Mahdi's Reforms
 

The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" narrates (on page 486) from the book "Manaqib" which narrate from Hazrat Ali-ibn-Musa ar-Ridha who narrates from his father that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) while mentioning about the virtues of his household and his Meraj (ascension to heaven) said: I asked: 'O my Lord, who are my legatees? I heard a call saying: "O Muhammadi Your legatees are those whose names have been written on the enclosure of My throne."

I looked and saw twelve lights. A green cover spread over each light and the names of my legatees were written on each of them where the first of them was Ali and the last of them Mahdi. I asked: 'O Lord, Are they the legatees after me?

I heard a call saying: After you, they are My friends, chosen ones and proofs upon My creatures. They are your legatees. I swear by My Glory and Majesty that I will cleanse the earth from its tyranny by the hands of the last of the one who is Mahdi. I will make him conquer the East and West. I will make the wind to conquer for him and make the clouds submissive to him. I will grant him power through some means and will help him by means of his own army. I will assist him through the Angels until he gains power over My Government and gathers the people towards My 'Tauheed' (Monotheism). Thereafter, I will expand his kingdom and extend the days for my friends until the Day of Judgement.

Again, the author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" narrates (on page 486) from Abul-Mu'aiyyed Muwafiq-ibn Ahmad Khawrazmi that Abu Sulaiman has said: I heard the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) saying: The night when I was made to ascend to the heavens... (Hazrat mentioned partly about his ascension and its virtues and about the virtues of his progeny and his twelve legatees)... I heard a cry: O Muhammad! Would you like to see your legatees? I said: 'Yes'.

I was addressed: Look towards the right of the 'Arsh'. (Throne) As soon as I cast my glance, I saw Ali, Fatemah, Hassan, Hussein, Ali-ibn- Hussein, Muhammad-ibn-Ali, Jafir-ibn-Muhammad, Musa-ibn-Safar, Ali-ibn- Musa, Muhammad-ibn-Ali, Ali-ibn-Muhammad, Hassan-ibn Ali and Muhammad-ibn-Hassan who appeared amongst them like sparkling star. Later, I was addressed: 'O Muhammad! They are My Proofs upon My servants. They are your legatees and Mahdi who is the avenger of your progeny is amongst them. I swear by My Glory and Majesty that Mahdi will take revenges from My enemies and will assist My friends.

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (section one, chapter four) narrates from Abu Na'eem (from the book Sefat-ul-Mahdi) who narrates from Huzaifa-ibn-Yaman that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said:

Woe to this nation because of its oppressive rulers. How they kill the believers and create fear in them leaving aside those who obey them. A believer is one who withholds himself from those who are good to him by tongue but weary of him by heart. Whenever Allah Wills to hold Islam in high esteem, He will destroy the oppressors. Allah has Power over all things and He is able to rectify a nation, which has gone corrupt.

Thereafter the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: 'O Huzaifa! If there remains not more than a day from the life of this world, then Allah will prolong that day to such an extent that a man from my progeny will appear and rule. He will conduct important affairs and will manifest the religion of Islam. Allah does not break His Promise and He is quick in reckoning.

In section three, chapter nine of the afore-said book, its author narrates that Amir-u-Mumineen Ali-ibn-Abi Talib while mentioning about Mahdi and his reforms says: There is no heresy but that Mahdi will uproot it and there is no 'Sunnah' (practice) but that Mahdi will enliven it. In the seventh chapter of the same book, he narrates from a congregation of traditionists namely Abu Na'eem Esfahani, Abul-Qasim Tabarani, Abu Abdur- Rahman-ibn-Abu Hatim, Abu Abdullah Na'eem-ibn-Hemad who narrate form Ali-ibn-Abi Talib that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) while mentioning about Mahdi and the fact that Allah would terminate the religion by his hands said:

People will be delivered from the troubles due to Mahdi just as they found deliverence from polytheism through us. Due to him, Allah will make them intimate with each other after having been hostile (hostility of troubles) just as He made them intimate towards each other though after hoslility of blasphemy. In section three, chapter nine of the same book, he narrates from Abdullah- ibn-Atha as such: I asked Imam Muhammad Baqir: When Mahdi emerges what will be his ways?

