Chapter Two : Mahdi is From the Arab Descent

Author of "Eqdud-Durar" in Chapter one section 4 narrates from Abu Abdullah Na'eem-ibn-Hemaad (from his book "Al-Fatan") who is turn narrates from Ali (AS.) who said: - "The kingdom of Bani-Abbass is such that if the Turks, Deylamites, and the inhabitants of Indus valley and India were to attack them they would fail to destroy them and Bani-Abbass would continue to be successful until they become aggressive towards the slaves and the weak. Then God will make a 'Gusale' (the wicked one who will revolt against Bani-Abbass and destroy them) to dominate over them which shall come out from a place where their kingdom will be disclosed. He shall not pass any city but that which conquers; no flag will be hoisted before him but that which he destroys and he will not come across any bounty but that which he misuses. Woe be to the one who takes his side. This shall continue until victory is achieved by the hands of an Arab who shall rise fore the truth and act upon it."

It is apparent that 'on Arab' in the above sentence refers to Mahdi, the Awaited One who shall appear at the end of time and his signs are the very ones which have come in the same chapter of the aforesaid book which has been taken from the book of "Al-Fatan", where its author, Imam Abu Abdulla Na'eem-ibn -Hemaad narrates from Abi Qabil as such: "People shall always be in comfort until the kingdom of Bani-Abbass comes to an end. Then they will live in disturbed conditions until the advent of Mahdi."

Author says: History bears witness that right from the time of Holaku's revolt; the East has not enjoyed liberty. Disturbed conditions and discord among the rulers and kings has always continued to exist. Thus Ali's saying that: Until he gains victory and hands it over to an Arab is perhaps referring to this point that that discord and disturbed conditions are all incidental to the coming of Holaku and his subsequent revolt and it shall remain till the advent of Mahdi.

Thus, as one of the causes and means of Mahdi's victory and his success in inviting the people (towards his mission) and his domination over the cities is the discord and disturbed conditions which shall follow the revolt of Holaku. It is like this that Holaku himself will surrender the affairs of Government to Hazrat (A.S.). Another factor, which shows that Mahdi is from an Arab line, is the diffused traditions which have come with regards to determination of his family and relatives. Ragheb in his "Mufradaat" says: "Arab (???) are the children of Ismail (-Ishmaeel) and (?????) (-Aarab) its plural form. Later on, the nomads were called by that name."

The author of "Saba'ek-uz-Zahak", on page 4 says:

"The city-dwellers are called as "??? - Arab" and the desert - dwellers as Aarab" and what is common is that the word of is used for both groups." Jauhari in "Sihah" says: " - Arab" a tribe and they are the city-dwellers. They have been called Arabi by the title of A'raab-e-Erabi. But what is commonly used is the word of "(???)-Arab" at all levels. The same has been written in the dictionaries."

The author of "Ebar" says: 'The word of Arab " -Arab" is constructioned from " - Aarab" and its meaning of expression (speech) has been taken from those who say: - At the time when a person expresses and describes his need and since they possess the faculty of expression and eloquency in speech they have been called by this name. So know that every non-Arab - whether Iranians, Turks, Romans or Europeans are all "- Ajam - non-Arab" and it is not what the people commonly believe that the word of is particular to the Persian - speaking nation. Rather, the people of West have hitherto used this word for the French and those who fall in the same category. However the word of (by an addition of " - A") is used for the one who does not clarify his speech even though he may be an Arab.

Mahdi is From This "Ummah" (Nation)

Tirmidhi is his "Sahih", on page 270 narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri who said: 'I feared that after the Holy Prophet, something bad might take place, so we asked the Prophet and he replied as such: "Indeed Mahdi is from my 'Ummah' and he shall emerge from amongst them." The magazine "Hudal-Islam" in its 25th publication, line No. 3 has narrated the same tradition from Ibn-Maajah who in turn has narrated it from Abu Sa'eed.

