|Mahdi is From the Descendant of Muhammad|
Abu Dawoud in the Fourth volume of his 'Sahih' (page 87) narrates from Abdulla-ibn-Masoud that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: "If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, God will set the day so long until He appoints a person from my descendant."
In the afore-mentioned book on page 81, he narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the Holy Prophet (SAWA) said: "Mahdi is from me." The author of "Nur-ul-Absar" on page 230 narrates from Tirmidhi who narrates from Abi Sa'eed Khadri who in turn narrates from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) one such similar tradition. Thereafter, he writes that Tirmidhi has reckoned this tradition to be firm and genuine and that Tabarani and others too have narrated this tradition.
Ibn Hajar in his "Sawa'eq" on page 98 has written that Ruyani, Tabarani and others have brought a tradition from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such: "Mahdi is from my progeny." In "Es'aaf ur-Rhagebeen" (page 149) and "Nur-ul-Absar" (page 230) the same tradition of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has been narrated from shirviya who in turn has narrated from Hazaifa-ibn-Yamaan.28 Also, the author of "Nur-ul-Absar" on page 231 has narrated from Ali-ibn- Abi Talib as such: "I asked the Holy Prophet whether Mahdi would be from us, the descendants "??" of Muhammad or from others" and he replied: "He is from us."29
The author of "óMatalib-uós-Su'ool" writes: 'I have reviewed the views of the people about the exegesis of "??" (descendants) and found out that a group believes that by "??" is meant his family-members. Another group says: (??) of the Holy Prophet are those upon whom "Zakat" (alms-tax) is forbidden and instead "Khums" (one-fifth levy) is permissible. Yet another group says: (??) refers to those personalities who follow his religion and adhere to his manners.
Thereafter he says: "These are the three views, which are more famous than all other views in this regard. However the reason that the first view is correct is a tradition which Qazi Hussein-ibn-Mas'oud Baghwi has brought in his book "Commentary of Sunnat ar-Rasul" (which is a collection of all those traditions which are in agreement) and he quotes its reference from Abdur-Rahman-ibn-Laili who said: - 'Ka'ab- ibn-Ajza met me and said - "Should I present you with something which I heard from the Messenger of Allah?" I replied: 'Yes give it to me.' He said: I asked the Holy Prophet as to how one should send salutations upon them - the Ahlul-Bait. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A) replied:
('O Allah, send salutations upon Muhammad and his descendants just as Thou sends salutations upon Ibrahim and his descendants and send blessings upon Muhammad and his descendants just as Thou sends blessings upon Ibrahim and his descendants. Surely Thou art All -Praiseworthy and All- Glorious).
Thereafter he says: - The Holy Prophet interpreted his Ahlul-Bait as his "??- Aâl" Thus both are similar as far as their meaning is concerned and Hazrat interchanged one word for the other in a manner that his (??) are his Ahlul-Bait and his Ahlul-Bait are his (??). Therefore, on this basis, "??-Aâl" and "??? - Ahl" are similar in meaning. The reality of this affair can be discovered from here that 28-The author of Kanz-ul-Ummal (vol. 7, pg. 186) and Arf-ul-Wardi (page 66) apart from mentioning two other traditions from Ruyani and Abu Na'eem have mentioned the afore-said tradition from Na'eem-ibn-Hemad and Ibn-Asaker.
29-Arf-ul-wardi page 61 - narrated from Tabarani, Na'eem-ibn-Hemad and Abu Na'eem.
the root of had been and - h' was changed to for this reason that the letter of "- h" becomes "Tasgheer -dimunitive form and 30 Tasgheer of becomes as per this rule which states that "Tasgheer"? returns back every noun to its original form.
The reason that the second view is correct is a tradition, which the traditionists have brought in their books. Moreover, Imam Muslim-ibn-Hajjaj, Abu Dawoud and Nesa'ee are unanimous in the authenticity of this tradition and each one of them have, in their respective 'Sahihs' narrated from Abdul- Muttalib-ibn Rabiya-ibn-Haaris as such: 'I heard the Holy Prophet (SAWA) saying: -
It is not that alms is filth and is not permissible for Muhammad and his (??), to eat from it. Moreover, they have supported their view by a tradition which Malik-ibn- Anas has narrated in his "Mutha" referring to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as saying: "Alms is not permissible for (??) (descendants) of Muhammad because they are the dirt and filth of people." Thus, he made alms specifically un- permissible for his (??) and those upon whom alms is forbidden are Bani- Hashim and Abdul-Muttalib. It was asked from Zaid-ibn-Arqam as to who are the (??) (descendants) of the Messenger of Allah upon whom alms are forbidden and he replied: - (??) of Ali, (??) of Jafar, (??), of Abbass and (??) of Aqeel and this second view is nearer to the first view. However the reason which the supporters of the third view give is the sayings of Exalted Allah:
(Except (??) of Lot; We will most surely deliver them all) where, as per the consensus of the exegetists, (??) in this verse refers to those who have turned towards him and followed his path. Thereafter he says: Now, keeping in view all that has been said about (??), it becomes apparent that its meaning comprehensively fits them because they are his Ahlul-Bait. "Zakat" (alms-tax) is forbidden for them and they have followed his religion and adhered to his path. Ascribing them with (??) and naming them with this word is accidentally true.
