Factors of Education
 

Generally, education is an essential base of the behavioral results if it depends upon the factors that influence its structure and composition. Without the reasons that lead to the foundation of education, the fruits will be absent. Summarily, the reasons of the educational foundation are as follows:

Heredity:

Psychologists ascribe individuals’ intelligence and idiocy to heredity. “Directly, intelligence and idiocy lean on heredity,” they said, and added that intelligent children will easily receive the educational and teaching systems. Besides, intelligence is one of the most significant elements of the intellective growth and the scientific maturity. In the same way, idiot children will encounter difficulty in receiving the educational and teaching methods entirely. Hence, methods do nothing in the progression and prosperity of such children. It is seemingly necessary to have a look on heredity for its
[1] Refer to Factors of education: 6-8.

being one of the most significant means in the process of structuring the educational entities.

Definition of Heredity:

Heredity is defined as the branches’ natural tendency to imitate the origins in the physical composition and physiology. Other hereditists define it as the branches’ copying the origins.

Scientific analysis:

The scientific analysis of genetics implies that human beings being a single small cell called gamete, which is the most marvelous, mysterious, and minute in the universe. It refers to the immense potency of the Creator. This cell is arisen from a process of fecundity of two diminutive cells, which are the ovum[1] and the spermatozoon.[2]

The union of these two cells produces the nucleus of a new individual. In that very moment, it is determined whether this individual will be male or female, short or tall,

[1] The Ovum is a minute elliptical compartment encompassed by a shell having a hydrous substance called protoplasm.
[2] The many spermatozoa burst forth the ova for fecundation. As soon as those ova feel the rush, they prepare for selecting the most giant, powerful and active. Then the ovum shows a small puff on the surface from the side facing the most active spermatozoon. The shell therefore begins to be tender and tender so that the spermatozoon will hit from that puff and pierce with the head to penetrate to the center. As the spermatozoon’s tail is still outside, the ovum shrinks and shrivels till it excises that tail and the spermatozoon combines with the nucleus inside the ovum. Accordingly, the process of fecundation is achieved.

After a while, the ovum descends to the uterus where it shrinks to one of its inner edges and begins to grow and move in its phases. In that period, the tissues and the organic devices compose, and the limbs, stems, and head emerge gradually. These progresses mostly occur in the second month of pregnancy. Then a compact membrane, called placenta -the function of which is protecting and nurturing the fetus via its capillaries spreading all over its walls- covers all of the set. These capillaries absorb the mother’s blood, which was menstruation before pregnancy. This nutrition is done through a marvelous chemical operation similar to the process of the plant roots’ absorbing water from the ground. As the placenta is perfectly formed, a faint yellow liquid called laminose is originated inside the placenta. This liquid comes from the hydrous leakage of the uterus and the encompassing membranes. The functions of this liquid, which encompasses the fetus in the uterus, are protecting the fetus against any shock or impact suffered by the mother. It also keeps the temperature proper to the fetus, expands the uterus neck at delivery, purifies and sterilizes the way for the fetus just before the delivery, and saves the fetus from the uterus pressure at travails in addition to many other functions. After the formation of the placenta, the liquid and the frame of the fetus, the navel rope, which is half a meter -or more- long, emerges next to the umbilicus. Its function is transferring the mother’s blood to the fetus for nurturing, and then it returns the blood to meet the mother’s in the blood circulation. The previous was the process of the fetus composition in the uterus. God the Exalted elaborates upon these processes by saying:

And certainly, We created man of an extract of clay. Then We made him a small seed in a firm resting-place. Then We made the seed a clot, then We made the clot a lump of flesh, then We made in the lump of flesh bones, then We caused it to grow into another creation, so blessed be Allah the best of the creators.

intelligent or idiot, or blue or honey-colored eyed. All of the descriptions are decided unchangeably in this cell. Heredity then is a set of specifications that concentrate in the fecundated ovum.