The author of "Eqdud-Durar", in the first chapter narrates from Abu Muslim Abdur-Rahman-ibn-Auf and him from his father and him from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) who said: -

"Surely God shall appoint a man from my "Ummah" (nation). He continued to the point of saying: He shall fill the earth with Justice." In the 3rd chapter of the same book, the author narrates from the book of "Sefat-ul-Mahdi" written by Hafez Abu-Na'eem who in turn narrates from Abu Sa'eed Khudri and he from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) who said:

'Mahdi is from us, the Ahl-ul-bait (i.e. People of the House). He is from my 'Ummah'. The author of 'Fusu1 al-Muhimma' narrates from Abu Dawoud and Tirmidhi and these two from Abdullah-ibn-Mas'oud and he from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A) who said:

"If there remains not more than a day from the life the earth, God will set the day so long until a person from my "Ummah" and progeny who carries the same lame as mine appears (and fills the world with Justice.)" The author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" has narrated (on page 433 of his afore- said book) a tradition from the book "Jawaher-ul-Aqd'ain" of Abu Sa'eed Khudri. In that tradition the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) says: - 'Mahdi is in my Ummah'. Also the afore-said author narrates from Abu Abdullah Na'emm-ibn- Hemaad (from his book of "Al-Fatan" and he from Hisham-ibn-Muhammad and he from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) who said: - "Mahdi is from this "Ummah" and he is the one who shall lead Isa-ibn-Maryam.20"

Ragheb in his 'Mufradaat' says: 'Ummah' is any group of people which is formed through things like custom, time or place - making no difference whether that thing brings them together voluntarily or involuntarily and the plural of " - Ummah" is "(???) - Ummam."

One group has said as such: - 'The "Ummah" of every Prophet are his followers and the one who does not follow his custom will not be included in his "Ummah" even though he may have lived during his time. Therefore, the "Ummah" of Islam are those people who follow the Islamic rules and all that the 20-A similar tradition to this effect has come in "Arf-ul-wardi" page 65 narrated from Ibn-Sireen.

Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has brought making no difference whether he has visited him or not or whether he has lived during his time or not. Moreover this applies to all, without any difference in families or tribes even though they may differ from each other from the view-point of language, time and place.

The Author is of the opinion that: 'It is apparent that the "object of making known" i.e. ('L') in (Al-MAHDI) is for covenant; meaning that Mahdi - the one who has been remembered in the heavenly books and about whom the Prophets have given glad-tidings to their nations, - shall be from this same blessed "Ummah" and not from any other "Ummah". So this "Ummah" deserves to rejoice and be happy for being honored such a virtue. It is true that in some of the exceptional and less common traditions we find such contents like this one - "Mahdi is not but Isa-ibn-Maryam (A.S.)".

Ibn-Hajar has written (this tradition) in "Sawa'eq" on page 89. Ibn-Maaja and Hakem have brought one tradition from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such: - 'It will not be long when difficulties and problems will dominate the people and the world shall turn away from its inhabitants and the people will resort to greediness. The Hour shall not be established but upon the wicked and Mahdi is not but Isa-ibn-Maryam.

Ibn-Hajar quotes Hakem as saying:

"These traditions did not disturb me as such but rather astonished me greatly." Baihaqi says: "Only Muhammad-ibn-Khalid has narrated this tradition." Hakem says: "He (i.e. Muhammad-ibn-Khalid) is unknown and there exists differences in the chain of transmission of traditions narrated by him." Nesa'ee too rejects such traditions.

In the 10th Volume of Da'erat-ul-Ma'aref (page 475) the author after narrating the afore-said tradition mentions the views of Ibn-Maaja as such: Imam Qurtabi says: - 'This tradition is not inconsistent with what the previous traditions have mentioned about Mahdi because; this tradition only aims to respect the dignity of Isa-ibn-Maryam (A.S.) over Mahdi. That is to say, there is no Mahdi but Isa from the viewpoint of is position of Immaculateness and perfection. So it does not contradict existence of Mahdi. It is identical to this saying that there is no stalwart but Ali. Moreover, this view can be supported with the tradition which says that Mahdi is from my progeny; he shall fill the earth with Justice and will e merge along with Isa (A.S.) who shall help him in the killing of Dajjal at a place called "Lad" in the land of Palestine.

Indeed, he shall rule over this 'Ummah' and Isa-ibn-Maryam will pray behind him and God Almighty is All -Knowing.21

21-The author of Arf-ul-Wardi too has narrated the views of Qurtabi on page 86 of his afore-said book Thereafter he has mentioned the identical view: of Ibn-Kathu in explanation of the afore-mentioned tradition. He then writes as such: Qurtabi says - The chain of transmitters of this tradition is weak and the traditions which have come from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) about Mahdi and (the fact) that he is from the progeny of the Holy Prophet and Fatemah are more firm and sound than this tradition Thus one has to judge in accordance with them and not others. He further writes: Abul Hassan Muhammad ibn Hussein ibn-Ibrahim-ibn Aasim Sehri says - The author of "Eqdud-Durar" in the preface of his afore-mentioned book writes as such: 'And amongst the people, there are those who reckon that Mahdi is none other than Isa-ibn-Maryam, the pure and holy.

