Chapter Eight : Virtue of Awaiting for Mahdi
 

The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" (page 493) narrates from 'Khawrazmi' (book of "Manaqib") that Imam Muhammad Baqir has narrated from his father who has narrated from his grand-father who has narrated from Amirul- Mumineen that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: - "Awaiting for the 'Faraj' (deliverance) is the best act of worship." The author of 'Manaqib' says: Awaiting for the 'Faraj' means awaiting for Mahdi's emergence.

Author says: Shii'te traditions corroborate the afore-mentioned tradition. MEANING OF 'INTEZAR' (AWAITING): 'Intezar' means gaining and achieving an affair for which one awaits. The reformatory affair with regards to Mahdi's emergence is not hidden and concealed for any individual let alone the social board, especially the Shia-Immiyahs. Firstly, 'Intezar' (Awaiting) by itself invites the satisfaction of Mahdi so much so that it is said:

'Intezar' is more sever than killing. The essential condition for Awaiting for the 'Faraj' is employing the mental faculties and fixing the mind in the direction of the affair for which one is awaiting. This matter will forcibly become the cause of two affairs: One that the mental faculty will bring an increase in power and the other that man can concentrate his entire power on one affair. Moreover than those two affairs, are amongst the most important things required by man for his subsistence and future life.

Secondly, the suppression of misfortunes will become easy for man because he knows that these misfortunes are subject to amends and provisions. A vast difference exists between those misfortunes which are known by man to be capable of amendment or not, especially when he presumes that soon everything will be prepared and Mahdi by his emergence will fill the earth with Justice and equity.

Thirdly, the necessary condition, for 'Intezar' is this that man should adore being amongst the companions and Shias of Mahdi and rather amongst his helpers. This requires that Mahdi's Shia should strive in rectifying his own self and making good his morals so that he can be worthy enough of becoming Mahdi's companion and engaging in holy war for him. Verily, this prosperity requires such ethics, which is scarce today amongst us. Fourtly, just as 'Intezar' becomes the cause of rectification of the self and rather the cause of rectification of others, it also becomes the cause of preparation of the rudiments for Mahdi's victory over his enemies. The essential condition for this victory is that one should acquire knowledge and insight especially so when man knows that Mahdi's victory over his enemies would take place through ordinary channels.

These were some of the effects, which would arise from the act of 'Intezar' (Awaiting) - if at all 'Intezar' is done in its true sense. Besides, Intezar discovers good and pleasing qualities, which are as follows:

Firstly, it explores the perfection of wisdom and verity of perception because a 'Muntazir' (i.e. an Awaiter) believes that an Imam should exist at all times and knows that the Imam of today is MAHDI. Thus he brings faith in Mahdi without having seen him. In short; one could believe in Hazrat without coming into contact with him.

Secondly 'Intezar' for deliverance discovers such affairs as love for establishment of truth and justice, implementation of Divine Commands and limitations, execution of the affairs on the basis of a correct and fundamental pivot and man's achievement of the goals for which he has been created. Thirdly, it would reveal the veracity of man's love and friendship towards Ahl-e-bayt and kin of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) because it is by Mahdi's emergence that the Government of Ahl-e-bayt will be embarked upon, the act of command and prohibition will be at their liberty and their rights will return back to them.

Fourthly, it reveals the veracity and virtue of man's faith in Mahdi and his filling of the earth with equity and justice and in his Imamate. Fifthly, it reveals man's affection towards his fellow creature and his desire for rectifying them because the goodness and prosperity, which would arise from Mahdi's emergence, would be experienced by all the creatures. Most of the points that we have mentioned have come down in traditions too such as: Important affairs, which arise from 'Intezar' (Awaiting) of Mahdi's emergence and the good qualities which are discovered by means of his emergence. Mentioning one of the traditions or rather one sentence of it causes great surprise in me.

In the book "Kamaluddin", Shaikh Saduq has narrated from Ammar Sabaaty a lengthy tradition where Imam Sadiq (A.S.) says: 'Ibadat' (worship) during the rein of a wicked Government is better and more virtuous than worship during the rein of a right Government. Moreover, reward of worship is much more under a wicked Government than under a right Government.

Ammar says: I told Imam: May my life be sacrificed for you. Is it that we should not desire to be amongst the Qaem's companions at the time of the emergence of truth? Is it that our actions under the bond of your leadership and obedience are more virtuous than the actions of companions during the true Government!?