Laws of Heredity:

Laws of heredity are within the involuntary matters that coincide with the individuals all over the life phases.

One of the clearest and most familiar laws of heredity is the branches’ copying the origins in the extrinsic appearances and the private specifications. This fact is quite evident in all of the creatures. Seeds of cotton yield nothing but cotton, and seeds of a flower produce nothing but flowers that copy the mother in colors and characters. This copying is more obvious in animals. A small cat is being like its parents in shape and other characters. For human beings, babies bear resemblances to their parents in the general, as well as the most diminutive, characters. The black give birth of black ones and the white give birth of white. In a like manner, intelligence and idiocy are inherited characters. This is because –as hereditists decide- human beings enjoy private qualitative parts, called germ plasma, that never expire but extend in the offspring. Wiseman says, “A baby is his father’s half brother since each has a mother. In the very moment at which the ovum is fecundated, it divides into two parts. One keeps the father’s qualities to move to the new generation, and the other is consumed during the processes of growth till it changes into a fetus.” Byron says, “It is true that my son is mine, but I see his forefathers have hands in this darling thing. They deform his self-purity and bother his integrity with the unknown evil tendencies that they bore in their hidden, and he had to receive by heredity.”

Copying heredity is classified into three parts.

1. Heredity by partiality:

It stands for the branches’ copying one of the two origins in all, or most, of the qualities. Boys who bear almost all of the physical and mental qualities of their fathers are examples of the heredity by partiality.

2. Heredity by coalition:

It implies that the branches oppose the origins’ qualities. When a man from the east, for instance, marries a lady from the west, the son will not bear the same physical qualities of the parents.

3. Heredity by association:

It means that the branch copies one of the origins in definite qualities and copies the other in others. A child may receive the intelligence and tallness from the father, and the colors of hair and eyes from the mother. Asserting this point, Mendel says, “Majority of the genetic qualities move from one or both origins to the new generation without any separation or changeability.”

Individuals may receive the forefathers’ physical and mental qualities. Dr. Alexis Karl says, “Time extends just like the extension in emptiness beyond physical edges. Individuals’ boundaries are not more accurate or firmer than their extensive boundaries are. Individuals are connected to the past and the future through the essences that cannot extend to the present. As everybody knows, our individualities are brought forth when the spermatozoa find a place in the ova. The elements of essence are existent before that process. They are scattering in the tissues of our parents and forefathers because we are made from the cell materials of our forefathers and foremothers. Those materials stopped in the past on unanalyzed organic states. In our souls, we carry diminutive pieces of the precedents’ bodies. Our qualities and defects are the extension of our precedents’ qualities and defects.”

This view states openly that sons and grandsons inherit most of the forefathers’ mental and physical qualities unwillingly and involuntarily.

Heredity and Environment:

The roles of the environment in the mental composition are still ambiguous. There is also a prevalent belief that the environmental changes influence heredity. Through many thirty-year experimental studies on plants, animals and human beings, hereditists could subvert this thought when they proved that the environment is no more than a secondary factor of heredity. The environment can decide the emergence and extents of the qualities and their growth. Therefore, heredity selects the constant factors, while the environment selects the changeable.

The environment would never produce matters that are contrary to heredity because it is not subjected to the factors of changeability and variableness.[1]

Islam and Laws of Heredity

Islam preceded the psychologists and the geneticists in referring to many effects and phenomena of heredity, proving its positive role in the individuals’ sound composition.

The Prophet (s) said, “The knave have been knave since they have been in their mothers’ abdomens, and the auspicious have been auspicious since they have been in their mothers’ abdomens.”

This prophetic saying indicates that the genetic elements give the fetuses either fortune -when the fathers’ virtuous qualities and tendencies are available- or ill fate in case their qualities and natures are evil. The contingent qualities are also genetically received. Providing the story of Noah the prophet, the holy Quran refers to this matter. God says:

And Noah said: My Lord! Leave not upon this land any dweller from among the unbelievers. For surely if Thou leave them they [1] Refer to Man: the unknown being: 203, Modern education: 267 and The modern course in principals of education: Quoted from Imam As-Sadiq’s narration.

will lead astray Thy servants, and will not beget any but immoral ungrateful children.