So I told them - The one who denies the emergence of Mahdi is not actually referring to Hazrat Isa because there is no reason to believe that that reference is made to him and the one who thinks that Mahdi is the same as Isa-ibn-Maryam and insists on the authenticity of this tradition has indeed made the zeal of prejudice and error to bring him to the point of precipice. Thereafter he says: - "Even though this tradition may be proverbial among the people yet, how can it be considered authentic when the traditionists have rejected it." After accurately examining its references and deliberating on its authorities if a person still relies on this tradition, it will be a matter of grave fallacy.

The proof of this statement is that Imam Abu Abdur-Rahman has emphasized on its denial and his view is worthy of acceptance because the tradition returns back to Muhammad-ibn-Khalid Jundi. Moreover, Imam Abul-Faraj Jauzi narrates in his book 'Elal-Mutanahiya' the weakness of this tradition from the words of Hafez Abi Bakr Baihaqi who said: - 'This tradition is connected to Jundi and he is an unknown person. Moreover, Jundi narrates from Aba'an-ibn - Myaash and he too is a rejected and un-laudable person. Aba'an too narrates from Hassan and he from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) and there is an interval in his transmission (i.e. all the sources have not been narrated). Anyhow, there is no reason to consider this tradition to be authentic.

Baihaqi narrates from his master, Hakem Naishabouri (and his words are sufficient enough to make you understand the technique of tradition and the position of its narrators) as follows: -

'Jundi is an unknown person and Ibn-Aaiyaash, a rejected one and with such transmitters this tradition is severed. Almost all the scholars of traditions have brought traditions about Imam Mahdi and all have mentioned his name and remembered him and for those who are clear-sighted and are also aware, it is clear that a part of those traditions are a rectification for the other parts and this is the highest proof of those traditions being better than this rejected tradition. Also, Hafez Abu Abdullah Hakem has spoken on this subject in his 'Mustadrak' which has (also) been mentioned in 'Sahiain' and this makes us needless of other talks.

He reminds that if a tradition has been narrated by a large number of people it is having priority over those traditions which are not as such and while coming across this tradition he discusses its position from the view-point of credibility and un-credibility. Thereafter he writes:

With respect to the overwhelming number of transmitters with regard to the tradition of the Holy Prophet we have to admit that it is on a wide scale. The tradition is as follows: - "Mahdi shall come and he is from my progeny He is someone other than Isa-ibn-Maryam. Rather Isa will pray along with him and assist him in the killing of Dajjal."

"The reason I have brought this tradition is not to argue upon it but to express my surprise." This statement of Hakem finally proves his inattention towards this tradition. He further says: "Better than this tradition is the tradition of Sunan Suri and his adherents."

Thereafter, he mentions the tradition of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) which says; "His name is the same as my name" and then writes as such: - "The eminent scholars are of the view that what Hazrat intends to say by this statement is that Mahdi's name is the same and similar to his name." Thus the above statement reveals the truthfulness of this statement that Mahdi is someone other than Isa-ibn-Maryam (A.S.). Besides, even if we assume this tradition to be correct, we cannot take it in its apparent form. Rather, we should resort to its esoteric interpretation, since we have not found any reason for giving up those genuine traditions which are in opposition to this tradition and perhaps its esoteric interpretation may be like the esoteric interpretation of22 from this angle that a part of the wordings of the two traditions are near to each other and the number of such traditions are numerous. Thus rejection is not the factual aim so that we may conclude that Mahdi is the same as Isa-ibn-Maryam. Rather, it should be said that this sentence has come in honor of Hazrat Mahdi and / or Isa or perhaps it might be having some other interpretation.'

Author of "Yanabi-ul-Muwadda" on page 434 says:

'Indeed the fabrication of this tradition from Ibn-Khalid is apparent from various aspects: -

Firstly, if this tradition was correct then the oppression and cruelty which was prevalent during the time of Yazid and Hajjaj should have increased manifold and until today there should have not remained any goodness in this world. However, after the afore-mentioned period, that is from the time of Omar-ibn- Abdul Aziz and the Abbasside Caliphs up to now, peace and goodness has been settled by the Grace of Allah.