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) replied: Glory be to Allah! Do we not wish that Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime should make the Truth and Justice appear in the lands? That the common condition of the people improves? That Allah should cause (people's) speech to harmonize and that Allah should invite the diverse hearts of people? That they should not disobey Allah on the earth? That His restrictions should apply among His creatures and that Allah should return the rights to His people so that it may become manifest, so that nothing of the truth might be concealed through fear of any one of (His) creatures…

Forsaking the Matter of Fixing the Time of Emergence

The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" (on page 456) has narrated from the author of Fara'ed-ul-Semtain who has narrated from Ahmad-ibn-Ziyad who has narrated from Debel-ibn-Ali Khuza'ee a tradition wherein Debel approaches Imam Ridha (A.S.) and recites his ????? ode and refers, in some places of his ode to Mahdi and Imam's reply to Debel is as such: Gebriel has spoken through your tongue. Do you know who that Imam is? He is the one for whom people will await and they will be submissive to him at the time of his emergence...107 Regarding the time of Mahdi's emergence, my father has narrated from his father and they from the Messenger of Allah as such: The example of Mahdi is like the example of Oiyamat, which will not come but all of a sudden.

The author says: In some of the traditions about occultation it has come down that Mahdi shall emerge like a glittering star. Yet some other traditions mention that God would set right Mahdi's affairs in one night. It appears that all these sayings refer to this fact that Mahdi's emergence is unknown and except for the one who has created him, none are aware of the time of his reappearance. Verily, amongst the affairs which has greatly been emphasized in the tradition for us (i.e. the Shias) is the non - fixation of the time of Mahdi's emergence and leaving this matter to Almighty Allah. Yet some traditions mention that those who ordain a time for his emergence are liars.

It can be said that the philosophy of not fixing his reappearing at any time and in any year, month and on any Friday may be due to the following: Firstly, the divine 'Bada' (change) in which we Shias believe plays interference in the matter of Mahdi's emergence and is resolute. Verily, the Will of Allah proceeds in all the Divine Destinies and it is proper to reverse the order and bring change in His Destinies. Mahdi's emergence too falls in the category of those incidents in which 'Bada' is akin to occur just as the same has been clearly stipulated in the Shiite traditions. As a matter of fact, if the time of Hazrat's emergence had been fixed and the matter of 'Bada' (too) would have played its role, then the very matter of (tradition of) emergence along with its narrator would have been subject to doubt and suspicions. The Imam (A.S.) has said: "We have not fixed the time of Hazrat's emergence nor shall we do so in the future."

Secondly, refraining from ascertaining the time of emergence and leaving it to Divine discretion of and considering the possibility of Mahdi emerging today or tomorrow forcibly creates an urge and desire in praying for his early reappearance since it is possible that his emergence may be linked to 'dua' (Praying) and insistence in request.

Thirdly, the period of Mahdi's emergence is known and the people are aware of this matter even though they may belong to the few special class, it would mean that Hazrat has to emerge forcibly and the special and ordinary class of people especially those desirous of this matter, must recognize him and the enemies themselves right form the beginning of his emergence in killing him. Amongst the impossible affairs is this that on the day of Mahdi's emergence, his 107-A (?????) ode is an ode which ends with (???) (t) powers will be the same as the powers of his enemies.

Fourthly, when the affairs of the people are in Imam's hands, he would be the pivot of the millstone of the Muslims and the focal point of their social body. Undoubtedly Imam's occultation even though for a short period will bring the movement of that society to a standstill. However if the people bring faith in his emergence and have hope in his return especially so in the near future, it would then be possible for that society to remain protected from disorder. Fifthly, Awaiting for emergence at any period will bring an acceleration in the reformity movement. A person who awaits the arrival of his companion will be bound to make speed in the preliminary preparation for his arrival lest his friend arrives suddenly and he may not have fulfilled hi duty.

Truly if 'Intezar' (Awaiting) for Mahdi's emergence is based on sincerity and non-fixation of time (of his emergence) it would indeed be regarded as two important factors for the salvation and comfort of a society. I wish that the author of 'Tafseer-e-Al-Minar' would take back some of his words in this regard.