This Quranic text indicates that the disbelievers’ offspring, who genetically receive their fathers’ ill qualities, will also inherit their convictions. It is reported that a man from Ansar[1] complained before the Prophet (s) that his wife -who was his cousin- had given birth of a black baby while none of their forefathers was black. “You have ninety nine arteries,” answered the Prophet (s), “And she has ninety nine arteries. When these arteries combine, they will be in a state of disorder and each asks God the Exalted to associate with its like. This is surely your son. You may leave now. This baby must have come from one of her or your arteries.” The man took his wife’s hand and left.

This prophetic notice implies that sons can receive genetically even the most minute and the deepest qualities. Many Islamic rulings are legislated according to this fact.

First, Islam urges on looking upon the most accurate manners of women before they are taken in marriage. According to Islamic rulings, a great attention should be paid to women’s families and lineage so that any state of anticipated mental or physical handicap or deformity would be evaded. The Prophet (s) asserted the necessity of checking women before marriage. He said, “O people! Beware of the green-looking.” “What are the green-looking, God’s messenger?” some asked. “It is the beautiful women of evil source,” answered the Prophet (s).[2]

He also said, “Select for your sperms. The maternal uncle is one of the couple –in any sexual intercourse-.”[3] “Marry your women to the suitable, and select for your sperms.”[4]

The Imams emphasized on this point demandingly. Ibrahim al-Karkhi sought the advice of Imam as-Sadiq (a) in the question of his marriage. The Imam said, “You should check confidently the place you are going to choose for yourself and the one you are going to make a partner in your assets, and show your religion and open your secrets before him. If you insist, you then should choose a non-virgin lady that is known as moral and well-mannered.”[5]

In another occasion, the Imam (a) said, “A woman is a necklace. You should select what you will put. Neither the good nor do the evil women have likes. The good women are not like gold and silver since they are preferred to gold and silver. The evil women are not like dust. They are lowlier than dust.”[6]
Islam dislikes men who marry idiot women in order that families will be saved from decline. Imam as-Sadiq (a) relates Imam Ali’s saying, “Beware of marrying

[1] The Ansar -the supporters- are people of Yathrib who swore allegiance and received the Prophet (s) and his companions after they had left Mecca; their hometown.
[2] Refer to Wasailu Shia: 14/29.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Refer to Wasailu Shia: 14/14.
[6] Refer to Maanil Akhbar: 47.

idiot women. The companionship of the she-idiot is an ordeal, and their sons are waste.”[1]

In the same way, Islam warns against marrying insane women so that the society will not come upon irregular and unsound individuals. Imam al-Baqir (a) was asked whether it was appropriate to marry women after they had been loved. “No,” answered the Imam, “It is not undesirable to copulate with the insane bondmaid on condition that she would not have children.”[2]

The Imams urged Muslims on testing and checking women before taking in marriage, for assuring whether such women or their families are empty of any mental or physical disability, lest such a disability will be common in the society.

Secondly, Islam stresses that women should identify precisely the men they choose as the life partners. This identification is the responsibility of the women’s guardians. Imam ar-Rida (a) told that his father related that the Prophet (s) said, “Matrimony is slavery. You will be slavering your daughters when you marry them; therefore, check the individuals you are going to give your daughters to in slavery.”[3]

Islam warns against marrying the drunkard. The Prophet (s) said, “For those who marry their daughters to the drunkards, they are cutting off the relations of kinship.”

