Descension of Isa-Ibn-Maryam (A.S.)
 

Bukhari in his "Sahih" (vol. 2 pg. 158) narrates from Abu Huraira, that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: "How be it at the time when Ibne Maryam will descend down amongst you and your Imam will be from you." Then the author of "Eqdud-Durar" (in chapter ten) has narrated the same tradition from "Sahih" of Muslim.

In chapter one of "Eqdud-Durar" its author narrates from Abu Na'eem (from the book of Manaqib-e-Mahdi) who narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said:

"The one behind whom Isa, the son of Maryam will pray is from my progeny." Also, in the same chapter of the same book, he has narrated a similar tradition from Na'eem-ibn-Hemad (from the book 'Fatan'). Author says: Traditions in this regard are abundant and this saying is an authentic saying in which the renowned ones believe. The Sunni scholars too believe in this saying. The saying that Mahdi will follow Isa-ibn-Maryam and which can be seen in some of the traditions or books are few in numbers and are unworthy of attention.

The author of "Es'aaf-ur-Raghebeen" (on page 159) has narrated from Shaikh Mohyidin Arabi from his book of "Futouhat" as such: The Almighty God will make Isa-ibn-Maryam descend over the white Minaret which is on the East of Damascus along with two angels where one would be on his right side and the other on his left. People at that time would be engaged in their evening prayers. When Isa will descend, Imam will offer his place to Isa who in turn would go ahead and recite (the congregation) prayers with the people.

After narrating this tradition the author of "Futouhat" says: - This saying that Isa will recite prayers with the people at the time of his descension, is inconsistent with the past traditions saying: The one who will recite prayers with the people is Mahdi. Thereafter he says: The saying that people would be engaged in evening prayers at the time of Isa's descension is inconsistent with what history says that:

People would be engaged in morning prayers at the time of Isa's descension. Ibn-Hajar in his "Sawa'eq" (on page 99) says: What is apparent is this that Mahdi's emergence will take place before Isa's descension, while it is said that it would occur after Isa's descension. Abul-Hassan Abari says: Abundent traditions with successive transmission have come at band from Hazrat Mustafa (S.A.W.A.) that: Mahdi will emerge; that Mahdi is from the progeny of the Holy Prophet; that Mahdi will rule for seven years; that Mahdi will fill the earth with justice; that Mahdi will emerge along with Isa (A.S.) that Isa will assist Mahdi in killing Dajjal at the Gate of Lud in Palestine; that Mahdi will lead this nation and Isa will pray behind Hazrat.

Ibn-Hajar says: Abul-Hassan's statement that Mahdi would lead the prayers and Isa would stand behind him is a matter which is substantiated by traditions just as we have mentioned before. However Taftazani's statement that Isa would lead Mahdi because of the former being more superior that the latter and so Isa is more preferable and worthy is without any evidence. This is because Mahdi's Imamate (leadership) for Isa means that Isa will descend from the heavens so that he remains as a follower of our Holy Prophet and remains governed by his 'Shariat' (religious laws)and does not possess any independence for his own 'Shariat'. Moreover the matter that Isa will follow someone from this nation (i.e. Mahdi) eventhough Isa may be more superior than the Imam whom he follows, is so explicit and clear that nothing remains concealed from this matter. Besides, we can gather together these two sayings and say: Isa will first of all follow Mahdi in order that he manifests his motive (i.e. following the Islandi path) and after that Mahdi will follow Isa so that he has had acted upon the essence of the principle.

Author says: Ibn-Hajar's objection and reply to Taftazani's views is a matter to think about just as the same is not concealed from our respected readers. The author of "Es'aaf-ur-Raghebeen" (on page 163) says: In the book of "Kashf" Suyuti has narrated in various ways that after descending down, Isa would live for a period of forty years. Again Suyuti in his book "E'alam" says: As explicitly mentioned by the scholars Isa will judge as per the Shariat of our Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A). Traditions have come down in this regard and a consensus too has been agreed upon.

Author says: Traditions in this regard are numerous where in the third chapter of this book traditions have already been mentioned through Ganji tongue which is compatible with this matter is.

Blessings of Mahdi's Emergence

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (in chapter five) narrates from Hakim Abu Abdullah (from his "Mustadrak") that Abdullah-ibn-Abbass said: During Mahdi's time the wild and ferocious animals would live in peace and the earth would throw out its buried treasures. I asked: Which are the earths buried treasures? He replied: Pillars of gold and silver.