Mahdi's Emergence at the End of Time

The author of "Esa'af-ur-Raghebeen" (on page 148) narrates from Hakim (from the book of Sahih) who narrates from the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) as such: - At the end of time, a severe calamity shall overtake my nation... Allah will send a man from my progeny or he said: from my Ahl-e-bayt who shall fill the earth with equity and Justice.

Ibn-Hajar in "Sawa'eq" (page 98) has narrated from Ahmad and Muslim who in turn have narrated from the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) as saying: 'At the end of time, a Caliph will be present who would distribute wealth without any account...

The author of "Esaaf-ur-Raghebeen" has narrated the same tradition on page 149 of his afore-said book. The author says: 'Caliph' in the above tradition refers to Mahdi as per the context of some other traditions. The author of "Eqdud-Durar" narrates from Imam Abu Omar Mada'eni who narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: At the end of time a youth with a handsome face and protracted nose shall emerge from my progeny and he shall fill the earth with equity and Justice just as it was previously filled with cruelty and tyranny. The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" (on page 430) narrates from the author of "Mashkat-ul-Masabeeh" who narrates from Muslim (from his book 'Sahih') and Ahmad (from his book 'Musnad') who narrate from Jabir-ibn-Abdullah Ansari that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said:

"At the end of time, a Caliph will be present who would distribute" wealth without any 'account'. Yet another tradition says: At the time of the end of my nation, a Caliph will come who would distribute wealth without any reckoning. The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" narrates from the author of "Fara'ed-ul- Semtain" who narrates from Ali-ibn-Hallal who narrates from his father that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: "Mahdi will come at the end of time and will fill the earth with equity and Justice just as it was previously filled with cruelty and oppression."

The author says: In most of our Shi'ite traditions as well as the traditions of our Sunni brethrens the word of (the end of time) and the occurrence of some of the important events, the greatest of them being the emergence of the Promised Mahdi can be seen. However it is a fact that sometimes it is said: The word and its meaning is literal as can be understood from these two words i.e. before 'Oiyamat'. Sometimes too, it is said: refers to some part of a time which when compared to the past times is placed at the last. Just as we say: Hazrat Muhammad-ibn-Abdullah (S.A.W.A.) is the Prophet of (the end of time) i.e. the period of his Prophethood Messengership, Precepts and laws is put last as compared to the period of Messengership of the previous Prophets. Thus in absolute terms, the Holy Prophet is the last Prophet which means that the Prophet should come after him, otherwise he will not be called the Last Prophet.

Sometimes is used and it refers to the last period of the Holy Prophet's Messengership. In other words, if we divide the period of his Prophethood into certain portions, the last portion of it would be the (?????????) (end of time) and the Holy Prophet's sentence: "The nation wherein I am placed in the beginning Mahdi is the middle and Isa in the end will never be destroyed" refers to the same.

Now that you have understood these meanings it should be said that such sayings as: Mahdi will emerge in (end of time) or that: He is the Caliph of refers to the last meaning which means that the last part of the period in which Mahdi is supposed to emerge is the last part from the parts of time. The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (in chapter seven) narrates from Hafez Abu Abdullah (from the book of Mustadrak) who narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: Mahdi shall emerge with the sword at the time of the end of my nation. Allah shall send rain, the land will cause its own plants to grow, (Mahdi) will bestow wealth in the right manner...

Hakim says: This tradition is correct as far as its chain of transmission is concerned but Muslim and Bukhari have not narrated it.

Mahdi's Qualities on the Day of His Emergence

The author "Eqdud-Durar" (in chapter three) narrates from Hafez Abu Na'eem from the book of Sefat al Mahdi of Abu Imamah that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) mentioned in one tradition all that was to occur before and after Mahdi's emergence. A person called Abdul-Qais said: 'O Messenger of Allah who would be the Imam of the people on that day? He replied: He would be Mahdi from my progeny who would be then forty years of age...

Again, the author of "Eqdud-Durar" in the aforesaid chapter narrates from Hafiz Na'eem-ibn- Hemad (from the book 'Fatan') that Amir-ul- Mumineen Ali (A.S.) said in one tradition about Mahdi as such: 'Mahdi will rise when he would be thirty or forty years of age... In the same chapter of the afore-said book its author narrates from Abu Abdullah Mada'eni and Abu Bakr Baihaqi that Ibn-Abbass said: I have hope that days and nights will not pass until Allah will appoint a youth from us, Ahl- e-bayt while conspiracies will not befall him and he too will not be entangled in conspiracies. He will establish the affairs of this nation just as Allah commenced the affairs of this nation through us. It is my expectation that the affairs would end too in us.