Secondly, before the appointment of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) to the position of Prophethood, the subject of Mahdaviyat was not prevalent among the Arabs so that it could possibly reject this saying (there is no Mahdi but Isa-ibn- Maryam).

Thirdly, God has hinted about Mahdi in many verses of His Book and as such the Holy Prophet too has given glad-tidings about him to his followers just as the previous Prophets (AS.) had given glad-tidings to others about the coming of our Prophet and the circumstances concerning Mahdi. I have collected and mentioned these glad-tidings in a book entitled "Mashreq-ul-Ekwan". (End) 22-"For the one who 13 a neighbor to the mosque there is Do Salat except in the mosque." Its esoteric interpretation will be as such: If a person does not perform his Salat in mosque his Salat will not be a perfect one and not that there is no Salat for him at all.

What we can derive from the sayings of these great men in reply to the afore- mentioned tradition is the following: -

Firstly, it is a fabricated one; secondly it is null and void and hence weak; thirdly it is contradicting the widely transmitted tradition and fourthly its actual interpretation differs from its apparent meaning.

It is possible to conclude from this tradition that the advent of Mahdi and the descending of Isa from the heavens are two related affairs connected to each other where none can be separated from the other. Therefore it is correct to say that reference to one applies to the other and it seems that both are one and the same or it can be said that something is missing from the tradition and in reality it was as such: (Mahdi is not but that Isa is with him) Moreover, the diffused traditions prove this meaning to be correct. Thus Isa is one of the signs of authenticity of the subject of Mahdi (AS.).

Mahdi is From Kanane

Author of "Eqdud-Durar" in his first chapter narrates from 'Sunan' of Imam Abu Amro Osman-ibn-Sa'eed Muqari who narrates from Qatada who said: "I asked Sa'eed-ibn-Maseeb whether Mahdi is the truth and he replied: 'Yes, he is the truth, I then asked: 'To which tribe does he belong? He replied: "To the Kanane." I again asked: 'To which clan does he belong? He replied: 'To the Quraish' I further asked: To which family does he belong? He replied: 'To the Bani-Hashim' Again I asked: 'To which one of the families does he belong? He replied: "To the progeny of Fatemah."

Author says: "By Kanane is meant the same son of Kazima, who was the son of Madraka, son of Elyaas, son of Mazar, son of Nezar, son of Sa'ad, son of Adnan."

Author of "Saba'ek al-Zahab" says: 'Banu Kanane is a family from Mazar and Mazar had a son in whom the lineage of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) terminated and he was called as Nezar. Moreover Mazar had children who were from the Holy Prophet's lineage and they were: Malik, Malkaan, Haaris, Amr, Aamer, Saad, Ghanam, Auf, Mujraba, Jarwal, Jazaal and Gurwaan. Abu Ubaid says: 'They were all from Yemen' and in the book called "Ebar" it has come that their place of stay was in the outskirts of Mecca.'

Mahdi is From Quraish

In the first chapter of "Eqdud-Durar", the author narrates from Imam Abu Abdullah Na'eem-ibn-Hamad who narrates from Ibn-Wa'el who narrates from Imam Abul Hussein Ahmad-ibn-Jafar Manawi who narrates from Qatada who said: 'I asked Sa'eed-ibn-Maseeb whether Mahdi was on truth and lie replied: 'Yes'. I asked: 'To which tribe does he belong? He replied: 'Quraish'. I asked: "To which clan does he belong?" He replied: 'Bani-Hashim'. I asked: "To which family does he belong:" He replied: "He is from the offspring of Abdul- Muttalib." I asked: "Which one of the families?" He replied: "From the progeny of Fatemah." I asked: "Which one of her sons?" He replied: "That is enough now."

Also, the afore-mentioned book narrates (in the seventh chapter) from the book "Al-Fatan" of Hafez Abu Abdullah Na'eem-ibn-Hemaad which in turn narrates from Ishaaq-ibn-Yahya-ibn-Thalha who narrates from Ta'oos who said: - Omar-ibn-Khattab was on death-bed and bidding farewell to his family members. He then said: 'I do not know of any treasure, which I can bestow. The house and all that it contains from wealth and weapons should be spent in the way of Allah.