In modern medicine, it has been proven that sons receive genetically the effects of the intoxicants. Dr. Brogans says, “Alcoholism causes barrenness. Duncan reports the story of the alcoholic lady that could not be pregnant for years while she had no physiological problem at all. As she was treated from dipsomania for one year, she could bear a baby. The same thing is applied to men. The reason is that the alcoholic materials enfeeble the backbone and paralyzes the brain. The offspring of those who are poisoned by such drugs receive genetically these poisons. Hence, they are dangerous not only for the drunkards, but also for their descendants, nation, and mankind. It is also emphasized that the successors of the drunkards bear signs of structural frailty and may suffer serious disorders that lead to insanity, general paralysis, or barrenness. Genetic effects can kill the fetus or the newborn. Thus, families may entirely extinct in two or three generations. Moreover, the offspring of the drunkards may suffer painful deformities, such as skull defects, shortness, and amentia. They may also suffer from retardation of the mental powers, such as cenotaph defects, childishness shortcoming, idiocy, hysteria, and others. Master physicians deemed unlawful to marry the drunkards for the previous serious dangers that may occur after marriage.[4]

The alcoholic materials that are consumed by the she-drunkards move to the blood of the fetuses through the placentas inside the uteri. It has been proven that the suckling babies receive the alcoholic materials.[5]

[1] Refer to Furou’ul Kafi: 2/13.
[2] Refer to Tahdibul Ahkam: 6/1.
[3] Refer to Wasailu Shia: 14/52.
[4] Refer to Labor and laborers’ rights in Islam: Second edition, 149-50.
[5] Refer to Principals of health and life.

Psychologists say that amentia and states of hesitation may affect the drunkards. They also advice women to test such men before combining with them in matrimony, otherwise they will suffer many disasters and calamities. Women are inaccurate, to great extent, if they believe they will be able enough to change such habits after marriage. They have also proven that maladjustment is one of the reasons of dipsomania. The male drunkards easily push themselves to wrongdoing, and the female drunkards are easily led to prostitution. Dipsomania incites the spouses to break the barriers and challenge their consciences; thus, it becomes easy for them to breach the matrimonial pledges and lead such social bonds to failure by the corrosion of the family rules.

Islam –many years before modern science- explored and referred to this point. It has warned against giving women in marriage to the drunkards so that the coming generations will be saved against such disabilities and defects.

In like fashion, Islam bans women from marrying the ill-natured ones so that their ill manners will not move to the coming generations. Bashar al-Wasiti sought Imam ar-Rida’s advice when an ill-natured man asked for his daughter’s hand. The Imam told him not to give her to the ill-natured individuals.[1] Books of the Islamic heritage are full of reports that urge women on identifying the men that are expected to be their husbands before agreeing to marriage, so as not to give birth of evil offspring.

Third, as an Islamic rule, both spouses have the choice of revoking the matrimonial contracts if any of them is proven to have a mental irregularity, a physical disability, or other defects that the jurists identify. Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “Matrimony is revocable in cases of leucoderma, leprosy, insanity, and cystocele.”[2]

This ruling saves the Islamic society from such diseases that cause retardation and social weakness. The jurisprudential bases of Islam sustain the modern articles that the international health organizations have declared. The spouses’ blood, for example, should be analyzed before marriage for recognizing whether any of them is affected by sexual diseases such as rrhoea, syphilis, or others that are the main cause of the babies’ blindness or venereal diseases. The calamities of such diseases are inherited genetically causing mental and physical disabilities beside the other party’s misery, suffering, and other mental problems that deprive of a content life.

[1] Refer to Men La Yahduruhul Faqih: 2/131.
[2] Refer to Wasailu Shia: 14/594.

FAMILY

Family[1] is one of the principal elements of constructing educational entities, creating processes of the social naturalization, forming the personalities, and providing the children with the habits that persist forever. In other words, family is the preliminary seed of composing the individual maturity and the structure of personalities. In most cases, children pursue their parents in habits and behaviors. Family then is the most evident, accurate, and abundant of the other educational elements.

