers which no one can avert". (Chapter 70 Verse 1-2.)

The great research scholar, Allama Sayed Hamid Hussain Kintoori, has written a book in two volumes called Abaqatul-Anwar on the investigation of the innumerable sources through which the Hadith-e-Ghadir has come down to us. In recent years the eminent Alim, Ayat-Ullah Shaikh Abdal Husain-al-Ameeni of Najaf has listed the names of one hundred and ten companions of the Holy Prophet who have reported this tradition as eye-witnesses and eighty-three Tabe'in who heard it from their elders and three hundred and fifty-nine Ulema of all sects, arranged chronologically through each of the centuries since the time of the Prophet up to the present -day, who have recorded the sermon of Ghadir-e-Khum in their books and acknowledged its authenticity. Ayatullah-al-Aminis major opus 'Al-Ghadir', is a classic of erudition and painstaking research. The book establishes beyond doubt, whatever the criterion of verification adopted, the overwhelming incontrovertibility of the event of Ghadir i.e. the nomination of AIL It also firmly prescribes the injunction that if ever any tradition is to be believed, the Hadith-eGhadir holds the first claim to acceptance.

It will be readily vouched by every scholar of the Arabic language that the word 'Maula' in its meaning is far superior to the word Caliph. A Caliph is only a successor to one in any office, but a 'Maula' means the Lord and Master of everything. In using the word 'Maula' for Ali, the Apostle of God intended to convey the Divine Will that after him Ali should be held in the same position as he himself was for the people.

The Holy Quran says:
"And neither doth he speak of (his own) inclination; It (the wording) is naught but a revelation revealed (unto him)." (Chapter 53, Verse 3 and 4).

Ali was undoubtedly the chosen and declared successor of the Holy Prophet from the beginning of his Prophetic Career. Now he had the distinction of being to the Muslims what the Holy Prophet was to them; which meant that Ali was to be treated in place of (Successor to) the Prophet after his death. 1
Shah Ali Hasan Jaisi, a great celebrated Sunni Sufi, has made the meaning of the word 'MAULA' as implied in the declaration, very clear in his couplet in Persian:

عبث در معني مو كنت مولي ميروي هر سو
علي مولي به آن معني كه پيغمبر بود مولي

"Abus dar maanee-ay mun kunto Maula mee ravee hersoo, Ali Maula ba-on manee keh Paigamber boo-ood Maula".
1 Tabari; Ibne Athir; Abul Fida, Amir Ali
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"In vain doth thou wander in all directions in interpreting the word Maula (Master),
Ali is in the same sense Maula (Master) as was the Holy Prophet Maula (Master)."

Philosophers, commentators of the Quran, poets, historians and seekers of truth all unanimously acknowledge this vital tradition as an established fact. The valley of Ghadir-e-Khum owes its fame to this single, unique and unforgettable event, on it the survival of the guidance of Islam depends, and so long as there remains a single grain of sand from that parched and arid wilderness, it will rise and proudly describe how the Prophet of Mercy once trod upon that ground, how he lifted up the worthiest of his disciples and proclaimed him as the Amir-ul-Mominin, for there was no one worthier than him and his descendants the eleven Imams, to defend, expound and propagate Islam's immortal teachings to the world.

The Holy Prophet has said :
"I am the last of the Apostles of Allah (Khatam-unNabeeyeen) O Ali, whilst you are the last of the successors to the Prophets." (Khatam-ul-Waseeyeen).