Chapter 10: Al-Mubarakah (The Blessed One)
 

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Barakah means: multiplication, felicity and abundance; as Taj al-Arous clarifies. Also, Ragheb said: Because divine goodness springs from an ever - continuous source in an unlimited manner, it is said that anything which noticeably multiplies or increases is Mubarak or blessed. Allah Almighty gifted Fatima with abundant blessings, and made her the Mother of the Prophet's descendants on whom Allah has bestowed ever - lasting benevolence.

Upon reviewing the history of Fatima's offspring, we find that when she died, she left behind two sons and two daughters, they are: Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain, Zainab and Umme Kulthum. But when the event of Karbala occurred, Imam Hussain and his children achieved martyrdom, and Ali Ibn Al- Hussain (Imam Zain Al-Abedeen) was the only surviving child of Imam Hussain. Also seven of Imam Hassan's children and two of Zainab's sons achieved martyrdom. Umme Kulthum had no children.

After the events of Karbala, inflictions successively befell the Prophet's descendants. Torture and massacres continued against them starting with the battle of Harra, Zaid Ibn Ali's and Fakh, and going through the agony they suffered throughout the Umayyad era. But when the Abbassides came to power, they broke the Umayyad

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record of eradicating and annihilating Fatima's offspring (more details about the sufferings they encountered can be found in Maqatel al Talibeen). The struggle continued for two centuries until Imam Al-Hassan Al-Askari died in Samera as a result of eating poison, which was placed in his food. Furthermore, Salah Ad-Din al-Ayobi was as savage as the Abbassides in massacring the Prophet's descendants and followers. He committed mass murders and brutal crimes, which bring shivers to the spine.

Nonetheless, Allah Almighty bestowed benevolence and blessings upon Fatima Zahra's descendants. He implemented abundant multiplicity in them. The interpretation of the verse:

"To thee have we granted Kauthar" (108:1) varies according to interpreters. The most popular viewpoint of the meaning of Kauthar is a famous fountain or domain, which will be given to the Apostle on the Day of Resurrection; the literal meaning of Kauthar is abundance or abundant benevolence.

Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur, regarding the meaning of Kauthar, writes: "Buhkari, Ibn Jarir and Al-Hakim reported on the authority of Abu Bishr Ibn Said Ibn Jubair that Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 'Al-Kauthar is abundant goodness which Allah gave the Apostle.' Abu Bishr said:

I told Ibn Jubair that some people claim that it is a river (fountain) in Paradise, he said: 'The fountain in Paradise is part of the abundant benevolence which He (Allah) gave him (P.B.U.H.)' Razi's interpretation of the above-mentioned verse is more appropriate. He held the view that what is meant by Kauthar is

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Fatima Zahra. In Majma' al Bayan, Tabarsi writes regarding this subject: "It was said that Kauthar means abundant benevolence, it has also been said that it means the multiplicity of a given person; and the descendants of Fatima have enormously multiplied in a way that they will exist until the Day of Resurrection." Fakhr Razi made the following comment in his Interpretation of the Quran regarding this verse:

"In reference to the third viewpoint which advocates the meaning of descendants to "Kauthar," some scholars say:

Since this chapter was revealed to refute the claim of an infidel who attempted to denounce the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) for not having sons, it becomes clear that the meaning given here is that Allah gave the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) offspring, which will be everlasting. We must keep in mind that numerous massacres have been committed against Ahlul-Bayt, yet still the world is full of them; while the Umayyads have vanished save a few who are worthless. Besides this, prominent scholars have descended from Fatima's sons, such as Al-Baqir, Al-Sadiq, Al-Kadhim, Al-Redha (A.S.), Al Nafs Al-Zakyyah and others.

This explanation correlates to the following: An infidel denounced the Prophet when one of his children died and said Muhammad is now without offspring, therefore when he dies his name will die with him. It was because of this incident that Allah revealed this chapter to His Apostle assuring him; it is as if He (Glory be to Him) said:

"You have lost your son, but We have given you Fatima; although she is just one, Allah will make that one many." A survey of the world's population attests to this conclusion; for Fatima's descendants (who are also the Prophet's descendants) are spread around the globe as follows: Iraq-one

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million, Iran-three million, Egypt-five million, Morocco-five million, Algeria, Tunis, Libya, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Sudan, the Persian Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, Yemen, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Indonesia-approximately twenty million descendants of the Prophet of Islam.

An Islamic country in which descendants of Fatima Zahra do not live is hard to find. Their number is estimated to be thirty - five millions; however, if precise and accurate statistics are taken, their number could be much higher.