Mahdi is From the Progeny of the Holy Prophet
Abu Dawoud, in the fourth volume of his 'Sahih' on age 87 has written a tradition which has been narrated by Umm-Salma from the Holy Prophet as such:
30-'Tasgheer' in dictionary means 'to reduce the meaning of the word by adding the signs of 'Tasgheer'. In "Esaaf ur-Rhagebeen" Page 147 a similar tradition from the Holy Prophet has been narrated by Nesa'ee, Ibn-Maaja, Baihaqi and others.31 Ibn Hajar in 'Sawa'eq' on page 98 writes: Abu Na'eem has brought a tradition from the Holy Prophet as such: - "Indeed, God will send a man front my progeny." Thereafter he said: - "He shall fill the earth with Justice." The same has also come in "Es'aaf ur-Rhagebeen" page 149.32 In the afore-mentioned book on page 97, the author writes: Abu Dawoud, Tirmidhi and Ibn-Maaja have brought a tradition from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such: - "If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, indeed God will make a man to appear from my progeny."
In another tradition the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) says: "He is from my progeny, the one who shall fill the earth with Justice just as it had been filled with oppression."
The same can be seen in "Es'aaf ur-Rhagebeen" on page 147.33 The author of "Mataleb-us-Su'ool" writes: - 'The meaning of (progeny) in Arabic is said to be(family) and as per the saying of others it means (offspring). Thereafter he says: - "Both the meanings can be found in them because they are his family as well as his offspring. However they are considered to be his (????) (family) because are the near kinsmen and they too were as such. They are reckoned to be his (????) (offspring) for this reason that (????) are considered to be children of a daughter and they were as such because Allah speaks about Ibrahim as follows:"
Thus Allah, the Exalted placed all the afore-mentioned personalities including Hazrat Isa among the offspring of Ibrahim where the relation of Isa with Ibrahim is only through his mother Maryam and no one else.
Thereafter he writes: - 'It has been narrated that Shobi who was one of the Sunni 'Ulemas' living at the time of Hajjaj-ibn-Yusuf Saqafi was among the lovers of Hassan and Hussein such that whenever he would remember them he would say: "Those two are the children and offspring of the Messenger of 31-Kanzul-Ummal vol. 7, Page 186; Jaame-Sgheer vol. 2, Page 579; Tradition No. 9241. 32-The author of Kanzul-Ummal (vol. 2; Pg. 188) narrates a tradition from the Holy Prophet where in the end, Hazrat ... until Mahdi appears from my progeny. He also writes that the Holy Prophet said: "The hour shall not be established until the earth is filled with cruelty and op oppression. Then, Mahdi shall emerge from my progeny and he shall fill the earth with equity and Justice just as it had been filled with cruelty and oppression. 33-The author of "Arf-ul-Wardi" on page 74 narrates from Ali who in turn narrates from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as saying: - "Mahdi is from my progeny. He shall fight for my Sunnah' just as I fought in the path of revelation."
Allah." Later some of the people informed Hajjaj about this matter as a result of which he became angry and started to imprecate him. Once Hajjaj called him in one of his gatherings where the aristocrats and 'Ulemas' (scholars) of Basra and Kufa and the Quraish were present. Shobi entered and greeted but Hajjaj did not pay any heed and did not reply his greetings which was indeed the right of Shobi. When he sat down, Hajjaj said: 'O Shobi, Do you know what I have heard about you which indeed proves your foolishness?
Shobi replied: What is it?
Hajjaj said: Don't you know that sons of men are those who are allied to him and kinship is only through fathers. Thus, on what basis do you say that the sons of Ah are the children and offspring of the Holy Prophet! Except for their mother Fatemah, are they having any other connection with the Holy Prophet considering that kinship is not from the daughters' side but rather from the fathers' side. Shobi put down his head for some time until Hajjaj exceeded the limits in his disavowal and notified the others in the gathering about this matter. Shobi continued his silence and the more Hajjaj witnessed his silence the more he rebuked him. Thereafter, Shobi raised his head and said: 'O Amir, I do not see you but a speaker who is ignorant of the Book of Allah and the 'Sunnah' of the Holy Prophet and one who has grown weary of them. Then the anger of Hajjaj intensified and he addressed Shobi as such: "Woe be upon you, how dare you speak to me in these words!"
Shobi replied: Yes, those present in your gathering -the Chanters (of Quran) from Egypt and the bearers of knowledge of the Book who are dear before you are all aware of what I say. Is it not that when Allah wishes to address His slaves (i.e. servants) He says: - 'O Bani (sons of) Adam or 'O Bani-Isra'el. About Ibahim, Allah says ......????? ?? ? (and from his offspring) until He mentions Yahya and Isa. Therefore, 'O Hajjaj how do you see the relationship of Isa with Adam, Isra'el and Ibrahim? Is it through his father or any of his forefathers? Is it not that he is connected to them only through his mother Maryam! Moreover, as per the genuine narrators, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) with regard to Hassan has said: Indeed my son (and he pointed out to Hassan) is "Sayyid" (Chief). When Hajjaj heard such reasoning he lowered his head in shame. Later he showed kindness and politeness towards Shobi and felt ashamed of those present in the gathering.
Now that the matter has become clear (????) (progeny) is the very offspring, children and family of the Holy Prophet and in reality, all the meanings are applied to them.