Hakim says: This is a tradition whose claim of transmission is correct but which has not been narrated by Muslim and Bukhari. Author says: The earth's buried treasure refers to its mines. In the seventh chapter of the same book, its author narrates from Hakim (from his "Mustadrak") who narrates from Osman-ibn-Sa'eed Muqarri (from his "Sunan") who narrates from Huzaifa-ibn-Yaman that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A) said:

The inhabitants of the sky, the birds, the beasts and the fishes in the sea will become delighted by Mahdi's existence. During the period of Mahdi's rule, water will be found abundantly, springs will flourish everywhere, the earth's minerals will multiply, and the earth will throw out its treasure... In the seventh chapter of the afore-said book, the author narrates from Hakim (from his 'Mustadrak') who narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (SA.W.A) said:

A severe calamity whose severity had never been heard before will befall my nation so much so that things will turn miserable for my nation and the earth will become fraught with cruelty and oppression. The believers will fail to seek any place to shelter for themselves. It will be then that Allah will raise a man from my progeny who will fill the earth with justice and equity just as it was filled with tyranny and oppression. The residents of the heavens and earth will be satisfied with Mahdi. The earth will not store its grain but emit it out and the sky too would not store drops of its rain but would descend it down. Mahdi would rule over the people for seven, eight or nine years. Allah would destine welfare and blessing to such extent that those living would wish the dead to become alive.

Hakim says: This is a tradition whose claim of transmission is correct but which has not been narrated by Muslim and Bukhari.

Again in the same chapter of the a aforesaid book, its author narrates from Abu Na'eem (from the book 'Manaqib of Mahdi') and Tabarani (from the book 'Mu'ajam) who narrate from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: During Mahdi's era my nation will enjoy such bounties which they had never enjoyed before. The sky will descend rain upon them while the earth too would not release anything from its vegetation but that it would expel them out.

In the same chapter of the afore-said book, its author narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: Mahdi will emerge from my nation. Allah will resolve him as the saviour of the people. My nation will live in pleasure due to Mahdi's existence. Due to him, the animals too will live a laudable life. The earth will expel out its vegetation. Mahdi will distribute wealth in the just manner.

In the eighth chapter of the afore-said book, its author narrates from Tabarani (from his Mu'ajam) and Na'eem-ibn-Hemad (from the book "Fatan") who narrate from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: During Mahdi's era, my nation will enjoy such bounties which they had never enjoyed before the like of it. The sky would descend rain upon them while the earth would not neglect anything from its vegetation but that it would expel them out. Wealth at that time would not have any value such that a man will rise and say: "O Mahdi grants me wealth." Hazrat will reply: Take...

In the same book, he narrates from Abu Na'eem Esfahani (from the book "Sefat-ul-Mahdi") who narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: The one who will act upon my 'Sunnah' (ways) will be the one who will emerge. The sky will send down its bounties and the earth too would throw out its blessings. The earth will be filled with justice just as it was filled with oppression. Ibn-Hajar in "Sawa'eq" (page 97) narrates from Hakim (from his "Sahih") that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A) said: The inhabitants of the heaven and the earth Jove Mahdi. The earth will throw out its vegetation and will not keep it in store... Allah will favour the inhabitants of the earth with so much blessings and bounties that those alive would wish the dead ones to be alive.

Mahdi's Actions and Invitation

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter seven) narrates from Na'em-ibn- Hemad (from the book "Fatan") who narrates from Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.) as such: When corruption will be in strife, Mahdi will emerge in Mecca. At the moment he will have with him the Holy Prophet's banner, sword, shirt and certain other signs. As soon as he finishes reciting the night prayers he will call out in a loud voice as such: 'O people! I remind you of that moment when you will be standing before your Lord while He will have completed the arguments: He has sent the Prophets, revealed the Books and commanded you not to set partners for Allah. Safeguard the obedience and submission of Allah and His Prophet. Whatever the Holy Quran brings to life, you too strive to bring them to life and whatever the Holy Quran dooms to death, you too strive for the same. Be my companion and minister in virtuousity because the world is near annihilation and has bid farewell. I call you towards Allah and His Messenger in order that you act upon His Book. Keep away the falsehood and enliven the Holy Prophet's 'Sunnah' (ways).

Mahdi will emerge swiftly and suddenly like the autumn cloud along with three hundred and thirteen men equal to the number of the companions of 'Badr'. At night he will be busy in worship and at day he will be like a roaring lion. Thus Allah will bring triumph for Mahdi in the land of 'Hejaz'. Mahdi will set free those ones from Bani-Hashim who would be in prison at that time. People with black flags will enter Kufa and will approach Mahdi for swearing allegiance to him. Mahdi himself would send his armies to different corners of the world for the purpose of receiving allegiance. The oppressors will be vanquished and the inhabitants of the cities will surrender to Mahdi...