Included among the Prophet's descendants are kings, princes, ministers, scholars, writers, prominent characters, and geniuses. Some are honored by their lineage and others ignore it and give no importance to it. Some follow Ahlul-Bayt, while others violate their doctrine. I have even heard of some descendants of Fatima (A.S.) who live in Indonesia and are enemies of Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.)! More amazing is the fact that some Muslims refuse to accept their lineage of Fatima and Ali; rather they claim that such a lineage is forged and unacceptable. These people ferociously fought this idea up to the point that they shed innocent blood to implement their ideas.

Hajjaj, Mansour Dawaniqi, Haroon Al-Rashid and others are known advocates of this idea.

It was mentioned in volume ten of Bihar that Amr Al-Shube said:

"One night Hajjaj summoned me to his palace; this horrified me, so I performed ablution and wrote my will; then went to meet him. When 1 entered his room, I saw a sword and a leather mat (usually used for executions). I greeted him and he replied to me and said: Do not fear anything, for I pardon you throughout the night and until tomorrow noon.' He then ordered me to sit next to him; meanwhile a tied and shackled man was brought to him; Hajjaj said: 'This old man claims that A1-Hassan and Al-Hussain are the

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Prophet's children; he shall prove this from the Quran or I will cut his head off.' I said: 'He should be freed from his chains, because if he proves his claim, he will surely go free, and if not, then a sword cannot break those chains.'

They freed the man of his shackles, but kept his hands cuffed; I was grieved when I saw that he was Sa'id Ibn Jubair and said: How can he bring proof from the Quran in this regard? Hajjaj said: 'Bring me proof from the Quran or will behead you.'

He said: 'Wait.' He waited for a while when Hajjaj repeated his demand and Sa'id asked for more time to think. When Hajjaj repeated his demand for the third time, Sa'id said:

'I seek refuge in Allah from the cursed devil, in the Name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful. We gave him Isaac and Jacob; all (three) We guided; and before him, We guided Noah; and among his progeny, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron; thus do We reward those who do good.' (6: 84) Then he stopped and said to Hajjaj: 'Read the following verse And Zakariya and John and Isa.' Then Sa'id said: 'How does Isa fit in here?'

Hajjaj replied: 'He is one of Ibrahim's offspring.' Sa'id said: 'Isa did not have a father, yet he was Ibrahim's descendant because he was his daughter's (Maryam) son, therefore Hassan and Hussain are more worthy of being called the Prophet's children especially that they are closer to him (the Prophet) than Isa was to Maryam.' When Hajjaj heard this, he granted him ten thousands dinars and set him free. Shube added:

"In the morning I said to myself. 'It is incumbent upon me to visit that old man and learn the meaning of the Quran, which I thought

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I know but really do not.' I entered the Mosque and found that old man giving everyone ten dinars; I then heard him say: All this is because of the blessings of Hassan and Hussain (A.S.). We were grieved once but cherished a thousand times, we also pleased Allah and His Apostle. " Another narration which shows the extent of arrogance and insistence on discrediting Ahlul-Bayt and depriving them of the honor of relationship to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) says:

Sheikh Majlisi reported on the authority of Ihtijaj and Tafsir Ali Ibn Ibrahim in Bihar that Abu Al-Jaroud said: 'Abu Ja'far Al-Baqir (A.S.) said to me:

'Abu Jaroud, what do they (followers of other than Ahlul-Bayt) say about Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain (A.S.)?' I said: 'They deny the fact that they are sons of Allah's Apostle.' He then said: 'So with what do you debate them?' I said: 'With Allah's saying about Isa Ibn Maryam:

"And among his progeny David and Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron; thus, do we reward those who do good," (6: 84) and that Allah Almighty made Isa a descendant of Ibrahim." He said: 'Then what do they say?'

I said: 'They say: 'A daughter's son can be called a son but he is not actually a real descendant.' He said: 'How do you argue with them?'