The Significance of Families

Undoubtedly, family has the great effect in the construction of the individual behaviors and the arousing of vitality and tranquillity in children’s minds. Through families, children acquire their language, values and trends. Families contributed directly in the construction of mankind civilization and the associative relations of people. It led man to learn the principals of sociology and the rules of ethics and moralities. It is also the reason beyond the maintenance of many professions and career that fathers transfer to sons. It is strange to notice that Plato’s Republic that glorified the roles of the governments denied the roles of families. This denial led to the belief that families stood as obstacles in the face of the allegiance and loyalty to the government. For Plato, home, which enjoys a great value, is no more than a curse and an evil. Plato shouted out “Destroy those walls that contain nothing but a limited feeling of the domestic life.” On the other side, one of our proverbs is that “A man’s house is his secure fortress.”[2]

Duties of Families:

Family is responsible for educating the children correctly in standard criteria that are away from aberrance. There is a number of duties and obligations of families.

First, Families are responsible for saving the factors of settlement, amiability, and tranquillity in home, and removing any sort of violence, malice, and antagonism. The aberrance of majority of the aggressive children, which would lead to criminality, was the result of the home unsettlement. An educationist says, “If we visit jails, brothels, and insane asylums-- then visit schools for counting the unsuccessful, the quarrel makers, the politically extremists, and the abnormal, we will definitely notice that most of such individuals were deprived of the family settlement. They must have been lacking tranquil houses in which there should be compassionate fathers and kind

[1] For sociologists, family is a social bond comprising the husband, the wife and their children. It also includes grandfathers and grandsons as well as some kinsmen provided that they partake in the same living (Sociology: 92). Others suppose that any matrimony without descendants cannot be regarded as family (Family and society: 15-6.).

[2] Refer to Opinions of Aristotle and Plato in philosophy of ethics and behavior: 143.

mothers that do not exceed in dalliance or severity. The corruption of such houses has created such pictures of social disorder and purposeless and unsettled generations.”[1]

Amiability and compassion to sons have the greatest bearing on the sound composition of individuals. Mental complexes are the inevitable result in case fathers pay no attention to this fact. Sons are not ready to accept any advice or guidance unless there is a sort of sincere amiability among the members of families. Psychologists have proven that the complexes that emerge in the period of early childhood, especially those complexes that are originated from the parents’ bad relations with their sons, are the most serious and the preliminary to personal disorders.[2] Mutual concordance and amiability help in creating the intellectual maturity and the personal boons. Dr. Gilas Thomas says, “Despite the parents’ big responsibility of guiding and training their children, it is quite important to realize that such practices should never replace another essential task that parents must do. This task is the creation of an amiable mood that is shaded by care, and surrounded by compassion and justice. If parents show dearth in reviving such a mood in which the norms of composition are illuminated, they will deprive the children of an uncompensated constituent. Religion, society, and school play a remarkable role in educating the youth. However, none of these factors can save the impressive emotions the center of which is home, and the perfumes of which are smelt among families only.”[3]

The family pleasure prompts tranquillity in the children’s minds and helps in facing the life difficulties. Salama Musa says, “The family pleasure of children prompts tranquillity to the degree that it does not fade away even if fathers depart the life. When the children of London were evacuated during the raids of the Second World War, it was found that the children who enjoyed that family pleasure could stand the estrangement more than the others could. This proves that the family satisfactory mood prompts tranquillity in the children’s minds. Hence, those children could encounter the estrangement satisfactorily. Estrangement increased for the children who were brought up in troublesome mood. Finally, we expect the children to provide pleasure if they are brought up in pleasant mood.”[4]

Second, families should supervise the processes of education. Sociologists confirm this necessity. They emphasize that families must be in charge of the processes of the social education through which the children acquire the cultural experts and the rulings that make them eligible for receiving more and more, and fit enough for dealing with the society. Correspondingly, educationists confirm that parents should afford enough compassion, sympathy, and kindness to their children for securing them against depression and melancholy. UNESCO provided a noteworthy report about the defects that may be suffered by the children due to the