Then Ali (May Allah be satisfied with him) said: "O Amir-ul-Momineen, leave aside this matter because you are not the owner of (this) wealth. Rather its owner is a young man from the tribe of Quraish who shall, at the end of time distribute it in the way of Allah."23

Ibn-Hajar writes on page 99 of his book "Sawa'eq" as such: - 'Ahmad and Maawardi have brought a tradition from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) who said: Glad-tidings be to you about Mahdi. He is from the Quraish; from my progeny.24 Esa'af-ur-Raghebeen too has narrated the same in his book on page 151. The author believes: 'Quraish is the same Nazr-ibn-Kanane. In Ja'ame-ul-Latif we read as such: "Know that there exist differences in Quraish as to why they were called by this name. So it is said: They were titled in the name of a beast living in the sea - a beast which eats and itself is not eaten; conquers and itself is not conquered (a metaphoric remark signifying power and magnificence) and this tribe too is similar to that beast due to their toughness and significance." In Madarek we read: Quraish is a mighty beast which plays with the ships and except for fire it cannot be repulsed by any other thing. Its diminutive form is due to reverence."

Some others say: The reason they were called as Quraish was that the leader of their tribe Ibn-Yakhled Ghalib-ibn-Fahr was named as Quraish. Thus it was said: The tribe of Quraish came; the tribe of Quraish went and in this way they became famous by this name.

Still some others have said: Qusi (???) who was one person belonging to their tribe gathered them together and brought them to Mecca and "(???) - Qurash" means "to gather together". Thus, as he gathered them together he was named as 23-A tradition similar to this has been narrated in Arf-ul-Wardi on page 78 but in this version - Omar entered the Public Treasury and said: I swear by God that I do not know whether I should leave aside the public treasury and all the arms and wealth that It contains or that I should distribute them In the way of God.... And on page 73 it is mentioned that Ali said: - Mahdi is from me, from the Quraish.

24-In Kanzul-Ummal vol. 7, Page 186 and Arf-ul-Wardi Page 58 the same has been narrated from Ahmad, Maawardi and Abu Na'eem. Also, Suyuti in Arf-ul-wardi Page 79 writes: "Ka'ab says - Mahdi is not but from the tribe of Quraish and caliphate is not but in them."

(gathering) just as we saw in the poem of Fazl-ibn-Abbas-ibn-Utba and also in his following poem:25 It is also said that Quraish was the name of Qusi and it was because of this reason that his tribe was named as Quraish. What is more common however is that his name had been Zaid just as it was previously mentioned? Yet others have said: The word of (????) is derived from (????? which means "to earn" and because they were carrying on business and earning they were called as Quraish.

It is also said that since "Nazr" was called as Quraish, his family too became famous by this name. Some say: They were called as Quraish because they were doing "Taqrish" of goods of the pilgrims going for Haj and "Taqrish" means 'to inspect'. Thus they erected inspection points in their way and prevented them from moving ahead unchecked. The proof that this statement is correct is the saying of Haaris-ibn - Khulatul-Yashkari who says:26

Mahdi is From Bani-Hashim

The author of "Uqdud-Durar" in the first chapter of his book, narrates from Imam Abul-Hussein Ahmad-ibn-Jafar Manawi and Imam Abu Abdulla Na'eem- ibn-Hamad and these two from Qatada who said:

I asked Sa'eed-ibn-Maseeb: "Is Mahdi the truth?"
He replied: "Yes."
I asked: "To which tribe does he belong?"
He replied: "To the Quraish."
I asked: "To which clan does he belong?"
He replied: "To the clan of Bani-Hashim."
I asked: "From which of its families?"
He replied: "From the offspring of Abdul-Muttalib."
I asked: "From which one of them?"
He replied: "From the offspring of Fatemah."
I asked: "From which one of her offspring?"
He replied: "That is enough now."

The author says: Hashim was the same son of d-Munaf who was the son of Qusi, son of Kalab, son Marra, son of Ka'ab, son of Lui, son of Ghalib, son Fehr, son of Malik, son of Nazr, son of Kanane. 25-We were the residents of Mecca from Quraish and it was due to us that the tribe of Ouraish was called by this name.

26-'O' the speaker who investigates us in front of Amr; Is there for us any to affair be faithful upon? In Ja'ame-ul-Latif it has come as such: Hashim's name was Amrol-Ala and the reason he was called by name was that during the period of famine he used provide food and water for his tribe.

In generosity and beneficence he had reached to such high level that he used to provide food to the beats and birds and slaughter camels for them on top mountains. Whenever a famine would occur in Mecca, he would feed its people by his own doing and persuaded the rich men of Mecca to donate their wealth to the poor and indigent up to the time when God caused rain to descend.