I said: 'We quote the following verse for them':

'Say: Come! Let us gather together, our sons and your sons, our women and your woman.'[1] Then he said: 'Then what do they say?' I replied: 'They say: "It is common in Arabic for a man to call another man's children Our children while they are really others' children."' Imam Baqir (Abu Ja'far (A.S.)) then said:

'By Allah, Abu Al-Jaroud, I shall quote a verse from the Book of

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Allah which shows that Hassan and Hussain are his (P.B.U.H.)direct children (form his loins); proof that can only be denied by infidels.' I said: 'May I be your sacrifice, what verse are you speaking of?' He answered: 'When Allah said:

"Prohibited to you (for marriage) are your mothers, daughters... until (those who have been) wives of your sons proceeding from your loins. " Ask them, Abu A1 Jaroud, was it permitted for Allah's Messenger to marry Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain's wives (had they been divorced)? If their response is affirmative, then they have lied and sinned; and if their answer is negative, it is because they are his children proceeding from his loins. "'

In another debate, which took place between Haroun Al-Rashid and Imam Musa Ibn Ja'far (A.S.) mentioned by Bihar Majlisi on the authority of 'Oyun Akhbar Al-Redha, Haroun said to the Imam:

"Why did you permit people to trace your ancestry back to Allah's Messenger (P.B.U.H.) and call you sons of Allah's Apostle while you are descendants of Ali? Men are traced to their fathers; Fatima was not but a vessel and her father, the Prophet your maternal grandfather!"

The Imam (A.S.) replied: "Had the Prophet been brought back to life and asked you for your daughter's hand in marriage, would you fulfill his wish?" Rashid answered: "Glory be to Allah! Why wouldn't I fulfill his wish? Indeed I would be honored among the Arabs, non Arabs, and Quraish to do so." The Imam then said: "But he would not ask to marry my daughter, nor could I give her to him in marriage."

Rashid exclaimed: "Why not?"

The Imam said: "For he has begotten me and has not begotten

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you. "

Rashid then said: "You are right, Musa;" and added: "but why do you claim to be the Prophet's offspring while he did not beget sons? And since offspring are sons not daughters and you are Fatima's children, she did not have offspring."

Upon hearing this, the Imam apologized to Rashid and asked to be excused; he did not want to answer him in observance to the law of prudence (taqiya). Nevertheless, Rashid insisted on hearing his arguments and said: "You are obligated to bring me your arguments from the Quran, you children of Ali, and since you are their Imam of the time and chief, as I was told, I will not excuse you until you bring me proof from Allah's Book, from which you know the interpretation of every letter, as has been written in this verse:

'Nothing have We left unattended from the Book.' Furthermore, you dispensed with the opinions of other scholars and 'qiyas' (inference)." The Imam then said: 'am I permitted to give you the answer?"

Rashid said: "Indeed you are." The Imam then said: "I seek refuge in Allah from the cursed devil. In the name of Allah, the Beneficent the Merciful: And among his progeny, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron; Thus do We reward those who do good; "And Zakariya and John, and Jesus (Isa). "

The Imam continued, "Who is Isa's Father?"

The Imam then said: "Therefore, he is considered among the Prophet's offspring through Maryam; likewise, we are the offspring of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.)through our Mother, Fatima (A)..."

These were some of the verses that Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.) used as proof of their lineage to Allah's Apostle through Fatima Zahra. There are a great number of narrations, which declare the same thing; among them are:

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1. Al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi v.1, p.316, in Tarikh Baghdad reported that Ibn Abbas said: "I was in the company of my father, A1-Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib, sitting in the presence of Allah's Messenger (P.B.U.H.) when Ali Ibn Abu Talib entered and greeted us. The Prophet(P.B.U.H.) returned his Salam, stood up and while smiling, embraced him and kissed his forehead. The Prophet then asked him to sit near to him."

Al-Abass asked: "Messenger of Allah, do you love him?"

The Prophet replied: "Uncle of Allah's Messenger! By Allah, Allah loves him more than I do. Surely Allah made every Prophet's progeny proceed from him, and made my progeny proceed from this one."

2. Also, Khawarazmi in Manaqib p.229, narrates the following:

Allah's Apostle declared: "Surely Allah made every Prophet's progeny proceed from his own loins, and made my progeny proceed from Ali's loins." This narration was reported by the following writers:

Muhib Ad-Din-Tabari in Dhakhaer al-Uqbi, Hamueeni in Faraed As-Semtain, Dhahabi in Mizan al-Etedal, Ibn Hajar in al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa p.74, Mirza Hindi in Muntakhab Kanz al-Umal, Zarqani in Sharh Mawahib Ladonyyah, and Qandouzi in Yanabi' al-Mawaddah p.138. Nisaee also mentioned in Khasaes Amir Al-Mo'mineen on the authority of Muhammad Ibn Usama Ibn Zaid, that his Father said: "Allah's Messenger said: 'As for you Ali, you are my son-in-law and the father of my offspring; you are from me and I am from you.'" The same narrator reported that Usama said:

"I went to visit the Prophet of Allah one night; he

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(P.B.U.H.) came out carrying something that I didn't recognize under his cloak. When I finished my work with him I said. 'What do you have under your cloak?' When he opened his cloak, I saw Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain on his lap. The Prophet then said: 'These are my children and my daughter's sons; O Allah, you surely know that I love them, therefore love them. "

Despite the large number of traditions, which declare that Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain are the Prophet of Allah's children, some ignorant writers try to deny this fact. These writers quote the Quranic verse: "Muhammad is not the Father of any of your men,"

to prove that he (P.B.U.H.) was not anyone's Father. These writers use this verse even though it is an uncontested fact that it was revealed to prove that Zaid, the Prophet's adopted son, is not related to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). The Apostle gave him (Zaid) in marriage to his cousin Zainab; but when Zaid divorced her, he (P.B.U.H.) married her in obedience to Allah's command, and to prove that he(P.B.U.H.) was not Zaid's Father, which would make Zainab prohibited to him.

"Then when Zaid had dissolved (his marriage) with her, with the necessary formalities, We joined her in marriage to thee: In order that (in the future) there may be no difficulty to the Believers in (the matter of) marriage with the wives of their adopted sons, when the later have dissolved with necessary formalities (their marriage) with them. And Allah's command must be fulfilled." (32: 39) Thus, prohibiting marriage with the previous wives of a son depends on proving their actual lineage to the father; if such a lineage cannot be proved, then marrying the previous wives is not prohibited. It is for this reason that Allah Almighty said:

"Of any of your men." If this was not the case, then what about Ibrahim, Al-Qasim,

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Al-Taeeb and Al-Mutahhar who were all his (P.B.U.H.) sons. Furthermore, it has already been verified that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said to Imam Hassan (A.S.): "This son of mine is a Master." He also said:

"Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain, these two sons of mine, are Imams whether they rise or forebear."

and:

"Every daughter's children are called to their Father, save Fatima's children; for I am their Father." In another interpretation of "of any of your children," some scholars say: "What He meant by "Men", was the mature ones; and none of his children were mature at that time."

In conclusion, whatever has been said about the Apostle's sons, can be said to include Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain. They were the Prophet of Allah's sons.

[1] The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) chose Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain to represent his sons, Fatima for "women," and himself and Ali (A.S.) for "ourselves." (Translator's note)

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Chapter 11: At-Taherah (The Virtuous)


As we have already mentioned, one of Fatima Zahra's (A.S.) names was "At Taherah" (the virtuous or pure). This meaning is related to the verse: "And Allah only wished to remove all abomination from you, ye member of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless." (33: 33) The above-mentioned verse is of great importance because of its subtle meaning and significance.

This verse is considered the main source of virtues granted to Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.); around it various debates and many writings took place. It might be more appropriate to say that this verse was the field of debates, contradicting viewpoints and inconsistent opinions. This is especially true when it comes to who was meant by "the Family," or Ahlul-Bayt.

Nevertheless, it is indisputable that this verse, known as "the verse of purification" concerns Fatima At-Taherah (A.S.) and both Shiite and Sunni scholars agree on this, except a very small number. This established fact has been reached in light of the traditions, which unanimously state that the said verse includes Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain (A.S.). Yet some hold the viewpoint that the verse includes the Prophet's wives-because of the word "Family" and the sequence of the surrounding verses that include a speech to them; however, he (P.B.U.H.) prohibited even his wife, Umme Salama, from joining them under the cloak prior to the

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revelation of this verse.

Although the number of narrators who report that the "verse of purification" was revealed regarding Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain (A.S.) reach several hundreds, it will be useful to include narrations and sources which are reported by prominent Sunni scholars about this subject. I would like to point out that this list should be satisfying for any clear conscience.

1. Baghdadi in his history book Tareekh Baghdad, v. 10, mentioned that Abu Sa'id Al-Khudari remarked regarding the verse:

'And Allah only wished to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the Family and to make you pure and spotless," that the Messenger of Allah gathered Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain under a cloak and said:

"These are my Ahlul-Bayt (i.e., Family), O Allah; remove all abominations from them and make them pure and spotless " Umme Salama, who was standing near the door, said:

"Am I not one of them, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "You are (up to a) good ending." 2. Zamakhshari in Al-Kashaf, v.1, p. 193 narrated on the account of Aisha, that Allah's Messenger came out wearing an embroidered, ornamented cloak of woven black hair, when Al-Hassan Ibn Ali came to him and went under it; then Al-Hussain followed him, then Fatima, then Ali. At that moment (P.B.U.H.) quoted the verse:

"And Allah only wished to remove all abominations from you, ye Members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless."