[1] Refer to House and school: 27-8.
[2] Refer to psychological and intellectual diseases: B.
[3] Refer to Children’s daily problems: 48.
[4] Refer to Your and my brain.

deficiency of fathers’ compassion. “Children’s deprivation of their fathers, whether temporarily or permanently, results in depression and melancholy accompanied by feelings of sinfulness and malice. It also causes uncontrollable rebellious tempers, self-faintness, and loss of the feeling of family compassion. Children that are affected by the deprivation of fathers always swim in illusive worlds, because they are the substitutes of the actual world that they have lost. In most cases, they dream of heroic fathers and angelic mothers. In a survey on kindergartens, it has been noticed that defects, such as difficulty of articulation, ill naturedness and deficiency of emotional sentiment, occur to the children who depart their parents, despite their good health, maturity, and accurate intentional motives.[1]

Association and supervision are the best ways of protecting the children. Modern educationists affirm that the best heritage that should be left to the children is no more than a few minutes a day.[2] Sociologists who survey the juvenile delinquency have proven that the best way of eradicating the juvenile aberrance is picking the fathers who wander at night from the streets.[3]

Indisputably, fathers who fulfill their duties to their sons, such as supervision and association, will find those sons copying their qualities and natures. Fathers are also asked to give away the luxurious amusement and confine on supervising their sons so that they will be saved against degradation and negligence.

Ahmed Shawqi –An Egyptian poet- says that orphans are not those individuals whose parents depart away and leave them alone. Real orphans are those who have to encounter negligent mothers and busy fathers.

Third, some educationists believe that fathers and mothers should apply the following steps as duties:

1. Parents should unanimously agree upon the criteria of behavior. One should support the other in the decisions that are related to their sons.

2. Fathers should put in their daily programs that they must associate with their sons, including the babies, for a considerable time. Such practices contribute in seeding the feelings of association in the family.

3. Children ought to make out that their fathers should have enough time for personal activities and practices, such as privacy, reading or practicing their hobbies.

4. Fathers should make their daughters feel their femininity and responsibility of being virtuous, chaste, and righteous.

5. Sons are in need of masculine, powerful, and kind fathers. Any excessive hardness and strictness may cause the sons to take shelter of their mothers and pursue womanish behaviors.[4]

[1] Refer to Influences of family and society on juveniles: 37.
[2] Refer to Al-Mukhtar: issue of April 1956.
[3] Refer to Al-Hilal: issue of May 1957, p. 18.
[4] Refer to How to be successful father: 39, 67 and 85.

Naturally, children enjoy spontaneous qualities, such as purity, inexperience, sound emotions and simple mentality. Thus, parents should direct their eyes to virtues and seed moral tendencies so that they will yield well in the future.

Functions of Families

1. Families are in charge of producing and satisfying the children with upright moods for fulfilling their biological and social requisites. Families that only produce children have no difference with animals.
2. Families are responsible for training the children to associate and identify the values and customs of societies.
3. Families are responsible for providing the children with means of personal composition in societies.
4. Families are responsible for securing settlement, security, protection, and sympathy to the children until they attain adulthood. Families are the most proficient body that can afford so because they receive the early children[1], while any other social association cannot replace them –the families- in this regard.
5. Families should take on the great portion of the children’s ethical, emotional, and religious education all over the various stages of childhood. They are fully responsible for the children’s religious education, whether the political regimes, such as the communists, directly or indirectly oppose religion, or neutral in the ethical and religious affairs, such as France. Thanks to the family life, the individuals receive the religious spirits as well as the other family emotions that prepare for associating in societies and homes.[2]

Childhood requires a good deal of care and means of mental and physical maturity. It is quite unacceptable to hypothesize that families’ one and only role is affording the fiscal supports. Such a hypothesis neglects the various mental factors, such as emotion, affection, security, and tranquillity that are essential for composing the individuals. These factors are important for the children’s mental maturity.[3]