Mahdi is from the Family of the Holy Prophet
Abu Dawoud, in the fourth Volume of his "Sahih" on page 17 has brought a tradition which has been narrated by Ali (A.S.) from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such:
"If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, indeed God will make a man from my family to appear."34 Tirmidhi, in the second Volume of his "Sahih" on page 270 has brought a tradition which has been narrated by Abu Huraira from the Holy Prophet (S.AW.A) as follows: -
"If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, God will set the day so long until a person from my family shall appear." Thereafter he says: 'This is a good and authentic tradition; Moreover, a similar tradition from the Holy Prophet with a slight variation has been narrated by Ibn Hajar (on page 97 of his Sawa'eq) and Shaikh Saban (on page 148 of Esaaf ur-Rhagebeen) from Abu Dawoud and Tirmidhi.35 The magazine "Huda-Islam" No. 2, in the third of its weekly publication No. 25 mentions:
Ibn Maaja has brought a tradition narrated by Ali (A.S.) from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such:
"Mahdi is from my family."36 Shaikh Saban on page 148 of "Es'aaf ur-Rhagebeen" and Ibn-Hajar on page 99 of "Sawa'eq" have written that Ahmad, Abu Dawoud, Tirmidhi and Ibn- Maaja have brought a tradition from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such: 'If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, God shall indeed make a person from my progeny to appear. As per some other traditions, we find the words 'my family'.37
Ibn-Hajar on page 97 of "Sawa'eq" and Shaikh Saban on page 148 of "Esaaf ur-Rhagebeen" have written that Ahmad, Abu Dawoud, and Tirmidhi have brought a tradition from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as follows: - "The world shall not pass, or perhaps he said: The world shall not cease to exist until a person from my family comes and rule."38 The author of "Nur-ul-Absar" on page 231 has brought a tradition narrated by Abu Dawoud who in turn has narrated from Zar-ibn-Abdullah that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has said: "The world shall not pan until a person from my family comes and rules among the Arabs". Thereafter he said: - "He shall ml the earth with Justice."39
In the afore-mentioned book, the author writes on page 229 as such:
34-The same has come in "Kanzul-Ummal" vol. 7, pg. 187 and "Jaame-Sagheer" vol. 2, pg. 377 tradition No.
7489. The afore-said hooks also mention that the tradition is an acceptable one.
35-Kanzul-Ummal vol. 7 pg. 186 narrated from Ibn-Masood.
36-Kanzul-Ummal vol. 7 pg. 186.
37-Arf-ul-Wardi pg. 64.
38-Arf-ul-Wardi pg. 63 - Narrated from Ahmad and Abu Na'eem who in turn have narrated from Abu Sa'eed.
Kanzul-Ummal page 186.
39-The same has come in Arf-ul-Wardi pg. 58 - narrated from Ahmad, Abu Dawoud and Tirmidhi who in turn have narrated from Ibn Masoud, who has been narrated from the Holy Prophet. Tirmidhi reckons this tradition to be good and authentic.
Abu Dawoud has narrated from Ali (may Allah be satisfied with him) who in turn has narrated from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A) who said: "If there remains not more than a day from the life of earth, God will indeed make a person from my family to appear on that day and fill the earth with Justice just as it had been filled with oppression.40
The author of "Matalib-ul-Su'ool" in the chapter of "Asking one's whish from Ahlul-Bait" writes: Some have said that "Ahlul-Bait" refers to those people who are nearer in relation to a person in ancestorship. Some others have said that "Ahlul-Bait" are those who gather together in one womb. Still others have said: Ahlul-Bait are those who are attached to him by kinship and relation. All of these meanings can be found in them because, their lineage returns back to the Holy Prophet's grandfather, Abdul-Muttalib.
Also they have gathered together with him (i.e. the Holy Prophet) in one womb and they are connected to him through kinship as well as relation (son-in- law).
Thus they are in fact his (??) (progeny) and (??) and (???)(Ahlul-Bait) are one and the same whether they differ in meaning or not. Thus the meanings of these two terms are fixed for them. Muslim in his 'Sahih' narrates from Zaid-ibn-Hasaan who said: 'I went with Hasain-ibn-Seera and Omar-ibn-Muslim to visit Zaid-ibn-Arqam. When we sat down, Hasain began to speak and said: 'O Zaid, Verily, now that you have numerous good actions in your record, have seen the Holy Prophet, have heard traditions from him, have fought beside him and prayed behind him, so narrate for us what you have heard from the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A). Zaid replied: "O brother, surely I have turned old and my memory has become worn out. As a result, a part of what I have acquired from the Holy Prophet has been forgotten by me. So accept whatever I narrate to you and do not bother me about what I do not narrate to you."
Thereafter he said: 'Once the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) stood near a place called "Hema'a" situated between Mecca and Medina and delivered a sermon. After praising and extolling God Almighty and then exhorting the people, he said:
'O people, I am a human being and it seems that my Lord's emissary (i.e. Izra'eel) is going to come and take away my soul. I am leaving amongst you, two precious things. The first of them is the Book of Allah wherein you will find guidance and light. So take hold of the Book of Allah; In this regard, he incited and exhorted the people toward the Book of Allah. Thereafter he said: The other is my Ahlul-Bait. I remind you of Allah with regards to my Ahlul-Bait. I remind you of Allah about them.