3. Razi in his interpretation of the Quran v. 2, p. 700, (printed in Istanbul), writes: "When he (the Prophet) came out wearing the black cloak, and A1 Hassan came under it and Al-Hussain, and Fatima and Ali the Prophet said: 'And Allah only wishes......"

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4. Ibn Al-Athir Al-Jazari reported in his book Usd al-Ghaba Fi Maarefat As-Sahabah v. 2, p. 12, that Omar Ibn Abu Salamah, the Prophet's stepson, said:

"When the verse And Allah only wishes...' was revealed to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) he had gathered Fatima, Hassan and Hussain under his cloak, while Ali was behind him, and said:

'This is my family, therefore, remove all abomination from them, and make them pure and spotless.' Umme Salama said: Am I one of them, Messenger of Allah?' He said: 'You will be in good condition."

5. Sebt Ibn al-Jawzi reported in Tazkerah al-Aemah, p.244, that Wathelah Ibn Asqa' said:

"I went to ask Fatima (A.S.) about Ali; she told me to go to the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) and ask him, so I went and sat down to wait for him; I then saw the Prophet coming in the company of Ali, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain. He held their hands until they entered the room. He then sat Al-Hassan on his right leg and Al-Hussain on his left leg and ordered Ali and Fatima to sit near him. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) covered them with his cloak (or garment) and read: And Allah only wishes... than he (P.B.U.H.)) supplicated to Allah and said:

"O Allah, truly these are my Ahlul-Bayt (Family)."

6. Imam Wahedi reported in his book Asbab An-Nozul that Umme Salama, the Prophet's wife, narrated that Allah's Messenger (P.B.U.H.)was present in her house when Fatima brought him an earthenware pot filled with wheat cooked with milk. He (P.B.U.H.) said: "Call in your husband and two sons for me." Thus, Ali, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain came and joined him in eating the food. Meanwhile, he (P.B.U.H.) sat on a bench, covered with a Khairban cloak.

Um Salama added:

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"I was in my room performing prayers when the Arch-Angel Gabriel revealed: "O Allah, these are my Family and Kin; therefore, remove all abomination from them and make them pure and spotless." At hearing that, I looked in the house and said: "Am I one of them, O Apostle of Allah?' Moreover, Tirmadhi reported in his "Sahih" that Allah's Messenger since the time this verse was revealed and for six months thereafter, stood by Fatima's house (door) and said:

"(Time for) prayers Ahlul-Bayt; Allah only wished to remove all abomination from you and make you pure and spotless." 7. Ibn Sabagh al-Maliki in his book al-Fosoul al-Muhemah p.7, narrated a tradition similar to the one already mentioned by Wahidi; but he added: Some poets said the following in this regard:

Surely Muhammad and his successor and Their two sons, and his virtuous and pure daughter; are the people of the cloak who in adhering to them, I long for peace and success on the Last Day.

8. Abu Bakr Suyuti narrated this tradition on the authority of Umme Salama, Aisha, Abu Sa'id Al-Khudari, Zeid Ibn Arqam, Ibn Abbas, Dahak Ibn Muzahim, Abu al-Hamra, Omar Ibn Salama and others in his books: al-Durr al-Manthur v. 5, p. 198, Al-Khasaes al-Kubra v. 2, p. 264, and Al-Itqan v. 2, p. 200.

They all reported that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) gathered Fatima, Ali, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain, when the verse 'And Allah only wishes to remove... " and covered them with a cloak.He then said: "By Allah, these are my Ahlul-Bayt, therefore remove all

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abomination from them pure and spotless."

9. Tabari in Dhakhaer al-Uqbi p. 21, declared that this verse was revealed in regard to the purified five (the Prophet, Ali, Fatima, Hassan, Hussain), relying on Omar Ibn Abu Salama's narration.

He also reported that Umme Salama said:

"Allah's Messenger covered Fatima, Ali, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain, including himself with a garment and read this verse:

"And Allah only wished to remove all abomination from you, ye Members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless." (33: 33) She then added: "So I came to join them when the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: 'Stay where you are, you will have a good conclusion." In another narration, she was quoted as saying:

"Allah's Messenger said to Fatima: 'Bring your bright cloak; and put his hands on them and said: 'O Allah, these are the progeny of Muhammad, thus bless and praise them for surely you are praiseworthy and Exalted."' Umme Salama added:

"I then lifted the cloak to join them, but he pulled it away and said: You are alright. " 10. Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Ghoutroubi reported that this verse was revealed in regard to Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.) in his book Al-Jame' Li Ahkam al-Quran v.14, p.182.