Narrator says: I told Ibn-Abbass: Are your aged helpless in this matter that you have hope in your youths? He replied: Allah does whatever He wishes. In the same chapter of the same book, its author narrates from Imam Hussein- ibn-Ali (A.S.) as such: When Mahdi will emerge; the people will deny him because he will have returned to them looking like a youth. The greatest calamity is that their master will approach them in the state of youth while they would think him to be old and senile...

In section one, chapter four of the same book, its author narrates from Hafiz Abu Abdullah (from the book of Mustadrak) who narrates from Sanban that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: - Three offspring of a Caliph will be killed near your treasure... When you see him (i.e. youth) swear allegiance to him because, he is Mahdi, the Caliph of Allah. Hakim says: 'This tradition is an authentic tradition provided it has been narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

In the seventh chapter of the same book, its author narrates from Hafiz Abu Abdullah Na'eem-ibn-Hemad (from the book 'Fatan') who narrates from Ishaaq-ibn Yahaya-ibn-Talha that Ta'oos said: Omar-ibn-Khattab bid farewell to his family and said: What is wrong if I spend the treasures of the Ka'aba and the weapons in the way of Allah? Ali said: 'O Amir-ul Mumineen! Refrain from such thoughts. You are not the owner of Ka'aba. The owner of Ka'aba is a youth from Quraish who will donate the wealth of Ka'aba in the way of Allah at the end of time.

The author says: The manifestation of this tradition is such that it cannot be denied and evidences and contexts too exist for them. Some of the traditions mention: The one who will see Mahdi on the day of his emergence will reckon him to be a youth of forty or his age to be between thirty and forty. However it does not mean that this is his true age.

Place of Mahdi's Emergence

The author "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter two) narrates from Jabir-ibn-Yazid Tuafi a lengthy tradition from Imam Muhammad Baqir where after mentioning the signs of Mahdi's emergence and the sinking of Sufyi's army he said: Sufyani will dispatch troops to Medina as a result of which Mahdi will flee towards Mecca. News of Mahdi's flight will reach Sufyani's commanders who will send an army in pursuit of Mahdi but they will fail to find him until Hazrat will enter Mecca in a state of fear and will wait as per the 'Sunnah' of Musa-ibn-Imran… The author of 'Esaaf-ur-Raghebeen' (on page 150) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (SAWA) said: "Discord will arise at the time of a Caliphs death. A man will flee from Medina to Mecca. Some of the inhabitants of Mecca will approach him and will send him out for allegiance (while not being satisfied) and will swear allegiance to him between Rukn and Maqaam. An army would be despatched in their direction from Syria, which would zink in the ground of 'Baidah' which is between Mecca and Medina."

The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" (on page 431) has narrated from the author of "Jawahar al-Aqdain" who has narrated from Ibn-Dawoud who has narrated from Imam Ahmad and Hafiz Baihaqi the afore-mentioned Tradition. The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" (on page 448) narrates from the author of "Fara'ed-us-Semtain" who narrates from Hassan-ibn-Khalid a tradition from Ali-ibn-Moosa Ridha (A.S.) about Mahdi's occultation and the fact that he is the fourth from his progeny until he says: Mahdi is the same one with regards to whom a caller will call out from the heavens and all the inhabitants of earth will hear the call as such: Be aware that Allah's representative has emerged in the House of Allah. Follow him as truth is with him.

Place of Mahdi's Allegiance

The author of Eqdud-Durar (chapter two) narrates from Abul Hassan Malaki who narrates from Huzaifaibn-Yaman that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: If a single day remains from the age of this world then Allah will raise a man from my progeny whose name will be the same as my name and his Impression will be the same as mine and his agnomen is Abu Abdullah. People would swear allegiance to him between Rukn and Maqaam…

In section two, chapter four of the afore-said book, its author narrates from Abu Dawoud (from his book of "Sunan"), Tirmidhi (from his book of "Jama'e"), Ahmad (from his book of "Musnad"), Ibn-Maaja (from his book of 'Sunan'), Baihaqi (from "Be'sath-wa-Nushoor") and some others who narrate from Umm-Salma that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: At the time of a Caliph's death discord will arise and a man from Medina will flee towards Mecca. Some of the inhabitants of Mecca will approach him and will send him out (while not being satisfied) and will swear allegiance to him between Rukn and Maqaam...