He replied: He will destroy the heresys which had been laid down before him just as the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) too had done the same. Mahdi will set forth Islam in a new and fresh manner. In the same section and the same chapter of the afore-said book, the author narrates from Ali-ibn- Abi Talib as such: There is no heresy but that Mahdi will eradicate it and there is no 'Sunnah' (practice) too but that Mahdi will establish it... In the third chapter of the afore-mentioned book, he narrates from Abu Bakr Baihaqi (from the book "Besath-wa-Nushur"), Ahmad-ibn-Hemad (from the book 'Mustadrik') and Abu Na'eem (from the book "Sefat-ul-Mahdi") who all narrate from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: I give you glad-tidings about Mahdi. He will emerge amongst my nation at the time when they will be in discord and war with each other. Then, Hazrat will fill the earth with equity and justice just as it was fraught with tyranny and oppression... Mahdi will fill the hearts of Muhammad's nation with riches and make them free from want. His justice would embrace all of them...

In the seventh chapter of the afore-mentioned book, he narrates from Amir-ul- Mumineen Ali (A.S.) as such: Mahdi will despatch his chiefs to various cities for establishing justice amongst the people. The wolves and sheeps shall graze together. The children will play with the snakes and scorpions without being harmed the least. Evil will vanish and goodness will remain. People will cultivate about 750 grammes and will receive in return about 525 kilograms just as the same has been mentioned in the Holy Quran. Adultery, wine - drinking and usury will be uprooted. People will have a relish for worship, divine laws and faith and a desire for mixing in the society. Life of man will lengthen, properties held in trust would be returned back, trees will bear fruits, blessings will double, the wicked will be destroyed, the virtuous ones will remain and those having grudge against the Ahl-e-Bayt will cease to exist. In the third chapter of the afore-said book, the author narrates from Nae'em- ibn-Hemad (from the book "Fatan") who in turn narrates from Jafar-ibn-Bashar Shami that (during Mahdi's era) injustice would be rebuffed to such extent that if something belonging to someone is hidden under a person's tooth he would remove it and give it back to its owners.

Victories and Developments under Mahdi's Rule

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter three) narrates from Abul-Hassan Maleki who narrates from 'Huzaifa-ibn-Yaman' that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: - If there remains not more than a day from the life of this world, Allah will raise a man from my progeny whose name will be the same as my name and his character will be the same as my character Allah will revive the religion through him and will establish victories for him. Except for those who say: There is no good but Allah

none else would remain over the earth… In the first chapter of the afore-said book, its author narrates from Abu Abdullah-ibn-Jauzi (from his 'Tarikh') who narrates from Abdullah-ibn-Abbass that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: Four persons ruled over the entire land - two of them from the believers and two from the un-believers. The two believers were Zul-Qarnain and Hazrat Sulaiman (A.S.) and the two disbelievers were Bakht-un-Nasr and Nimrod. Soon, a man from my progeny will become the owner of the entire land.

The author of "Es'aaf-ur-Raghebeen" (on page 150) says: It has come down in traditions that Mahdi Will become the owner of the East and the West. The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" narrates (on page 447) from the book "Fara'ed-us-Semtain" which narrates from Sa'eed-ibn-Jubair who narrates from Ibn-Abbass that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: There will be twelve Caliphs and successors after me who will be the Proofs of Allah upon His creatures. The first of them is Ali and the last of them is my son, Mahdi. Then Isa-ibn-Maryam will descend and will pray behind Mahdi. The earth will illuminate by means of the Divine Light and Mahdi's rule will extend from East to West.

On the same page of the same book, he narrates from the book "Fara'ed-us- Semtain" which narrates from Abu-Imamah Baheli that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: Mahdi will extract the treasures and will conquer the cities of the polytheists and infidels.

The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" narrates (on page 487) from the book "Fara'ed-us-Semtain" which narrates from Sa'eed-ibn-Jubair who narrates from Ibn-Abbass that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: If not more than a day remains from the life of this world, Allah will prolong that day until Mahdi who is from my offspring will emerge... The earth will illuminate by means of the Divine Light and Mahdi's rule will spread over the East and West.

The Period of Mahdi's Caliphate and Rule

Diverse traditions exists on the period of Mahdi's Caliphate and rule and the extent of Hazrat's life especially those traditions which have came down from our Sunni brethrens.