Thereafter, he traveled to Syria, went to Caesar (king) and took from him an order vouching the freedom of Quraish. He also sent Abdul-Muttalib towards Yemen and in this way took a letter of trust from the king of that place. Thereafter he ordained the traders and merchants of Quraish to move out in the winter and summer seasons for the purpose of trading. Thus, they would move towards Syria in summer and proceed for Yemen in winter. As such, from then on their subsistence and means of livelihood got extended through such trading and by blessings of Hashim, God delivered them from fear of (loss of) life and hunger. ABD-MUNAF was the father of Hashim who was named as the "moon of the fourteenth night" because of his good-looking face and beneficence. After him, Qusi succeeded him and the post of ruling and giving water to the pilgrims was transferred to him. He was called by the name of Mughaira and his agnomen was Abu Abd-Shams the name of Qusi (father of Abd-Munaf) was Zaid and also Yazid. The reason he was called as (???) (Qusi) was that he along with his mother Fatemah daughter of Sa'ad, left the tribe of Bani-Uzra and started living with his uncles and distanced himself from Mecca. Thus, for this reason he was named as (???) and this word is derived from (????), which means "distant". It also carried the meaning of "gathering" because, when he grew up and returned back to Mecca he gathered the Quraish who had been scattered in the deserts and got them back to Mecca and then expelled the tribe of Khaza'e. Fazl-ibn-Abbass-ibn-Abu Lahab says:27

Mahdi is From the Progeny of Abdul-Muttalib

The author of "Eqdud-Durar", in the seventh chapter narrates from the books of a group of traditionists such as Imam Abu Abdulla-ibn-Maaja in his Sunan, Hafez Abul-Qasum Tabarani in his Mu'ajam and Hafez Abu Na'eem Esfahani and others like Anas-ibn-Malik who said: The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: "We seven, (i.e. Ali, my brother, Hamza, my uncle, Jafar, Hassan, Hussein, Mahdi and myself) the sons of Abdul-Muttalib are the leaders of Paradise."

27-Your father named as , (gathering) because God gathered the tribe of 'Fehr' through him. The author says: This denotes the subject which had previously been mentioned in the tradition of Qatada narrated from Saad-ibn-Maseeb. In Ja'ame- ul-Latif it is written as such: -

Abdul-Muttalib's name was "Shaibat-ul-Hamd' and sometimes he was also called by the name of Aamer. He was called 'Shaibat-ul-Hamd' because of the appearance of signs of whiteness on his hair. Abul-Haaris was his agnomen since he had a son by the name of Haaris and he was called as Abdul-Muttalib because, when his father Hashim who was living in Mecca was about to die, he told Muttalib, his brother as such: "Take care of your"???" (servant) in Yathrib." So from then on he was called as Abdul-Muttalib. Some say that when his uncle Muttalib was taking him to Mecca he had an undeserving appearance.

For this reason when Muttalib was asked about his nephew's condition he felt ashamed to say that he was his nephew and instead said: He is my "???" (slave or servant). Later on when they entered Mecca itself and he had put on a decent look Muttalib revealed that he was his nephew. In this way he became famous by the name of Abdul-Muttalib. It is said that he had a pale face and so when he left for Mecca with Muttahb, people were under impression that he was his "???"(slave) and were saying: Muttalib has brought one"???" , (slave). As such he became famous by the name of Abdul-Muttalib.

Mahdi is From the Progeny of Abu-Talib

The author of "Eqdud-Durar" in the fourth chapter of section No.3 narrates from Saif-ibn-Omaira who said: 'I was near Abu Jafar Mansoor. He addressed me as such: -

O Saif! It is inevitable that a caller from the heavens shall call out in the name of a man from the offspring of Abu Talib. I said: "May I be sacrificed for you 'O Amirul-Momineen. Are you narrating what you just said?" He replied: Yes, I swear by the One in whose Hand is my life. I am narrating exactly what my ears have heard. I said: "But until now I had not heard such a tradition." He said: "O Saif, Indeed he is the truth and at the time when this affair takes place we will be more worthy than others in answering (his call). However Mahdi will be someone from our cousins." I said: "Someone from the offspring of Fatemah!" He replied:

'O Saif, if I had heard it from someone other than Abu Jafar (Hazrat Baqir) I would have not narrated it for you and indeed I was told about this matter by the wisest person on earth. In Saba'ek al-Zahab we read as such: Ibn Ishaaq says: "Abu-Talib's name was Abd-Munaf while Hakem Abu Abdullah says: 'Abu-Talib's name and agnomen is one and the same."