Author says: The appendix of the tradition refers to Mahdi. In chapter five of the afore-said book, the author narrates from Abu Abdullah Na'eem-ibn-Hemad (from the book 'Fatan') who narrates from Abdullah-ibn- Masoud a lengthy tradition mentioning therein Sufyani's uprising and Mahdi's emergence from Medina towards Mecca and his allegiance until he reaches to the point where he says: Mahdi will sit between Rukn and Maqaam and will stretch out his hand. People will give allegiance to him and Allah will reserve love for him in the people's heart.

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (in chapter seven) narrates from Na'eem-ibn- Hemad (from the book "Fatan") who narrates from Abu Huraira that people would give allegiance to Mahdi between Rukn and Maqaam. Mahdi will not awaken anyone who is asleep nor will he shed any blood. Author says: It refers to repose at the time of priority of allegiance and not when Hazrat would wish to dominate and rectify the world.

Ibn-Hajar in his book "Sawa'eq" (page 98) has narrated from Ibn Asaker who has narrated from Ali (A.S.) the tradition about Mahdi fleeing from Medina towards Mecca and added: Some of the inhabitants of Mecca will approach Mahdi and will send him out (while not being satisfied) and will swear allegiance to him between Rukn and Maqaam...

The author of 'Eqdud-Durar' in section two and chapter four has narrated from Jabir-ibn-Yazid who has narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir about Mahdi's flight from Medina to Mecca and says: People will swear allegiance to him between Rukn and Maqaam. "O Jabir! Mahdi is from the progeny of Hussein."

Rudiments of Mahdi's Triumph

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter five) narrates from a group of traditionists such as Ahmad in Musnad, Ibn-Maaja in Sunan, Baihaqi Abu Omar Mada'eni, Na'eem-ibn-Hemad, Abul-Qasim Tabarani and Abu Na'eem Esfahani who narrate from Amir-ul-Mumineen Ali-ibn-Abi Talib that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: "Mahdi is from us - the Ahl-e-bayt. Allah will set right his affairs in one night" Ibn-Hajar in "Sawa'eq" (page 98) has narrated from Ibn-Maaja as such: "A group of people will rise from the East and they will make preparations for Mahdi's rule."

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (in chapter five) has narrated the same tradition from Ibn-Maaja and Baihaqi. The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (in chapter five) has narrated from Abu Na'eem (book of Sefat-ul-Mahdi) who has narrated from Sauban that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: When you see black flags coming from the direction of East, hasten towards them even if you have to crawl over ice because Mahdi who is Allah's representative will be amongst them.

Narrator says: Hakim Abu Abdullah in "Mustadrak" and Imam Abu Omar in "Sunan" and Hafiz Na'eem-ibn-Hemad in "Fatan" have narrated the contents of this tradition. Perhaps the saying: Mahdi who is Allah's representative will be amongst them means that the rudiments of Mahdi's rule would be in their hands just as the same was mentioned in the tradition of Abdullah-ibn-Harith. In the same chapter of the afore-said book, its author narrates from Sa'eed- ibn-Musaiyeb that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A) said: A man from Bani Abbass will rise from the East and will remain on the land until Allah wishes. Thereafter a group with small black flags will emerge and they will battle with the people from the progeny of Abu Sufyan and his followers and will prepare the ground for Mahdi's obedience and submission.

Author says: Some of the traditions, which speak about the appearance of black flags from the East, refer to the invitation of Abbassid and uprising of Abu Muslim Khurasani. Yet, some other traditions signal out the uprising of a group from the East who would invite (the people) towards Mahdi (A.S.) and the tradition of Sa'eed-ibn-Musaiyeb which was mentioned before, refers to this account. The possibility, which we mentioned previously about the traditions (in this regard) being fabricated, refers to the first type of interpretation. So do not be heedless about them.

The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" (page 448) narrates from the book "Fara'ed-us-Semtain" which narrates from Hafiz Abu Naeem that Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.) said: Allah has set fear in the hearts of our friends and followers. When our 'Qa'em' who is Mahdi will emerge, one person from our followers will be more courageous than a fierce lion and sharper than the point of a spear.