Abu Dawoud has narrated that Mahdi shall rule for a period of seven years. Tirmidhi has narrated that Mahdi shall rule for a period of five, seven or nine years. Ibn-Maaja too has narrated the same. Hakim has narrated in 'Fsaaf-ur- Raghebeen' that Mahdi shall rule for seven or nine years. However Ibn-Hajar has mentioned only seven years (and not nine) for Mahdi's rule.

It has been narrated from Tabarani and Bazzaz that Mahdi shall live for seven, eight or maximum nine years. It is narrated from Maawardi and Ahmad that Hazrat shall live for five, seven, eight or nine years and after him there will be no goodness left. Some of the traditions mention Mahdi's rule to extend for twenty years just as the author of "Eqdud-Durar" has narrated the same from Abu Na'eem and Tabarani. Moreover the author of "Eqdud-Durar" has narrated from Na'eem-ibn-Hemad that Mahdi would survive for forty years. However, traditions, which mention Mahdi's life to last for seven years are more. Some traditions mention that Mahdi shall rule for seven years where each year would be equal to twenty years of our reckoning. That is to say, in each year, Mahdi will conduct the reformatory tasks and Islamic teachings for a period of twenty years. Some traditions mention that he would rule for ten years. The sayings of 'Ulemas' (learned scholars) in this regard are diverse. Some have said: Doubt has arisen from the narrator and the proof of this view is the statement of Tirmidhi who says: "It is due to the narrator's doubt."

The author of "Es'aaf-ur-Raghebeen" (page 155) says: Most of the traditions mention Mahdi's rule to last for seven years and with regards to seven to nine years it is doubtful.

One tradition mentions Hazrat's rule to last for six years. Ibn-Hajar says: The matter on which traditions are in agreement with each other is this that Mahdi will undoubtedly rule for seven years. He has also narrated from Abul-Hassan Abari that abundant and authentic traditions indicate that Mahdi will rule for seven years.

Author says: Abul-Hassan Abari's saying is more clear and well-known. In this saying, there exists a great virtue for Mahdi and it is this that within this short period, he will rise for the religions and worldly reforms just as his great grandfather, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) revolted within a period of eight years i.e. in the second year of Hurat.

The author of "Es'aaf-ur-Raghebeen" (page 156) says: - One tradition mentions the period of Mahdi's rule to be more than what was mentioned. Another tradition states that Mahdi would rule for forty years. Another tradition mentions twenty-one years and yet another tradition mentions fourteen years. Ibn-Hajar Isqalani in 'Ala'maat Mahdi Muntazar' says: Traditions mentioning the seven-year period of Mahdi's rule are more in number and more famous. Assuming the correctness of all the traditions, we can conclude from all of them as such: Traditions, which mention forty years, refer to the period of his rule. Traditions, which mention seven, eight or nine years refers to the last degree of manifestation of his rule and power. Moreover, traditions, which mention twenty or fourteen years, refer to the average limit of the rule.

Author says: The reason for the differences in traditions in this regard may be that the reality of this matter and the duration for which Mahdi will rule should not be known just as the time of his emergence is concealed and unknown) in order that one's attention is drawn towards all sides and he longs for Mahdi's victory and long stay till the maximum period of time even though the saying of seven-year period is preferable.

Conclusion

The number and Place of Mahdi's Helpers Asbagh-ibn-Nubatah says: Amir-ul-Mumineen Ali (A.S.) recited a sermon and mentioned therein something about the emergence of Mahdi and his helpers. Abu Khalid Halabi or Kabuli said: "O Ali, inform us something about his qualities." He replied: From the viewpoint of character and creation, he resembles the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) the most. Should I inform you about his helpers? They said: "Yes, O Amirul-Mumineen." He replied: I heard the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) saying: The first of them would be from Basra and the last of them from Yamamah. Thereafter Hazrat began to count Mahdi's companions. People were crying and Ali (A.S.) was saying:

Two persons from Basra, one person from Ahwaz, one person from Mina, one person from Shushtar, one person from Duraq, four persons namely Ali, Ahmad, Abdullah and Jafar from Baastan, two persons by the names of Muhammad and Hassan from Amman, two persons - Shaddad and Shadid from Siraf, three persons - Hafas, Yaqub and Ah from Shiraz, four persons Musa, Ali, Abdullah and Ghalafan from Esfahan, one person by the name of Yahya from Abdah, one person by the name of Dawoud from Maraj or A'raj, one person by the name of Abdullah from Karaj, one person by the name of Qadeem from Burujerd, one person by the name of Abdur-Razzak from Nahawand, two persons - Abdullah and Abdus-Samad from Dainul, three persons - Jafar, Ishaaq and Musa from Hamadan, two persons - whose names are similar to the names of Holy Prophet's Ahl-e-bayt - from Qum, one person by the name of Darid and five others whose names are similar to the names of 'Ashab-e-Kahf' from Khurasan, one person from Aamol, one person from Joijan, one person from Herat, one person from Balkh, one person from Qarah, one person from A'ane, one person from Damghan, one person from Sarkhas, three persons from Saiyar, one person from Sayah, one person from Samarkand, twenty-four persons from Thaleqan - They are the same ones about whom the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said:

In Khurasan, treasures can be found which are not gold or silver. But they are men whom Allah and His Prophet will gather together - two persons from Qazvin, one person from Fars, one person from Abhar, one person from Birjan, one person from Shakh, one person from Sareeh, one person from Ardabil, one person from Morad, one person from Tadammor, one person from Armani, three persons from Maragha, one person from Khuee, one person from Salmas, one person from Badices, one person from Nasur, one person from Barkari, one person from Sarkhis, one person from Munaijerd, one person from Qaliqala, three persons from Waseth, ten persons from Baghdad, four persons from Kufa, one person from Qadasieh, one person from Surah, one person from Serat, one person from Nael, one person from Saidah, one person from Juijan, one person from Qusur, one person from Anbaar, one person from Akbarah, one person from Hananeh, one person from Tabuk, one person from Jaamedah, three persons from Abadan, six persons from Hadisah Musel, one person from Mosul, one person from Maqlasaya, one person from Naseebeen, one person from Arwan, one person from Faraqeen, one person from Aamed, one person from Ra's-ul-Ain, one person from Reqqah, one person from Haran, one person from Bales, one person from Qabeeh, one person from Tartus, one person from Qasr, one person from Adneh, one person from Hamari, one person from Arar, one person from Qures, one person from Anthakia, three persons from Halab, two persons from Hamas, four persons from Damascus, one person from Syria, one person from Qaswan, one person from Qaimut, one person from Sur, one person from Karaj, one person from Azrah, one person from Aamer, one person from Dakar, two persons from Baitul-Muqaddas, one person from Ramalich, one person from Bales, two persons from Acca, one person from Arafat, one person from Asqalan, one person from Gazah, fourpersons from Fasath, one person from Qaramis, one person from Damyath, one person from Mahaleh, one person from Askanderiyeh, one person from Barqah, one person from Tanjah, one person from Mranjah, one person from Qirwan, five persons from Sus Aqsa, two persons from Qirus, three persons from Jamim, one person from Qus, one person from Aden, one person from Alali, ten persons from Medina, four persons from Mecca, one person from Ta'if, one person from Dair, one person from Shirwan, one person from Zubaid, ten persons from Saru, one person from Ahsah, one person from Qateef, one person from Hajar and one person from Yamameh.

Ali (A.S.) said: The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) counted them to me until they became 313 in number, the same as the companions of 'Badr'. Allah will gather them from the East and West and place them near the Holy Ka'aba by the wink of an eye. When the people of Mecca will witness this, they will say: 'Sufyani has gathered us around himself'. After coming in contact with the people of Mecca they will see a group gathered around the 'Ka'aba' and the darkness and gloom will have departed from them and the dawn of hope ascended and they will tell each other:

Salvation (perhaps meaning to say that we have found salvation). The noble people will watch and their rulers we go in deep thought.

Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) said: As if I am seeing them - their appearance, height, physique, face, beauty and clothes are all one and the same. As though they are in search of something which they have lost and are now thoughtful and perplexed over this matter until a person who resembles the Prophet the most in creation and appears before them from behind the curtain of the Ka'aba. They will ask him: "Are you the Mahdi?" He will reply: Yes, I am the Promised Mahdi. Thereafter Hazrat will address them as such: Swear allegiance to me with regards to forty qualities and enter into a covenant with me with regards to ten qualities.