The author of "Tazkerat-ul-Aimma" writes: - 'With regards to his lineage we have mentioned that he is the son of Abdul-Muttalib and when the latter was about to die, he recommended Abu Talib about the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.). In the book of "Tabaqaat" Muhammad-ibn-Saad narrates from a group of Ulemas (scholars) such as Ibn-Abbass, Mujahida, Atha, Zahri and the like of them that Abdul-Muttalib passed away in the second year of "Aam-ul-Feel" (the Year of the Elephants) and the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) at that time was eight years old. In fact, Abdul-Muttalib passed away at the age of one hundred and twenty and was buried in Hejwan.

Umm-Aiman says: I saw the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) walking and crying under the coffin of Abdul-Muttalib, while it was being carried away. According to another saying, Abdul Muttalib was eighty years when he left this world. However the first saying appears to be more correct. Mujahid has narrated from Ibn-Abbass that when a group of people from the tribe of "Qaafa" from 'BANI-MUZHAQ' saw the footsteps of the Holy Prophet they told this child, for we have not seen any footsteps which are similar to the holy prophet's footsteps resembling those in position.

Then Abdul-Muttalib turned towards Abu-Talib and said: "listen to whatever they have said. Indeed there shall be a kingdom for this son of mine." From then on, Abu Talib stood up, in the best possible manner, to help the Messenger of Allah and made himself responsible for assisting him in his affairs so much so that he would never get separated from him. He was so much attracted towards him that he would give more preference to him than his own sons and would sleep only when Hazrat was besides him. He would tell him: "You are well-paced and your future is bright."

In the book of "Tabaqa'at", Ibn-Sa'ad writes: Once Abu Talib went to "Zil- Mujaaz" along with the Messenger of Allah. When the latter felt thirsty, Abu Talib said: "O nephew, you have become thirsty and there is no water." Then the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A) came down and striked the ground with his heels. Very soon, water gushed out and Hazrat drank from it. Historians have written that as Abu Talib arose to support Hazrat and would often drive off the enemies from him, the Quraish once approached him and said: "Your nephew has insulted our gods, called our great men as insane and reckoned our fathers to be deviated one. Therefore, you surrender him to us or else, there shall occur a war between us."

Abu Talib replied: "May your mouths be shut forever. I swear by Allah that I shall never surrender him to you."

They said: "Emara-ibn-Walid-ibn-Mughaira is the most handsome and noble young man among the Quraish. You may keep him as your son instead of Muhammad and surrender Muhammad to us so that we can kill him. Let us exchange our man with your man." Abu Talib replied: "Woe be upon you people. May Allah turn your face dark and gloomy? I swear by Allah that you have indeed spoken the evil. Do you mean that I should hand over my son to you so that you can kill him and will give me your son m exchange so that I take care of him! I swear by Allah that if I do so, I would be but an evil man."

Thereafter he said: I would like you to separate the baby-camels from their mother. If the mother camel gets attracted towards the other baby-camels (and not her own ones) then, I shall hand over Muhammad to you. He then recited a poem.

Then, from the eighth year of his birth until the tenth year of his appointment, which totally amounts to forty-two years, Abu Talib stood up in support of Hazrrat and prevented the enemies from harming him. He spared no effort in taking care of him till the end of his life. In the "Nur-ul-Absar", the author mentions the date of demise of Abu Talib to be the first of Zilqada after the removal of economic sanctions, which lasted for 8 months and 21 days.

In "Mawaheb-ul-Ladnia", the age of Abu Talib at the time of his demise is mentioned to be eighty-seven. It was in the same year that Umm-ul-Mumineen, Khadija passed away and the Holy Prophet (S.A.WA) named that year as the year of sorrow (Aam-ul-Huzn). For knowing more about Abu Talib please refer to historical books like Seera- ibn-Hisham and Tarikh-e-Tabari and to recent writings, especially the book of "Bagyat at-Talib-Fi-Ahwal-Abi Talib" by Zaini Dehlan who is also the author of Al-Fotouhat-Islamiah. Also refer to the book of 'Shaikh-ul-Abtah' written by our cousin Sayyid Muhammad Ali Sharafuddin Aamali which thought to be the best book in this regard.