40-Arf-ul-Wardi, pg. 59 - Narrated from Ahmad, Abu Dawoud and Ibn-Abu Shuiba. Then Hasain told Zaid-ibn-Arqam as such: 'O Zaid, who are his Ahlul-Bait? Are his wives the Ahlul-Bait!?
He replied: 'No, his Ahlul-Bait are those upon whom alms is forbidden.41
Mahdi is From Kinsfolk
When it is proved that Mahdi (A.S.) is from the progeny, descendant and family of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) and from the offspring of Ali, Fatemah, Hassan and Hussein then it is automatically proved that he is from " Zolghorba" (Kinsfolk) where their friendship has been made obligatory upon all. The author of 'Yanibiul-Muwadda' narrating from Bukhari and Muslim writes on page 106 of his book as such: ''t was asked from Ibn-Abbass that to whom in the verse of "- Alghorba" referred to? Then Sa'eed-ibn- Jubair said: They are the near ones of the progeny of Muhammad (S.A.W.A). The author of 'Matalib-us-Su'ool' narrates from Tafseer of Imam Abul- Hassan Ali-ibn-Ahmad Wahadi (the chain of transmission which ends. in Ibn- Abbass) as such: When the verse:
was revealed, it was asked: 'O Messenger of Allah! Who are these people whom Allah has commanded us to love? The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) replied: "Ali, Fatemah and their children." Ibn-Hajar in his "Sawa'eq" (page 101) and Qunduzi in "Yanibi-ul-Muwadda" (page 106) have brought a tradition (bearing the same contents) under thc afore- said verse narrating from the great Mu'ajam of Tabarani, Tafseer-e-ibn-Abu Hatim, Manaqib of Hakem, Waseet of Wahadi, Helyat al-Aulia of Abu Na'eem, Tafseer-e-Sualabi and Fara'ed as-Semtain.
Ibn-Hajar in "Sa'waeq" (page 101) narrates from Zain-ul-Abedeen at the time when he was taken as captive after his lather Hussein was killed; and on the way to Syria some of the foul-mouthed people said: All praise be to Allah for having caused the killing of you all, turning you into a wretched state and severing the root of sedition. He replied: Haven't you read (the Book) where Allah says: They said: "Is it that refers to you people!?" He replied: "Yes."
The author of "Matalib-us-Su'ool" writes:
41-Apart from what has been written, Suyuti on page 58 of Arf-ul-Wardi has narrated two traditions from Ali (A.S.) and Abu Sa'eed; on page 59 he has narrated two traditions from Ibn-Masoud; on page 62 he has narrated two traditions from Abu Sa'eed Khudri and Abu Huraira; on page 63 he has narrated two traditions from Abu Saeed and Ibn-Masoud and on page 64 he has narrated one tradition from Huzaifa where the Holy Prophet (SAWA) has said: - "Mahdi is a man from my family and his name is the same as mine. He shall fill the earth with Justice and equity just as it had been filled with cruelty and oppression."
'Know that those in the verse who have been asked to be loved are indeed the .Therefore any one who is bestowed with the attribute of "??? ghorba" deserves love as per specification of the afore-mentioned verse because if there is a decree for any particular case and at any other occasion, that case stipulates that the same decree too will be applicable and with regards to love towards those who have been mentioned in the verse even though they themselves are associates to each other (from the view-point of their similarity in a case which is expedient for love) yet, love posses different levels. Therefore, anyone who is the more nearer to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.), that case will become more firm in him. As per research, the consensus of "Ulemas" is firm in this regard that the matter of level of love and friendship does indeed carry priority over all other levels such that in their writings and compositions they have specified that: 'If a person endows or makes a will to the most nearest person to Zaid and if Zaid does not have a father, the most preferable person with regards to the endowment and will are his children as compared to his other near ones.
If he has a father, then there exists a difference as to whether the children are having priority over father or are equal to him. Through this reasoning it becomes clear and obvious that Fatemah possess the highest level in the matter of love and being the (????? ???) (kinsfolk). When it becomes apparent to what has been written about the pleasing expressions and attractive statements about Fatemah (A.S.), (especially her purity) and the fact that the superfluous virtue and lofty position which the Imams behold is through her means, then we are helpless in being loyal to her right in such affairs just as we are bound to do so in the subsequent chapters about the circumstances of Imam and the days of their birth and death.'
Mahdi is From the Offspring of the Holy Prophet
The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" on page 234 narrates from the author of Firdaus who narrates from Jaber-ibn-Abdullah Ansari who said:
Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: Indeed Allah, the Exalted placed the offspring of every Prophet from their own rear and placed my offspring from the rear of Ali-ibn-Ali Talib. The author says: - The explicitness of this valuable, tradition is that the children of Ali-ibn-Abi Talib Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) from Fatemah (A.S.) are indeed the offspring of the Holy Prophet (S.AW.A) and there is no difference between Hassan and Hussein. Verily, as Mahdi, the Awaited one is from this particular house and this pure offspring, he is therefore counted to be from the offspring of Muhammad (S.A.W.A) (as per research and previous explanation of the meaning of offspring).