Annaf said: "O Ali what are those qualities? He replied: They will swear allegiance that they will not steal, commit adultery, kill someone injustly, defame the honor of a respectable person, abuse a Muslim, swarm a house, mount on a thin and weak animal, decorate themselves falsely (wear gold), wear fur, wear silk, wear clogs obstruct the path for anyone, commit injustice to the orphans, play trick and deceit anyone, eat the wealth of the orphans, indulge in homosexuality, drink wine, commit treason in trust, breach the promises, hoard wheat and barley, kill someone who seeks refuge in him, pursue the defeated one, shed blood injustly and embark on killing the injured one. Moreover one should wear coarse garments, consider the ground as ones pillow, eat bread made out of barley, be satisfied with whatever meagre he receives, participate in 'Jihad' (holy war) the way it should be done, smell musk and other good fragrances, avoid impurity…"

Second Conclusion

References


Amongst the matters which are good and rather necessary to mention is the names of books and authors - the sources from which we have narrated the traditions in the book of 'Al-Mahdi'. This is so that the rights of those authors are duly paid and rather, the respected readers gain self-satisfaction. The following are the references of the book "AL-MAHDI": 1. The book "Es'aaf-ar-Raghebeen" is about the virtues of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) and his Ahl-e-bayt (A.S.). It's written by Shaikh Muhammad Saban who died in the year 1206.

2. The book "Ja'ame-ul-Lalif" is about the exellence of Mecca and the construction of the Holy Mosque. Its author is Allama Shaikh Jamaluddin Muhammad Jarrullah-ibn-Muhammad-ibn-Nuruddin-ibn-Abu Bakr-ibn-Ali Zahiray Qurshi Makhzumi. This book was written in the year 950 Hijri and was printed in the year 1276 in the printing-house of Dar Ehya-ul- Kitabul-Arabiya.

3. Commentary on Nahjul-Balagha - written by a leading personality in literacy and history by the name of Shaikh Ezzuddin Abu Hamed Abdul Hamid- ibn-Hebtullah Mada'eni famous as Ibne-Abil Ha did who died in the year 655 Hijri. This book has been printed in four volumes in Darul-Kitab al-Arabiya in Egypt.

4. Sahih Bukhari - written by a leading traditionist Abu Abdullah Muhamamd-ibn-Isma'eel- ibn-Ibrahim- ibn -Mughaira who died in the year 256 Hijri. This book has been printed in the year 1312 in the publishing-house of Maimaniya in Egypt.

5. Sahih Sunan Mustafa - written by a leading traditionist Abu Dawoud Sulaiman-ibn-Asha'r Sajestani who died in the year 357.

6. Sahih Tirmidhi - written by Abu Isa Muhammad-ibn-Surah who died in the year 278. This book was printed in the year 1310 at Luck now in India.

7. Sawa'eq Muharreqa - written by Shaikh Shahabuddin Ahmad-ibn-Hajar Haisami against the people of innovation and heresy. He died in the year 974 in Mecca. This book was printed in Egypt in the year 1933.

8. Eqdud-Durar - written about the Awaited Imam by the great scholar Abu Badr Shaikh Jamaluddin Yusuf-ibn-Yahya-ibn-Ali-ibn-Abdul Aziz-ibn-Ali Muqaddasi, Shafa'ee, Selmi, and Damashqi who finished writing this book in the year 658 A.H. This book is the best and the most comprehensive book written by one Sunni brother in this regard. I have not come across the printed script of this book and perhaps it may not have been printed at all.

Verily, two copies of the said book is present in the library of Hazrat Ali-ibn- Musa ar-Ridha (A.S.) where one of them had been written in the year 953 A.H. Another copy of this book is present in the library of the leader of all leaders in traditions i.e. Mirza Muhammad Hussein Nouri Tabarsi (died in 1320) just as the same can be known from his book 'Kashful-Astar'.

Another copy too can be found in the library of our leader Sayyed Shahabuddin Mar'ashi Najafi just as he himself told me about the same. Yet another copy is present in the library of our master Abul-Mujed Muhammad Ridha Esfahani. This is the same copy on which we have relied and narrated from but was not devoid of any errors. In the book Durrarul Musawwiyah, Oust as we pointed in the preface of this book) he ascribes the book 'Eqdud-Durar' to Ali-ibn-Shahab Hamadani. However this is apparently a mistake because I have never come across anyone ascribing this book to the afore-said sayyed. Verily, the book 'Muwwadah al-Qurba' belongs to the afore- mentioned Sayyed.

