Notes
 

1. This is the event which took place on 18th Dhu 'l- hijjah when the Prophet during the return from his last hajj-pilgrimage gathered all the pilgrims together at a place called Ghadir Khumm and announced 'Ali (a.s.) as his successor. It is on record in many histories, both Sunni and Shi'ah, that the people completely accepted him. ( tr.) 2. Tafsir, at-Tabari, vol. vi, pp. 288 -289. 3. al-Kashshaf, vol.i, p.505. (Egyptian edition, 1373) 4. at-Tafsiru 'l-kabir, vol.xii, p.30. (Egyptian print- ing, 1357)

5. This refers to the day when Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) was to have met a group of Christians to engage in a kind of contest to verify which of them held the truth. The Qur'an (3:61) mentions this event in which the Prophet was accompanied by al-Imam al-Hasan and al-Imam al-Husayn, Fatimah, and `Ali (a.s.), and refers to the latter as the soul of Muhammad. (tr.) 6. Rayhanatu 'l-adab ,vol.v, p.311. 7. See Polarization Around the Character of Ali ibn Abi Talib, published by WOFIS, Tehran, 1981. The matter of this book is a discussion of those things in `Ali (as.) which attracted seekers after truth and those thing which repelled the lover of falsity. ( tr.)

8. Masjidu 'l-Khif below Mina, where the stoning of the three pillars marking Satan and temptation takes place. In Masjidu'1-Khif the Prophet prayed and pil- grims may also go there to pray and to gather to go to Mina.

9. Rafd means heresy, and the first Shi`ite groups were known as Rafidites, may be because of their not accepting the first three Caliphs. ( tr.) 10. The different sects and schools that developed in Islam. ( tr.)

11. See the Qur'an (4:103) "and hold fast to the rope of Allah".

12. at-Tafsiru 'l-kabir, ar-Razi, vol.xxvii, p.166. 13. Nuru 'd-Din `Abdu 'r-Rahman Jami, born in Khurasan in 817 A. H. (1492 A. D.). He was one of the great figures in Iranian literature and Sufism, and was also a renowned scholar. (tr.)

14. as-Sayyid Nurullah ibn ash-Sharif al-Mar'ashi ash-Shushtari, author of the famous Shi'ah biographical work Majalisu '1-Mu'minun (Assemblies of the Believers). He was flogged to death in 1019 A. H. (1610 - 1 1 A. D.) in India by order of the Emperor Jahangir at the insti- gation of the Sunnis, and was therefore named the "Third Martyr" (Shahid-e Thilith). (tr. ) 15. The person who struck `Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) with the poisoned sword that killed him. This event took place in the Mosque of Kufah at the morning prayer on 19th Ramadan, 40 A. H. (661 A. D.) .(tr. ) 16. Abu Firas, Hammim ibn Ghalib (d. 110/728), a famous Arabic poet in the time of the fourth Imam when Hishim ibn `Abdu 'l-Malik was caliph.

17. These terms are from the terminology of Arabic word formation. The meaning here is that the form of the word would indicate that they are the wali's of Allah, but the real meaning is that they are people whose wali is Allah, this latter meaning usually being denoted by another verbal root form - "maf'ul". ( tr.) 18. This has been dealt with in the Risalah which Qawamu 'd-Din Jasbi Qummi, one of the learned scholars of the Qum madrasahs, compiled on the in structions of Ayatullah Burujardi, and which contains the isnad of these ahadith.

19. as-Sawa'iqu 1-muhriqah, p.135.
20. Hilyatu '1-awliya', vol.i, p.86.
21. A quotation from the Iranian poet Sa'adi.

22. Posthumously published as Insan dar Qur'an (Man in the Qur'an) as part four of Jahanbini-e Islam (The World-View of Islam) (Qum, 1399/1979). (tr.) 23. Apples and pears, as such, are not referred to in the Qur'an, but we are told that there are fruits in Paradise. ( tr. )

24. The greatest of the Prophet's enemies in Mecca.

25. Refer to Tafsir al-mizan, footnote to ayah 124, surah 2: "And when his Lord tested Ibrahim with certain words, and he fulfilled them. He said, `Behold, I make you an Imam for the people' " which proves this matter in a most elegant way.