The author of "Tuhuful-Uqool" has brought a lengthy tradition in this regard from Musa-ibn-Jafar's conversation with Haroon ar-Rashid and we shall produce here only that portion which serves our discussion. He writes:
'Hazrat Musa-ibn-Jafar approached Haroon for the reason that the letter wished to inquire from him the (false) things which people have ascribed to Hazrat before Haroon. So he took out a lengthy scroll which contained accusations about his Shias and read it out. Then Hazrat said: 'O Amir-ul- Mumineen, we are a family which have been afflicted with such accusations and Allah is 'All-Forgiving' and 'One veils the vices' and He refrains from lifting the veil from the deeds of His servants except when He will be taking their account and that will be the Day when wealth and children shall be of no avail and only the one who comes in the presence of Allah with a pure heart shall benefit. Thereafter he said: 'My father narrated (for me) from Ali who in turn narrated from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A) as such: (Whenever the ties of relationship are felt and maintained with the other; there occurs some movement and excitement and then it calms down." If Amir-ul-Mumineen (i.e. Haroon) deems it advisable to maintain relationship and shake hands with me, he can do so.
Then Haroon came down from his throne and stretched out his right hand and caught hold of Hazrat's hand. He embraced him and made him sit besides him and said: I bear witness that you are truthful and your father and grand - father too were truthful. When you came to inquire I was the most harshful person towards you because of the hatred and anger which I had acquired about you.
Since you spoke to me in the manner which you did and so shook hands with me, the feeling of hatred and anger has disappeared from my heart and I have become satisfied with you. Thereafter, he felt silent for some moment and then said: 'I wish to ask you something about Abbass and All. On what basis was Ali more worthy of inheritance (from the Holy Prophet) than Abbass, the Uncle of the Holy Prophet?
Hazrat replied: "You excuse me from this matter." He said: "I swear by Allah that I shall not excuse you until you answer me."
Hazrat replied: "if you do not excuse me then grant me safety." He said: "I gaurantee your safety." Hazrat said: "Surely, the Holy Prophet did not nominate as heir the one who was able to migrate but did not migrate. Indeed, Abbass your father was amongst those who brought faith but did not migrate and Ali brought faith and migrated too. Allah says:
Haroon turned pale and then said: 'On what basis do you relate yourself to the Holy Prophet and not Ali notwithstanding the fact that Ali was your father and the Holy Prophet your grand - father!
Haarat replied: Surely Allah related Isa-ibn-Maryam to Hazrat Ibrahim, His "Khaleel" through Isa's mother who was a virgin. As Allah says: Thus He related Isa to Ibrahim through Mary- only, just a: He related Sulaiman, Ayub, Yusuf, Musa and Haroon to their father and mother. From the view-point of excellence of Isa which concluded In him only from his mother's side without any other person' it has come in the holy Quran in the verse below that:
('O Maram! Surely Allah has chosen you and purified you and He has chosen you above the women of the world) because of Messiah. So in the same manner, Allah chose Fatemah and purified her and made her superior to all the woman of the world through Hassan and Hussein, the two youthful Chiefs of Paradise.
Mahdi is From the Progeny of Ali (A.S.)
The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" on page 494 narrates from "Manaqeb" of Khawrazmi (the chain of transmission which ends in Sabeth-ibn-Dinar) who narrates from Sa'eed-ibn-Jubair and he from Ibn-Abbass (may Allah be satisfied with them) who said: 'The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: "Indeed Ali is the Imam of my 'Ummah' (nation) after me and it is from his children that the 'Qaem' will come and whenever he emerges, he shall fill the earth with Justice and equity just as it had been filled with cruelty and oppression."
The author of "Eqdud-Durar" in the first chapter, narrates from 'Sunan' of Abu Dawoud, 'Jaame' of Tirmidhi and 'Sunan' of Nesa'ee from Ibn Ishaaq as such: Ali (may Allah's blessings be upon him) looked at his son, Hussein, and then said: - 'Surely my son is a 'Sayyid' (Chief) just as the Holy Prophet named him so. Very soon shall emerge the one from his rear. His name will be the same as your Prophet's flame. In creation he is the same as the Prophet but in morals he is not so. He shall fill the earth with Justice.42
In the second chapter of the afore-mentioned book, the author narrates from the book of "Ba'as -Wa-Nushur" of Baihaqi a similar tradition until he comes to the section where Ali says: In manners, he is not similar to the Prophet.
Moreover, in the second chapter of the afore-mentioned book, the author writes: 'Abu Wa'el says: Ali looked at Hussein and then said: Indeed my son is "Sayyid" (Chief) just as the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) named him so. Very soon a person, whose name shall be the same as your Prophet's name will emerge from Hussein's rear. He shall emerge at the time when people will be negligent and un-aware. A time when the truth will be dead and oppression will be in force. The inhabitants of the heavens and earth will rejoice from his
42-The same has come in "Arf-ul-wardi" (page 54) narrated from Abu Dawoud and Na'eem-ibn-Hemad. emergence. He will be having a broad forehead, protracted nose, broad stomach, broad thighs, a spot on his right cheek and his front teeth seperated from each other. He shall fill the earth with Justice just as it had been filled with cruelty and oppression.43
Mahdi is From the Progeny of Fatemah (A.S.)
Abu Dawoud in the fourth Volume of his 'Sahih' on page 87 writes: Umm- Salma says: 'I heard the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) saying: Mahdi is from my progeny; from the children of Fatemah.44 Ibn-Hajar in his "Sawa'eq" (page 97) and Shaikh Saban in "Es'aaf ur- Rhagebeen" (page 148) have brought the same tradition from Muslim, Abu Dawoud, Nesa'e, Ibn-Maaja and Baihaqi. The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" on page 430 narrates from "Mashkut al- Masabih" from Abu Dawoud from Umm-Salma who said: 'I heard the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) saying: - Mahdi is from my progeny, from the children of Fatemah.