Author says: Undoubtedly, a group which loses its leader also loses its will- power and aim and rather its very progress as against a group possessing a leader with an upright will-power, earnest aim and firm power. This is because such a state eventually leaves an impression on the conduct and morale of that group. It seems that the afore-mentioned tradition too refers to this very matter and the reason why God has set fear in their hearts is to protect them.

Incidents Which Will Occur in the Near Future

How often this thought passes through some mind and rather how often it is pronounced though some tongue that if fear from enemies is the cause of Mahdi's occultation then how would this fear be obviated considering that day by day various powers and arms are on the rise!? How would it be possible for Mahdi to face these powers and aims which have filled the land and sea and would tighten the sphere the day of his emergence without Mahdi having a access to any of those weapons because of lack adequate supporters and ample means!?

In reply we say: It's possible that the incidents which are about to take place in this world and the probable events may actually occur which could be amongst the strongest means of Mahdi's emergence and a medium for doing away with his occultation until he real emerges. In number he may become like one of the ruling powers and thereafter he would strive in strengthening and increasing his powers and weapons.

Firstly, amongst the events which are not improbable is this that the moral and spiritual reforms perfection of training and literary and material Sciences in Some classes of people and rather in all of them will prevail over a special class. Thus when Mahdi emerges and proclaims his plans and announces the Islamic teachings for which he would rise and that particular class witnesses his truthfulness, trustworthiness and resoluteness they would become submissive towards Hazrat. They will assist him in Jihad and become obedient to him and will give him the reins of the government. A large number of people would obey him and become submissive to him such that one cannot eat them with contempt. The same had occurred for his great grand-father, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) since a large number of people had brought faith in him due to his virtuous aim and objective just as the incident of 'Najashi' (Negus) bears witness to this fact

Secondly: Before Mahdi's emergence, multitude of people will gather together and call the others towards Mahdi. They will take pledge (from them) for the victory of the day of his emergence. It is likely that the emergence of preachers in common gatherings and the distribution of those things for which Mahdi will upraise namely exercising of worldly, spiritual, social and individual reforms are amongst the strongest means for, the preparation of multitude of people for Mahdi's emergence.

As mentioned before, the main motive of awaiting Mahdi's emergence is preparing and making ready the rudiments and necessities of Hazrat's emergence. I can say that Mahdi strives and such endeavor is the responsibility of every reformist who wishes to bring a reform. Previously it was told to you that Mahdi's occultation does not hinder him from uprising for such kind of affairs.

Thirdly: Break-up of the present world order and every city of the world into smaller states and every ruler of those states will possess independent powers until Mahdi emerges. Cities and governments will have dispersed to such extent that Mahdi too would be like one of them in power and preparedness. He will rise for that which Allah has appointed him and will strive for increasing and perfecting his own power.

Fourthly: The ruling powers will render the people completely submissive and obedient towards themselves and every society and rather every group, individual animal and vegetation will groan day and night due to such a life and state of affair. However he will become restless of the cruel and oppressive system while none would be able to see him. He will beseech and complain but only to his Lord. Thus when the caller will call out between the heaven and the earth that Allah has obviated oppression from you, has made you successful, has set your freedom and deliverance in Mahdi's hands and Mahdi has emerged in Mecca then multitudes of people will hasten towards Mahdi for the purpose of reform and their own goodness.

In all probability, the meaning of the tradition saying: Mahdi will not emerge but after the earth has become filled with cruelty and oppression is the same as what we have just said. In short, Mahdi (A.S.) will emerge at the time when people and society will be in due need of a reformist. Fifthly: The world wars will put the cities out of action and weaken the physical bodies and powers. Thereafter, Mahdi (A.S.) will emerge while from the view - point of number and group, he will be similar to one of those (group of) people. Then, very soon he will swiftly strive to increase and perfect his own powers in addition to those powers and tools which he would avail himself of as booty.