26. Sa'du 'd-Din, Mahmud Shabistari, (d.720/1320) author of Gulshan-e raz from which the present verse is taken.

27. See A. Guillaume: Ibn Hisham's Life of Muham- mad (1955), pp. 24 - 25.

28. Mathnawi, bk. iii, 1. 1641-1644 Rumi. (trans. R. E. Nicholson)

29. ibid., bk. i, 1. 411-414.

30. ibid.

31. One of the great teachers of recent times. He was a faqih of the rank of mujtahid, a theosophist, a, gnostic, a tabib (traditional doctor) and a writer of excellence. In some subjects, for example, tibb (tra- ditional medicine), he was of the highest rank. He was, over and above this, a pious man, a lover of Allah, the Prophet and his family - the blessings of Allah and His peace be upon them.

32. Kitabu '1-isharat wa 't-tanbihat.

33. al-Kafi, vol. i, p.352.

34. Wasa 'ilu 'sh-Shi`ah, vol.i, p.4. Qur'anic verses quoted in the text.

INDEX 'B'

Names, titles, words, etc., quoted in the text `Abdullah ibn `Ubayy ibn Salul, 47 `Abdu '1-Muttalib, 106 ` Abdu'r-Rahman Jami; see Nuru'd-Din ` Abdu 'r-Rahman ibn Muljam al-Muradi, 56 Abrahah, 106 Abu Firas (Hammam ibn Ghalib), 132 Abu Hanifah, 72 Abu Jahl, 93 Abu Khalid al-Kabuli, 102 Adam, 96 ahadith, 43, 49, 50, 67, 132 Ahlu 'l-bayt, 41; see also the Household of the Prophet. Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 72

` Ali ( ibn Abi Talib - the first Imam), 40, 43 ff, 49f, 56, 61 f, 66, 73, 78, 116, 130ff `Ali ibn Hammad al-`Adwi al-Basri al-Baghdadi, 44 `Ali ibn al-Husayn, al-Imam, (the fourth Imam), 57; see also Zaynu '1-`Abidin. Allah, 17f, 26, 38-41,43,46f, 53ff, 57-64, 66ff, 71, 73 -76, 78ff, 82, 84f, 88f, 91-95,102f,105f,108f, 113, 117 f, 121-124, 127 ff, 131 ff `alim, 74

Amir al-mu'minin, 40, 55, 59; see also `Ali ibn Abi Talib. angel, Death's, 81 angel/s, 79, 81 ff, 94ff Arabic, 40, 55 awliya ' , 60f Wilayah - The Station of the Master ayah, 37 ff, 42 -49, 59, 61 ff, 66 ff, 71, 79, 82, 84, 102, 124, 126, 133

ayat, 38 f, 49, 123 Book of Allah, the, 64f; see also Qur'an, the, Burujardi, Ayatullih, 132 caliph/s, 74, 77, 131 caliphate, 54, 72, 77 Christians, 130 Creator, the, (Allah), 80, 101, 117 Dar at Tabligh al-Islami, 19 Dhu '1-hijjah, 130 din, 57, 62, 66 f, 69, 72, 74, 77 f, 99 ff, 103 Egyptian, 55, 130 Euphrates, 52 faqih, 133 fa`il, 60, 62

Fakhru 'd-Din ar-Razi, 44, 54, 58, 131 al-Farazdaq, 56 f; see also Abu Firas. Fast (-ing), 109, 129; see also sawm. Fatimah (daughter of the Holy Prophet), 130 Fire (of Gehenna), 92 Garden (of Paradise), 92 Gehenna, Fire of, 74 Ghadir, hadith of, 43, 68 Ghadir _ Khumm, 130 ghazal, 56 Greek, 118