Again, the same author on page 223 of his afore-said book narrates from Ali- ibn-Hallal who narrates from his father who said: 'I was honored by visiting the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) at the time when he was feeling unwell and Fatemah was crying besides him. Then the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: 'O my daughter, what causes you to cry? She replied: I fear that after you, harm shall befall me.
The Holy Prophet (S.AW.A.) replied: 'O my beloved one, Allah put the rein of care on the inhabitants of the earth. Then, amongst them, He appointed your father and then bestowed upon him the Messengership. Thereafter, He showed another care. He appointed your husband Ali and revealed to me that I should give your hand in marriage to him. 'O Fatemah, we are such an Ahlul-Bait that Allah, the Exalted has given us privilege of seven things which others do not possess. Neither those before us nor those who will come after us will have the privilege of those seven things.
I am your father, the Last of the Prophets and the most hondurable among them before Allah and my "Wasi" (legatee) is your husband, the best of the legatees and the most beloved amongst them before Allah. Our martyr Hamza, the loved uncle of your father as well as your husband, is the best of the martyrs and the most beloved amongst them before Allah. Moreover, the one who possesses two wings is from us. He shall fly with them in Paradise along with the angels to whichever place he wishes. He is your father's cousin and the 43-The author of 'Arf-ul-Wardi' On page 62 writes: "Tabarani in 'Ausath' narrates from Ibn-Omar that the Holy Prophet caught hold of Ali's hand and said: soon a youth shall emerge from the rear of this man. He shall fill the earth with Justice and equity. When you shall witness this, it is upon you to support the Tamimi youth. Verily, he shall come from the East and he will be the standard-bearer of Mahdi.
44-Kanzul-Ummal vol. 7 pg. 186; Arf-ul-Wardi Page 58 Narrated from Abu Dawoud, Ibn Maaja, Tabarani and Hakem.
brother of your husband. The two "Sebt" (offsprings) of this "Ummah" (nation) are from us and they are Hassan and Hussein, the two Chiefs of the youth of Paradise and they are your sons. I swear by the one Who rightly appointed me to the station of the Prophethood that Mahdi is from your sons. He shall fill the earth with Justice just as it had been filled with oppression. The author of 'Yanabi' mentions that Hafez Abul-Ala Hamadani has brought this tradition in the "Forty traditions" (which has been written about Mahdi).
The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" on page 434 narrates from "Ausa'th" of Tabarani who narrates from Abaya-ibn-Raba'ee who in turn narrates from Abu Ayub Ansari who said:
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) told Fatemah (May Allah's peace be upon her) as such: The best of the Prophets is from us and he is your father. The best of - the Wasi's (legatees) is from us and he is your husband. The best of the martyrs is from us and he is Hamza, your father's uncle. The one who possesses two wings is from us. He shall fly with them to whichever place he wishes in Paradise and he is Jafar, your father's cousin. The two "Sebt" (offsprings) of this 'Ummah' and the two Chiefs of the youths of Paradise are from us and they are Hassan and Hussein, your two sons. Moreover, Mahdi is from us and he shall be from your children.
In the afore-mentioned book, the author on page 490 narrates from the book "Faza'el as-Sahabah" of Abu Muzaffar Sam'ani who in turn narrates from Abu Sae'ed Khudri a tradition almost similar to the one which was just mentioned. The author says: Traditions in this regard (which you came across in the preface of this book) are "Mustafiza" traditions. Rather they are wildly transmitted traditions and what we have written shall be adequate.45 Mahdi is From the Progeny of "Sebtain" (i.e. Hassan and Hussein) The author of "Eqdud-Durar" in the third chapter of section No.3 narrates from the book "Sefat al-Mahdi" of Hafez Abu Naeem Esfahani who in turn narrates from Ali-ibn-Hallal who narrates from his father as such:
'I received the honor of visiting the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A) at the time when his soul was about to depart and Fatemah was crying besides him. He 45-The author of Arf-ul-Wardi on page 66 narrates from Abu Na'eem who narrates from Hussein who narrates from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such: "O Fatemah, Mahdi is from your children." The author of 'Maqatel at-Thalabin' (vol. 1, pg. 143) has narrated the same from Zuhri who has narrated from Ali-ibn-Hussein who has narrated from his father who in turn has narrated from Fatemah.
Moreover, Suyuti in arf-ul-Wardi has narrated from Ibn-Asaker who has narrated from Hussein who in turn has narrated from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such: "Glad-tiding be to you 'O Fatemah. Mahdi is from you." Also, on page 71 he reluctantly writes; Zuhri says - Mahdi from the sons of Fatemah shall emerge from Mecca. Then he shall be given allegiance. On page 74, he writes: Qatada says - I asked Sa'eed-ibn-Maseeb whether Mahdi was on truth and he replied in the affirmative. I asked: "Who shall he be from? He replied: 'From the children of Fatemah." On page 78, he writes: It has come from Zubri that Mahdi is from the children of Fatemah. On the same page, he writes that it has come from Ali who said: Mahdi is from our family, from the children of Fatemah. The author of Seerah-Halabi in vol. 1 pg. 185 writes: As per research, it has come in traditions that Mahdi is from the progeny of the Holy Prophet and from the children of Fatemah.
recited the afore-said lengthy tradition and in the end of it he said: 'O Fatemah, I swear by the One Who rightly appointed me that Mahdi of this 'Ummah' will be from those two (i.e. Hassan and Hussein).