11. Ibn al-Arabi in his book Ahkam al-Quran v. 2, p. 166.

12. Ibn Abd al-Bir al-Ondolosi in his book al-Esti'ab v. 2, p. 460.

13. Al-Bihaqi in his book As Sunan al-Kubra v., p. 149.

14. Al-Hakim al-Nishaburi in his book al-Mustadrak al- Sahihain v.2, p.416.

He narrated a tradition on the authority of Umme Salama similar to what has already been mentioned and adds:

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He (P.B.U.H.) said: "O Allah, this is my family (Ahlul-Bayt)." Umme Salama then said:

"Messenger of Allah, am I not from Ablul-Bayt?"

The Prophet answered:

"You are alright, but these are my Ahlul-Bayt..." 15. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in Musnad v. 1, p. 331. 16. Nisaee in Khasa'es p. 4.

17. Muhammad Ibn Jarir At Tabari in his interpretation of the Quran, v. 22, p. 5.

18. A1-Khawarazmi in Kitab al-Manaqib p. 35.

19. Al-Haithami in Majma' al-Zawaed v. 9, p. 166.

20. Ibn Hajar al-Haithami in al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa p. 85.

It is necessary to further elaborate on this subject, since the verse of purification declares, beyond doubt, that Fatima (A.S.) is pure. Nevertheless, it may be beneficial to explain the meaning of the word "Rijs" or abomination mentioned in the verse. "Rijs" means that Allah purified her from the monthly menstruation in addition to all abomination and depravities. "Rijs" is all that is deemed impure by human nature, conforms with evil doings, deserves punishment, detracts from one's good reputation, brings about sins, rejected by nature or mars any of the knightly virtues.

Ibn Al-Arabi also said in Al-Futouhat al-Makkiah, Chapter 29, that Rijs is "anything which detracts from one's character." The definition that Al-Arabi gave for the word Rijs, is the definition for the word "infallible" which the Shiites believe is an inseparable character of all Prophets, Imams, and Lady Fatima Zahra (A.S.). It is indeed an excellent virtue and a great honor that Allah has bestowed upon some of his servants.

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It is worthy to mention that infallibility is an inseparable trait of those who propagate divine laws; yet, because infallibility is a prerequisite for prophets and Imams in their roles of propagating divine rules, it does not mean that others, who also propagate, are safeguarded from sins.

Imam Ali (A.S.) proved Fatima's infallibility using the verse of purification in his argument with Abu Bakr. The Imam (A.S.) said: "Abu Bakr, do you read Allah's book?"

He answered: "yes"

Imam Ali (A.S.) then said: "Then tell me about whom was the following verse revealed?

'And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye Members of the Family, and make you pure and spotless.'

"Was it not revealed in regard to us, Ahlul-Bayt?"

Abu Bakr said: "Yes, it was revealed regarding you"

He (A.S.) said: "If some men testify that Fatima, the Messenger's daughter, committed an abomination what would you do?"

He answered: "I would administer the legal punishment to her, just like any other Muslim woman!'

He (A.S.) then said: "If you did so, you would be an infidel in the eyes of Allah."

Abu Bakr said: "Why?"

Imam (A.S.) replied: "Because you would have rejected Allah's testimony of her purity and virtue (infallibility), and surpassed people's testimony over it..."[1]

A manifestation of this purity, is safeguarding the person from impurity upon death, regardless of the fact that any human being-no matter how pious and obedient to Allah he is-becomes intensely impure upon passing away, making it obligatory to

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perform ablution (Ghusl) when touching his body. The dead person, himself, only becomes pure after being washed by others. Contrarily, the infallibles are purified before and after death. Al-Hassan Ibn Ubaid said in Al-Wasa'el: I wrote to Imam Sadiq (A.S.) and asked him:

"Did the Commander of the Faithful perform ablution (Ghusl) after abluting the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) upon his death?" His answer was:

"The Prophet was pure and safeguarded all impurities; yet the Commander of the Faithful (A.S.) did so and this became a customary practice (Sunnah)."

We will elaborate on Fatima's ablution at the end of the book if Allah wills. [1] Al-Bihar: v.10.