Guarded Tablet, 125 Guillaume, A., 133 Gulshan-e Raz, 133 hadith, 38, 54, 58, 63ff, 74, 106, 114, 128 al-Hadithu 'l-qudsi, 127 Hafiz, 55 al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym, 65 hajj, 129f Hakim Ishragi, see Suhrawardi hakim (theosophist), 119f al-Haqq (Allah), 51, 91, 93, 102f, 106, 118 al-Hasan, al-Imam, (ibn `Ali - the second Imam), 130 Hell, 99

Hilyatu 'l-awliya', 132 Hisham ibn `Abdu'l-Malik, 57,132 Household (of the Prophet Muhammad), the, 38,41f, 47,49-53, 55, 57ff, 63ff, 67, 75 hujjah, 79, 129 Hujjatu 'z-zaman, 76 al-Husayn, al-Imam, (ibn `Ali - the third Imam), 130 Iblis, 96 Ibn `Abbas, 65 Ibnu 1-Farid, 55 Ibn Hajar, (al-Haytami), 65 Ibn Hammad, see ` Ali ibn Hammad al-`Adwi al-Basri al-Baghdadi. Ibn Sina (Avicenna), 117 Ibn Hisham, 133

Ibrahim (Abraham - the prophet), 133 Imam/s, 52, 65ff, 69, 72, 73ff, 85, 100ff, 132f Imamate, 24, 62, 64,66f, 70, 72, 77f iman, 102 India, 131 Indian, 118 Insan dar Qur'an, 132; see also, Man in the Qur'an. al-Insanu 'l-kamil, 77; see also Perfect Man. Insha' Allah, 87

Iran, 18 Iranian, 19, 118, 132 `irfan, 87f, 118 `Isa, (Messiah - the prophet), 126 al-Isharat (Kitabu 'l-isharat wa 't-tanbihat), 118, 133 `ismah, 62 isnad, 132 Jadhibah wa dafi`ah-e Ali `alayhi 's-salam (Engl. transl. Polarization around the Character of `Ali ibn Abi Talib), 51 Ja'far as-Sadiq, al-Imam, (the sixth Imam), 58, 120, 127 Jahanbini-e Islam (The World-View of Islam), 132 Jahangir, Emperor, the, 131 Jami, see `Abdu 'r-Rahman.

jihad, 31, 74 jinn, 53 Ka'bah, 106 al-Kashshaf, 130 Kawthar, (in Paradise), pool of, the, 64 Khif, 52; see also Masjidu 'l-Khif. Khurasan, 131 Kufah, Mosque of, 132 Life of Muhammad, 133 liqa'u 'r-rabb, 91 madhahib, 54 madrasah/s, 132 maf'ul, 60, 62, 132 mahabbah, wila' of, the, 50 Mahmud Shabistari, Sa'du 'd-Din, 105, 133 al-Maa'idah (surah), 68 Majalisu 'l-Mu'minun, 131 Malakut, 118 Malik (ibn Anas), 72 Man in the Qur'an, 87; see also Insan dar Qur'an. Masjidu '1-Khif, 131 Mathnawi, 133

muwalat, 24 mawla, 21f, 43 Mecca, 132 Medina, 147 Messenger, the, 43, 47, 55, 66, 68, 70f, 102 Messenger of Allah, the, 53, 63 Mina, 52,131 Mir Damad, 120 Mirza `Ali Aghi Shirazi Isfahani, Hajj, 117 Misbahu 'sh-shari`ah, 106 mithal, 120 al-Mizan (fi tafsiri 'l-Qur'an), 133 Mufradatu 'l-Qur'an, 21,23 Muhammad, (the Messenger of Allah), 39, 41, 45, 52 f, 58, 130 Muhammad al-Baqir, al-Imam, (the fifth Imam), 102 mujtahid, 133 al-Mu' min (surah), 123 Murtadi Mutahhari , 17, 19 mushrik, 29 Mustafa , see Muhammad, the Prophet. Mutahhari, al-`Allamah, see Murtada. Nahju '1-baldghah, 41, 55, 73 an-Naml (surah), 124 Nasibi, the, 57 Nasiru 'd-Din at-Tusi ( Khwaj ah) , 6 5 Nicholson, R. E., 133 nubuwwah, 100; see also prophethood. Nuru 'd-Din `Abdu 'r-Rahman Jami,56, 131 Nurullah ibn ash-Sharif al-Mar'ashi ash-Shushtari, as-Sayyid, al-Qadi, 56,131 Paradise, 58, 64, 66, 92, 99, 132 Perfect Man, 79, 83, 100, 128 f; see also al-Insanu 'l- kamil.