The world will become such that chaos and disturbances will be intensified all path (of solution) will be served and people will fiercely fall upon one another such that neither the elders will show mercy upon the young nor the children will honor the old. When this happens, Allah will appoint someone (i.e. Mahdi) who shall conquer the deviated castles and open out the sheathed hearts (a metaphoric remarks that Hazrat shall dominate over the false religions and tame the deviated hearts towards Islam). Indeed he shall revolt at the end of time just as I revolted at my time. He shall fill the earth with Justice just as it had been filled with oppression.
The author says: This tradition has been narrated by Ganji from the book "NETAI-MAHDI" of Abu Na'eem Esfahani and "Mu'ajam Kabeer" of Abul Qasim Tabarani and most of the experts of tradition too, have narrated this tradition in their respective books with slight differences in wordings. In some of them, the words 'from us' has been written instead of 'from those two'.46 The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" on page 432 writes: 'The author of Jawaher al-Aqdain says; 'As per research, the effects of the Holy Prophet's 'dua' (invocation) at the time of marriage of Ali and Fatemah (peace be upon them) became apparent in the offspring of Hassan and Hussein. Thus, from their offspring are those who have passed away and those who are still to come. If there will not come anyone in the future except Mahdi, suffice it will be for the invocation of the Holy Prophet to have come into effect.
In this regard, the author says: 'Just as we saw in the tradition of Ali-ibn- Hallal, Hazrat's swearing, in spite of being truthful and trustworthy was only to emphasize the matter. From amongst the seven-fold characteristics, Hazrat has set aside Mahdi and sweared by him only, showing the importance of this matter.
However the reason that Mahdi (A.S.) is from the sons of "Sebtain" (A.S.) (offspring of Ali) is that Hazrat Baqer's mother (i.e. Fatemah) was the wife of Hazrat Ali-ibn-Hussein Zain-ul-Abedeen (A.S.) and daughter of Hazrat Abu Muhammad Hassan Mujtaba (AS.) and about this woman, Imam Baqer has said:
'Fatemah is a righteous woman. So Abu Jafar Muhammad-ibn-Ali Baqer is from the sons of Hassan and Hussein and he and his honorable sons are amongst those who have attained this honor. Mahdi, the Awaited one too is from this propitious splendor and blessed family tree because, he is Muhammad-ibn- Hassan- ibn-Jafar-ibn-Muhammad - ibn - Baqir-ibn-Ali-ibn Hussein-ibn-Ali- ibn-Abi Talib Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.)
46-The author of Arf-Wardi too has narrated the same on page 66 from Abu Naeem and Tabarani.
Mahdi is From the Offspring of Hussein (A.S.)
In the first chapter of "Eqdud-Durar" its author narrates from Hafez Abu Na'eem from his book "Sefat al-Mahdi" who in turn narrates from Huzaifa-ibn - Yamaan who said: 'The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A) delivered a sermon. Then, he disclosed for us all that was sure to take place till the Day of Judgement. Thereafter he said: If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, God Almighty will set the day so long until a person from my progeny who carries the same name as me shall appear. Then Salman stood up and said: 'O Messenger of Allah, from which of your progeny he shall come? The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) replied: 'He shall be from this son (and he put his hand on Hussein's head) of mine.
The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" on page 49 says: In the commentary on Nahiul-Balagha (most probably he is referring to commentary of Ibn-Abil Hadeed) Qazi-ul-Quza'at narrates from Kafi-ul-Kufa'at, Abul-Qasim Ismail- ibn-Ebad a tradition where the chain of transmission is linked to Ali (A.S.) who mentioned something about Mahdi and then said:
'Verily he is from the children of Hussein.47
The author says: Traditions in this regard are "Mustafiza" traditions. Rather, the consensus amongst we Shia Imamiah is the same and what is famous among the scholars of our brethren Sunnis too is the same. However in some of the rare traditions (very few) we find something which is opposite to this meaning. Among them, Abu Dawoud in his 'Sahih' (vol. 4, pg. 89) narrates from Abu Ishaaq who said:
Ali (may Allah's peace and blessing be upon him) looked at Hassan and Said: "Surely my son is 'Sayyid' (Chief) just as the Holy Prophet called him by this name. Soon a person will emerge from his rear. His name shall be the same as your Prophet's name. In creation he will be similar to the Prophet but in behaviour he will not be so. He shall fill the earth with Justice." Some of Sunni 'Ulemas' have reckoned Mahdi to be from the children of Abu Muhammad Hassan Mujtaba (A.S.)
Amongst them, Ibn Hajar in his 'Sawa'eq' on page 99 writes: "Abu Dawoud in his 'Suaan' has narrated a tradition that Mahdi is from the children of Hassan and its mystery lies in this that Hassan waived his Caliphate for the sake of Allah and his affection for his people. Thus Allah placed the 'Qa'em' (who shall emerge at the time of dire strait) amongst his children so that he fills the earth with Justice. The traditions which say that he is from the children of Hussein are weak."