Psychologists and educationists confirm that families play the greatest role in the process of education and the formation of personalities. This significant role becomes more manifest when we take in consideration the biological principal which affirms that the younger the human being, the more increasing formation and obedience. It is also possible to apply this principal to the mental powers in the variant levels of maturity. Families are responsible for all of the effects that early children encounter, since they are the basic factor of the children’s lives and the head source of their experts. Further, families are the genuine appearance of the children’s settlement. From this cause, the children’s personal settlement and maturity are totally dependent

[1] Refer to Humane society: 59-60.
[2] Refer to Family and society: 20-1.
[3] Refer to Educational social family: 69-71.

upon the variant quantitative and qualitative relations of families. Analysts find out that the children’s religious and moral values develop in the surroundings of families.[1]

Family in Islam

Islam has instituted the system of family on sound bases agreeing with the life necessities and the individuals’ exigencies and behavior. It has regarded the family talents that are afforded by God, as spontaneous. God says:

And one of his signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion.

This phenomenon on which mankind have been natured is one of God’s grand portents and graces. Islam also works for arranging the Muslim families to be good exemplars and have the elements of orthodox leadership. As God exposes the manners of the virtuous servants, He says:

O Our Lord! Grant us in our wives and our offspring the joy of our eyes, and make us guides to those who guard against evil.

The availability of good exemplars and virtuous patterns is the most important rule in the educational processes.

In the previous surveys of genetics, we have referred to the Islamic rule that any matrimonial bond should be first founded on test so that the defects of any spouse would not move to the coming generations and societies. Islam has also given fathers the guardianship on their daughters for selecting the most appropriate husband and dismissing the disabled who may cause misfortunes and problems. Since women generally realize only the shells of life, they naturally show blemish in selecting for themselves. In most cases, women are deceived by their fiancés’ false promises and appearances. Most women lack enough acquaintance with the deceitful licentious individuals that may speak of the fascinating words of love and fondness and imaginary promises and pledges. They ignore that a satisfactory marriage occurs only when the other party enjoys noble ethics and high traits that encourage on caring for their affairs and rights, and producing virtuous offspring that bring pleasure and contentment in the final age. Islam stresses on this result.

The system of families that is instituted by Islam relies upon the deep cognizance of the elements of family contentment and bond in physiological, mental, and social fields. It calls for satisfying each individual with kindness, affection, moderation, and settlement.

Islam cares a lot for achieving amiability, understanding, and harmony between spouses since their bond represents the chief core of families. These qualities are available in the ideal spouses about whom Hammerlock Alice said, “Ideal marriage does not rest on accordant desires. It rests upon a chaste union that is based upon deep warmth that increases day by day to scope all of the fields. This is the union of
[1] Refer to How to help sons in school: 193.

flavors, feelings, and tendencies. It is the union of common life as it binds to paternity burdens.”[1]

Islam wants the sexual bonds to be ideal and based firmly upon love and understanding so that the educational processes will fruit effectively and create sound societies.

Islam has legislated for attaining all of the objective courses aiming at conciliating, developing, and leading the families to prosperity. On that account, it paid a special attention to the role of home, and ordered the common ethics among families and delimited the private duties that bring about family association and have a positive influence on the educational composition.

Significance of Home

Home, through which the social environment achieves the children’s educational results, plays a considerable role in the educational processes. Children receive traditions, practices, beliefs, arts, traits, history, and triumphs of their nations through their homes. The social environment can attain its strong effects in education only when home accomplishes its missions successfully. Corruption of children is the natural and the inescapable consequence of home corruption. There is more than one role played by home in the educational processes since it is the natural source of affection and kindness. The way to tranquillity passes through home.[2] Islam has devoted a specific attention to home. It has ordered that love and cordiality should prevail on homes. It also has regulated that any sorts of primness, forsaking, and reproach may retard the children’s adaptation. Serious deviations, such as the loss of security, self-confidence, and others, will affect the children whose homes are too short to fulfill their missions.

THE COMMON COURSES

Islam has constituted courses that are common among family members and called for applying them to their lives so that contentment will shade the all.