In the same chapter of the afore-said book, its author narrates from Abu Na'eem (from the book "Sefat-ul-Mahdi") who in turn narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: Someone from my progeny will emerge who will be acting upon my 'Sunnah'. Blessings will descend down from the sky and the earth too would throw out its bounties. The earth will be filled with justice and equity just as it was filled with tyranny and oppression.

In the same chapter of the same book, its author narrates from Abdullah-ibn- Atha as such: I told Imam Muhammad Baqir: Inform me about the 'Qae'm'. He replied: I am not the 'Qae'm and the one whom you refer to is not the 'Qae'm'.

I asked: How will be Mahdi's ways and policies? He replied: Just like the ways of the Holy Prophet's. In the same book, he narrates from Na'eem-ibn-Hemad who narrates from Ayesha that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: Mahdi is from my progeny. He will fight as per my Sunnah just as I fought as per the revealation. Ibn-Hejar in his "Swae'q" (page 98) and the author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" (page 433) have narrated a tradition with almost the same contents. The author of "Es'aaf-ur-Raghebean" (page 161) says: Mohyiddin Arabi in "Fotouhat-Makkiyah" says: Mahdi will act by virtue of Divine inspiration since the Holy Prophet's canons will be revealed to Mahdi by inspiration just as the tradition:

refers to this very matter.

Thus the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has made us realize that Mahdi is the follower of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) and not that he is a heretic. Besides he makes us realize that Mahdi is an infallible. Such analogy is needed - In spite of being infallible and in spite of receiving inspiration from God. As a matter of fact, some of the researchers reckon analogy to be forbidden for all the divine men since the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) can be witnessed for them. When the divine men doubt in any tradition or command they refer to the Holy Prophet and he in turn directly acquaints them with the truth. The Master of the affairs is needless of following any of the Imams, other than the Holy Prophet.

Mahdi's Virtuous Way

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter five) narrates from Abu Amro Osman- ibn-Sa'eed Muqarri (from his book 'Sunan') who narrates from108 Huzaifa-ibn- Yaman that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said:

The inhabitants of the sky, the inhabitants of the earth, the birds, the beasts and the fishes will become delighted by Mahdi's existence. In the seventh chapter of the same book, its author narrates from Abu Na'eem (from the book "Sefat-ul-Mahdi") and Imam Ahmad (from the book "Musnad") who in turn narrate from Abu Saeed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: I give you glad tidings about Mahdi... The inhabitants of the earth and the heavens will be satisfied with him.

In the third chapter of the same book, its author narrates from Na'eem-ibn- Hemad (from the book "Fatan") that Jabir-ibn-Abdullah said: A person approached Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.) and said: Accept these five hundred dirhams as 'Zakat' (poll tax) on my wealth. Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.) replied: You may give those five hundred dirhams to your Muslim neighbours and to your Muslim brethrens who are in distress. Thereafter Imam (A.S.) said: When Mahdi, the 'Qae'm' from our progeny will emerge; he will distribute wealth equally and will tread the farmers with justice. In the same chapter of the same book, the author narrates from Abu Amro Muqarri (from his book 'Sunan') and Hafiz: Na'eem-ibn-Hemad (from the book 'Fatan') that Ka'ab al-Akbar said: I see Mahdi's name in the books of the Prophet. His rule is neither in just nor oppressive.

Ibn-Hajar in his "Sawae'q" (page 98) narrates from Ruyani, Tabarani and others that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: Mahdi is from my offspring...

The inhabitants of the earth and sky and the birds are satisfied with Mahdi's caliphate... On page 99 of the same book, he has narrated from Ahmad and Mawardi a tradition with similar contents. Mahdi's Praiseworthy Morals The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter three) narrates from Harith-ibn- Mughaira Nazri as such: I told Hussein-ibn-Ali: By what wign should we recognize Mahdi?

He replied: By his calmness and dignity.

In the same book, he narrates from Hafiz Abu Muhammad Hussein (from the 108-Mahdi will follow me and he shall not do any wrong.

book "Masabeeh") that Ka'abal-Ahbar said: "Like an Eagle with its two wings, Mahdi will be humble for the sake of Allah." In the eigth chapter of the same book, he narrates from Na'eem-ibn-Hema'd (from the book "Fatan") who narrates from Ta'oos as such: Amongst the signs of Mahdi is this that he would be strict with his officials and generous and kind with the indigent.