Persian, 17,55f Pharaoh, 93 Polarization Around the Character of Ali ibn Abi Talib, 131; see also Jadhibah wa dafi `ah-e Ali `alayhi 's- salam. Prayer , 37, 43 f, 109 f, 116, 132 Prophet (Muhammad), the, 26, 38f, 41f, 47, Off, 54, 56f, 59, 61-65, 67ff, 71f, 74f, 78f, 84, 93, 100, 111f, 115, 122, 127, 130, 132f prophets, 82, 121, 124 prophethood, 77, 99; see also nubuwwah. prophetic, 114

garabah, wila. of, the, 50 Qawamu 'd-Din Jasbi Qummi, 132 Qum, 17, 19, 132 Qur'an, the, 21, 24ff, 32-35, 39, 46f, Off, 53, 59f, 62,69,74,76,79-84,86f,95, 101,108f, 121, 123, 125f, 130ff Qur'anic, 21, 91 Qusayy, 56 rafd, 53, 131 Rafidite, 53, 131 Ramadan, 19,132 Rayhanatu 'l-adab, 131 ar-Razi, see Fakhru 'd-Din. Risalah, 132 ruku`, 44 - 47, 66 Rumi, 112f, 133

Saba' (Sheba), Queen of, the, 124 Sa'di, 132 salat, 129; see also prayer. Satans, 126 as-Sawa`iqu 'l-muhriqah, 132 sawm, 129; see also fast (-ing). Shabistari, see Mahmud Shabistari. ash-Shafi'i, al-Imam, 52,72 Shahid-e Thalith (Third Martyr), 132 shari`ah/s, 46, 101 Shaytan (Satan), 113 Shi'ah/s, 44, 50, 52, 54, 57, 65, 68, 127, 130f Shi`ism, 87f, 128 Shiite, the, 75, 78f, 131 shirk, 29, 85 f Sufi, 55 Sufism, 131 Suhrawardi, 119 Sulayman (Solomon - the prophet), 124 sunnah, 49, 69 Sunni/s, 42ff, 48, 50, 52, 57, 61, 63, 68, 72, 127, 130f surah, 133

at-Tabari, 43, 130 at -Tabataba'i, al-`Allamah, (as-Sayyid Muhammad Hu- sayn), 99 tabib, 133 Tafsir, 130 at-Tafsiru 'l-Kabir, 130f tawalli, 24 tawhid, 33, 82, 85 f, 101 Tayy, 56 Tehran, 131 tibb, 133 ummah, 69 Usul al-Kafi, 102, 133 walayah, 21, 23 wali, 21, 32, 35, 41, 43-47, 59-62, 66ff, 77, 80, 92, 129, 132

walis, 121, 129 waliya (waw-lam-ya), 21f waliyyu 'l-amr, 67, 69,71 Wasa'ilu 'sh-Shi`ah, 133 wila', 21, 24f, 27ff, 34-40, 42f, 45-52, 54, 56f, 59, 62,67,75 wila '-tasarruf, 75 f wilayah, 21, 23, 47, 49, 59, 66 -71, 75 -79, 83 - 87, 99ff, 107, 110, 113, 119, 121, 129 wilayah-tasarruf, 75 f, 79, 83, 85, 121f, 126 wilayah, 77 WOFIS (World Organization for Islamic Services), 19, 131 za`amah, 62, 67, 69 za'im, 78 zakat, 37, 43 - 47, 66, 129 az-Zamakhshari, 43f, 54, 58 Zaynu'1-`Abidin, al-Imam, 57, 116; see also 'Ali ibn al-Husayn. 143