From the last portion of the book 'Yanabi-ul-Muwadda' and the book 'Ghayat-ul-Maram' it appears that Abu Abdullah Ganji in his book 'Al-Bayan- Fi Akhbar Saheb-uz-Zaman' and the book 'Kefayat-Talib-Fi-Faza'el Ali-ibn- Abi Talib' narrates some of his collections from the book 'Eqdud-Durar'. 9. The book 'Fotouhat-Islamiyah' after 'Fotouhat-Nabawiyah' - written by the scholar Sayed Ahmad Zaini Dehlan a 'Mujtahid' (expert in Islamic jurisprudence) of Mecca who died in the year 1304. This book has been published in two parts in the publishing house of Mustapha Muhammad in Egypt.

10. The book 'Fotouhat-Makkiyah' written by the mystic scholar and researcher Shaikh Abu Abdullah Mohyid din Muhammad-ibn -Ali famous as Ibn-Arabi Hatemi Tha'ee. Truly, this book is a useful book in its own field and I don't imagine there exists another of its kind. This book has been printed in Egypt in Darrul-Kitab al-Arabia al-Kubra publishing-house.

11. The book "Kashf-uz-Zunoon-an-Asami al-Kutub wal-Funoon". As it can be judged from its name, this book is majestic in its own field. It has been written by the scholar Mulla Kateb Chalabi who died in the year 1067. This book was printed in Darrul-Sa'adeh in two volumes.

12. The book "Mafatih-ul-Ghaib" which is a famous exegesis written by the research scholar Muhammad Fakhruddin Razi who died in the year 606 A.H. This book was printed in eight volumes in the publishing-house of 'Aamera' in the year 1308 A.H. The exegesis of Abu Saud too has been printed in the margin of this exegesis.

13. Mufradat al-Quran - written by the research scholar Abul-Qasim Hussein- ibn-Muhammad-ibn-Mufazzal famous as Ragheb Esfahani who died in the year 502 A.H. This book has been printed in the margin of 'Nihaya' of Ibn-Athir in Egypt.

14. The book "Nur-ul-Absar" written about the virtues of Ahl-e-bayt of the Holy Prophet. It has been written by the scholar Sayyed Mu'min Ibn-Hassan Shablanji who died in the year 1208 A.H. This book was printed in the year 1304 A.H. in Egypt in the Uthmani printing-house.

15. The book "Nihaya" which is on the subject of explanation of words used in traditions and Quran and is written by the research scholar and lexicographist Abus-Saadat Mubarak-ibn-Muhammad-ibn-Muhammad Jauzi well-known as Ibn-Athir who died in the year 606 AH. This book has been printed in four volumes in the publishing-house of 'Khairiyah' in Egypt.

16. Nahjul-Balagha - compiled by Allama Sharif Razi -Muhammad-ibn-Abu Ahmad Musawi who was the chief of seekers of knowledge in Baghdad. In this book, he has collected the sermons, letters and aphorisms of Amir-ul-Mumineen Ali-ibn-Abi Talib (A.S.). This book has been printed into three parts in one volume in the printing-house of 'Esteqamah' in Egypt. Shaikh Muhammad Abdoh who was the 'Mofti' (passing judicial decrees) of Egypt, Shaikh Mohyiddin and Muhammad Abdul Hamid who was the professor of Al-Azhar have written a commentary on this book.

17. The magazine "Hudal-Islam" which is printed weekly in Egypt under the guidance of Muhammad Ahmad Sairafi and a number of scholars of Egypt have given their share of contribution to this magazine. Undoubtedly this magazine is a religious magazine and is rare in its own field. It was started from 1354 A.H and is still being published.

18. The book "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda-Fi-Muwaddat Zul-Qarba" - written by the mystic scholar Shaikh Sulaiman-ibn-Khawja Kalan Husseini Balkhi Qunduzi who died in the year 1294 A.H. This book was printed in the publishing-house of 'Akhtar'.


THE END