In section three, chapter nine of the same book; he narrates from Na'eem-ibn- Hemad (from the book "Fatan") that Abu Rumiyah said: Mahdi will show kindness to the poor and will caress them. Again in section three, chapter nine of the same book he narrates from Hussein-ibn-Ali (A.S.) as such:

When Mahdi emerges nothing will judge between him and the Arab and the Quraish except the sword. For what reason do they make haste in Hazrat's emergence!? I swear by Allah that Mahdi will not wear but coarse and rough clothes and will not eat but bread made of barley and death will be hidden beneath his sword.

Religion Will Terminate in Mahdi

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter one) narrates from a group well-versed in traditions namely Abul Qasim Tabarani, Abu Na'eem Esfahani, Abu Abd ur - Rahman-ibn-Abu Hatim and Abu Abdullah Na'eem-ibn-Hemad and others that Amir-ul-Mumineen Abli-ibn-Abi Talib (A.S.) said: I asked the Holy Prophet: O Messenger of Allah! Is Mahdi from our progeny or others? He replied: As a matter of fact, he will be from us. Allah will terminate the religion through Mahdi just as He commenced it through us.

In the seventh chapter of the afore-s aid book, he narrates from the previous narrators that Ali-ibn- Abi Talib (AS.) said: I asked the Holy Prophet: - Is Mahdi from us, progeny of Muhammad or from others!? He replied: As a matter of fact, he will be from us. Allah will terminate the religion through Mahdi just as he commenced it through us.

In the same chapter of the same book, its author narrates from Hafiz Abu Bakr Baihaqi who narrates from Amir-ul-Mumineen Ali-ibn-Ali Talib (A.S.) that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: Mahdi is from our progeny. Religion will end through him just as it commenced through us. Ibn-Hajar in his "Sawa'eq" (page 97) has narrated from Abul-Qasim Tabarani that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has said: Mahdi is from us. Religion will end through him just as it commenced through us. The author of "Es'aaf-ur-Raghebeen" (page 148) narrates from Tabarani that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: Mahdi is from our progeny. "Religion will end through him just as it commenced through us."

The Jews and the Christians

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter seven) narrates from Na'eem-ibn- Hemad (front the book "Fatan") that Sulaiman-ibn-Isa said: It has come down to me that the Ark of the Covenant will be taken out from the late of Tabariah. The Ark will be carried and placed in front of Baitul-Muqaddas when a group of Jews will witness it, they will surrender.

In the third chapter of the same book, the author says: In some of the traditions it is stated: The reason why Mahdi is called as Mahdi is because he will be directed towards the books of Torah and he would take them out from the mountains of Syria. He would invite the Jews towards the books and a congregation will submit themselves before the books of Torah. The author of "Eqdud-Durar" says: - Abu Amro Mada'eni in his "Sunan" has said: The reason why Mahdi has been called as Mahdi is because he will be directed towards the mountain of Syria and will take out the books of Torah from it. He will argue and rationalize with the Jews by means of Tarah and a congregation of Jews will surrender to him.

The author "Es'aaf-ur-Raghebeen" (page 153) says:

Mahdi will take out the Ark of the Covenant and the books of Torah from the cave of Anthakia and mountain of Syria respectively. He will argue with the Jews by means of Torah and a large number of the Jews will surrender to him. The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" narrates (on page 476) from the author of "Meshkat al-Masabeeh" who narrates from Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said:

Isa-ibn-Maryam will descend and will judge with justice. He will destroy the cross and will kill the pork. He will nullify the 'Jazia' (poll tax), set free the young camels and will not ride upon them. He will eradicate enmity and will destroy grudge, hatred and jealousy.

Author says: That he will nullify the 'Jazia' perhaps refers to this point that all the people at that time would be following the religion of Islam just as destruction of the cross too is a metaphoric remark in this regard. Eradication of enmity, grudge, hatred and jealousy too may mean that these will be obviated between the Jew and Christian by the blessings of Isa-ibn-Maryam's descension.

Manifestation of the Religion of Islam

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter two) narrates from Abul-Hassan Rab'ee Maleki who narrates from Huzaifa-ibn-Yaman that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) while mentioning about Mahdi, his agnomen and place of allegiance says:

Allah will restore the religion by means of Mahdi and will produce victories and triumphs for him. Then, except for those who say "There is no god except Allah" none others would be left on the earth...? The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" narrates (on page 476) from Shaikh Mohyiddin Arabi from his book "Futouhat-Makkiyah" (chapter 366) about Mahdi and his ministers and says: Mahdi will emerge when religion would be on the decline. The one who would not accept will be killed and the one who would engage in debate with him will be defeated. He will so reveal the realities of religion that had the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) been alive, he too would have judged in the same manner. He will eradicate the (false) religions from the face of the earth. Then, except for the pure religion, no other religion would remain over the earth.