Sixthly: Some of the Islamic sects will accept Hazrat's call on the day of his emergence and will join the forces of his companions and helpers. They will fight for Mahdi in the battle - field and will swear allegiance to him. In all respects, they will find confidence in him. Moreover Almighty God will confirm him through the Angels just as He confirmed his great grand - father i.e. the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.). He will confirm Hazrat by Isa-ibn-Maryam's (A.S.) descension the details of which we shall God-willing mention later on. These were incidents whose occurrence cannot be denied and history too guides us to the occurrence of such incidents and bears testimony to this fact that reformists have made use of similar means. Man is not aware of what might occur tomorrow. Verily the events which took place in the 14th century A.H. and 19th century AD bears witness to the possibility of occurrence of what we have mentioned. God is All-Aware of what has occurred and what is going to take place in the future.

Mahdi's Helpers

Ibn-Hajar in "Sawa'eq" (on page 98) has narrated from Ibn-Asaker that Ali (A.S.) has said: When the 'Qae'm' from the progeny of Muhammad (S.A.W.A) will emerge, Allah will gather together the inhabitants of the East and West. His companions will be from Kufa and the brave ones who would assist him would be from Syria…

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (section two, chapter four) has narrated from Jabir-ibn-Yazid Jua'fi who has narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.) a lengthy tradition where he has mentioned in it some of the signs of Mahdi's emergence: the revolt of Sufyani, Mahdi's escape from Medina to Mecca until he says: Allah will gather together for Mahdi 313 of his companions… In the same book (section one, chapter four) its author narrates from Hakim Abu Abdullah (from his book 'Mustadrak') that Muhammad-ibn-Hanafia said: We were in the presence of Ali. A person asked Hazrat some questions about Mahdi. Hazrat (A.S.) replied: Alas! And he repeated the word seven times and then said: Mahdi will emerge at the end of time when those who would call out the name of Allah would be killed.

Thereafter Allah will gather together a group whose sagacity and agility will be like a cloud and He will make their hearts intimate towards each other. They will neither fear anyone nor will they flee. Their number will be equal to the number of the companions of 'Badr'. Neither the people of the past took precedent over them nor will the people of the future comprehend them. Their number will be equal to the number of the companions who crossed the river with the Saul …

Narrator says: Hakim has said: This tradition is an authentic tradition provided that Bukhari and Muslim have narrated the same. However they have not narrated it.

In the seventh chapter of the same book, the author narrates from Abu Amro Osman-ibn-Sa'eed Muqarri (from his 'Sunan') who narrates from Huzaifa-ibn-- Yaman that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A) while narrating about Mahdi and his emergence has said: Courageous men from Syria will hasten towards Hazrat along with their followers while sober men from Egypt too will join him. Yet another group will proceed from the East until they reach Mecca and swear allegiance to him …

The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" (on page 449) has narrated from Ganji who in turn has narrated from Ibn Athim Kufi that All (A.S.) has said: Bravo! To the people of Thaleqan because Allah has hidden treasures amongst them which are neither gold nor silver. Rather they are those people who have recognized Allah in the true sense and they will be Mahdi's helpers at the end of time.

The author of "Es'aaf-ur-Reghebeen" (on page 150) says: It is true that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said:

Discord will arise at the time of a Caliphs death. Thereafter he mentioned about Mahdi's emergence at Mecca, the allegiance which people will swear to him at Mecca, the sinking of Sufyanis army at 'Baidah' and then said: When people will witness this miracle from Mahdi the brave men from Syria and groups of people from Iraq will approach Hazrat and swear allegiance to him..

The Angels Will Assist Mahdi

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" (chapter five) narrates from Abu Amro Osman- ibn-Sa'eed Muqarri (from his "Sunan") who in turn narrates from Huaaifa-ibn- Yaman that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: Allegiance will be sworn to Mahdi between Rukn and Maqaam. He will proceed towards Syria with Gibra'eel in front of him and Micha'eel on his right...

In section one, chapter four of the same book, its author narrates from Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.) a tradition wherein he mentions about Mahdi's emergence and his allegiance between Rukn and Maqaam and then says: Gibra'eel would be on his right and Micha'eel on his left …

Again, in the seventh chapter of the afore-said book, the author narrates from Abu Amro Osman-ibn-Sa'eed Muqarri (from his 'Sunan') who in turn narrates from Huaaifa-ibn-Yaman that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) while mentioning about Mahdi's emergence and his allegiance between Rukn and Maqam says: Mahdi's attention will be directed towards Syria while Gibra'eel would be in front of him and Micha'eel on his left.