The author says: 'As per the prescribed rules in 'Usul-e-Fiqh' (Principles of Jurisprudence) relying on the afore-said tradition is not correct for the following 47-The author of Yanabi-ul-Muwadda on page 372 narrates from Ali who narrates from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such: 'The world shall not cease to exist until a person from the progeny of Hussein shall emerge in my 'Ummah'. He shall fill the earth with Justice just as it had been filled with oppression.
Firstly, there exists a discrepancy in the narration of Abi Dawoud as the author of 'Eqdud-Durar' narrates from 'Sunan' of Abi Dawoud that All looked towards Hussein.
Secondly, a group of experts on traditions have narrated the same tradition in its exact form except that Ali looked at Hussein. Thirdly, there is the possibility of an error because the words of Hassan and Hussein are sometimes erroneously written for one another especially in the Kufi script. Fourth, the tradition is contrary to what is famous among the Sunni Ulemas. Fifth, the said tradition is contradicting most of the other traditions, which are more authentic in their chain of transmission and more evident in expression. Some of these traditions have already been mentioned and Allah - willing, the rest too will be mentioned later on.
And sixth, this tradition is probably a false and fabricated one for this reason that they wanted to get near to Muhammad-ibn-Abdulla known as 'Nafs-e- Zakiyah'. Thus they resorted to fabrication merely to please him. Mahdi is From the Ninth Descendant of Hussein (A.S.) The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" on page 493 narrates from "Manaqib" of Muwaffaq-ibn- Ahmad Khawrazmi who narrates from Sulaim-ibn-Qais Hallali who narrates from Salman Farsi who said: 'I got the honor of visiting the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.). What I saw was Hussein-ibn-Ali sitting on his lap and the Holy Prophet kissing over his eyes and licking his clothes and then saying:
You are a Chief, son of a Chief and brother of Chief. You are an Imam, son of an Imam and brother of Imam. You are a divine proof, brother of a divine proof and father of nine Divine Proofs, the ninth of them being the "Qaem". The same too can be seen in "Uqdud-Durar".
In the afore-mentioned book on page 258, the author narrates from the tenth chapter of "Mawaddat-ul-Qurba" as such:
It has come from Salim-ibn-Qais Hallali that Salman Farsi said: When I went to meet the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) I saw Hussein sitting on his lap and kissing over his eyes and licking his clothes. Thereafter the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: You are a Chief and the son of a Chief You are an Imam and the son of an Imam. You are a divine proof and the son of a divine proof and the father of nine Divine Proofs, the ninth of them shall be the Qaem. Besides these one, there are still other numerous traditions and Allah-willing, we shall soon narrate them.
The author says: - It does not seem likely that anyone amongst the Muslims is ignorant of these nine personalities and has not known them by name. With this description there is no holding back to mentioning their names out of benediction and remembrance. The first of them is Abul-Hassan Zain-ul- Abedeen, followed by his son Abu Jafar Muhammad Baqir, followed by his son Abu Abdulla Jafer Sadeq, followed by his Abul-Hassan Musa Kazim, followed by his son Abul-Hassan lih ar-Reza, followed by his son Abu Jafar Muhammad Jawad, followed by his son Abul-Hassan Ali Haadi, followed by his son Muhammad Hassan Askari, followed by his son Abul Qasim Muhammad Mahdi who is the ninth of them and the "Qaem".
Mahdi is From the Offspring of Sadeq (A.S.)
The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" on page 499 has narrated from "Arba'een" of Hafez Abu Na'eem Esfahani (which is a collection of forty traditions about Mahdi). Amongst them is a tradition, which he has narrated from 'Laghwi' better, known as Ibn 'Khesbab'.
He said: Abul Qasim Thaher-ibn-Haroon-ibn-Musa Kazim narrated for me a. tradition from his grand - father who said: my master Jafer-ibn -Muhammad said: 'The pious successor shall be from my progeny and he is the Mahdi. His name is Muhammad and his agnomen is Abul-Qasim. He shall emerge at the end of time. His mother is named as Nargis and above his head is a cloud, which shall provide a shadow for him from the sun. It shall accompany him wherever he goes and will call out in an eloquent voice: This is Mahdi, so obey him.' Besides this, there are some other traditions which Allah-willing we shall acquaint you with very soon.
Ibn-Hajar in "Sawa'eq" on page 120 says: Muhammad-ibn-Ali Baqer left behind six sons which the most learned and perfect amongst all is Jafar Sadeq. It was for this reason that he was made as his father's successor and legatee and people have narrated so much knowledge from him that his fame (of excellence) had engulfed all the places.
Great Sunni scholars like Yahya-ibn-Sa'eed, Ibn-Jareeh, Malik, Sufyanin, Abu Hanifa, Shuaba and Ayub Bakhtiyani have narrated traditions from him...
Under the verse Imam Fakhr Raazj says: 'Among the meanings of 'Kauthar' (river in Paradise) one meaning can be that of 'offspring' because, this Sura was revealed in refutation of those who were rebuking the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) for not having a son and then Allah provided him a generation which would continue to remain in the course of time. Thus, you may see for yourself that how many an offspring of the Holy Prophet have been killed and yet the world is full of their existence whereas not even one has remained from Bani-Ummayid. Once again, you may see for yourself that those who are from his Ahlul-Bait like Baqir, Sadeq, Kazim, Reza (A.S.), 'Nefs- Zakiyah' and their likes are great scholars.