Love and Affiliation:

Islam has called for the predominance of love, affiliation, and cordiality among the family members who are required to avoid any concern that may confuse the purity of the living. Women should meet this liability in the first place since they can turn a home into a paradise -by fulfilling the duties, considering the morals, and being a unique believer- or into a hell. A man told the Prophet (s) of his wife’s customs, “She receives me as I enter the house, and sees me off as I leave, and alleviates my cares if she notices any. She used to say, ‘You should care about nothing. If you care for the livings, this is the mission of other than you. If you are caring for a

[1] Refer to Sexual education: 28.
[2] Refer to Elements of education: 90, Teaching: 87 and Society: 19.

paradisiacal matter, Allah, then, may increase your care.’” The Prophet declared his great admiration of that lady, “Tell your lady that she will be abiding in the Paradise. She is truly one of God’s veritable servants.”[1]

When wives take care of their husbands by fulfilling their duties, affiliation will be prevalent. Furthermore, a tie of deep adoration will be established among the family members, and this will lead to the successful education.

Cooperation:

Islam has called for the spouses’ collaboration in the living affairs and the management of the home affairs. It has called for living associatively in mutual affiliation and relationship. This is the task of the paterfamilias. Islam has bound the householders with attending to their wives and taking part in the home affairs. The Prophet (s) used to participate with his wives in the house affairs and say, “Partaking wives in the house affairs is a sort of alms.” Imam Ali (a) was wont to help Fatima az-Zahra (a), the veracious and the mistress of women of the worlds, in the housekeeping and the home management. These acts will surely establish a spirit of noble empathy -which is the most significant element of the sound education- in the sons’ essences. Mutual Respect:

Islam has urged on mutual respect and abidance by morals among the family members. The older must feel for the younger, and the younger should reverence the older. The Prophet (s) said, “The old should be sympathetic to the young, and the young should reverence the old.” Abidance by morals erects a sense of good virtues and values. It correspondingly enjoins the maturity of perfect behavior in the children’s minds, and incites to fling in the field of collaboration with the family and the society. Psychoanalysts have proven that the children’s religious and moral values mature only in the family surroundings.[2]

FAMILY DISORDER

The family members -chiefly the children- will suffer mental defects, nervous disorders, loss of sound behavior, and aberrance if the family is characterized by inharmony and disorder. Modern educational surveys show that family disorder and unsettlement is the biggest elements of aberrance.[3] Crises that lead to deviation are the results of family clutter. Consequently, it is essentially incumbent, for protecting the juveniles from irregularity and deviation, to conserve the family settlement by removing all of the factors of distress and confusion.

[1] Refer to Mekarimul Akhlaq: 1/229.
[2] Refer to How to help sons in school: 193.
[3] Refer to The young sinful.

FATHERS’ RESPONSIBILITIES

Not only are fathers responsible for saving their dependants’ alimonies and fiscal necessities, but also they are required to provide education, discipline, morals, and guidance. They must ensure the high traits and warn against evil. Imam Zeinul-abidin (a) says, “Your sons’ right is that you should realize their being parts of you and attached to you in good and evil. You are responsible for providing the noble traits, conducting them to their Lord, and backing them in worshipping Him as a compliance with you. They entirely be rewarded or punished. You should act to your sons as seekers of the good remuneration in this world, and justified to the Lord through the acceptable supervision and training.”[1]

Imam Zeinul-abidin (a) was used to supplicating to the Lord for his son by saying, “O Lord! Make them filial pious, godly, aware, listeners, and obedient for Thee, and adherents and advisers for Thy saints, and mutinous and antipathetic of Thy foes.”[2]

Fathers are subject to bring forth the chaste education for the sons to guarantee their sincerity. The Imams of the Prophet’s progeny regarded this topic highly. Imam Ali (a), the first Islamic educationist, says to his son, Imam al-Hassan, “I consider you being a part of me, being me all in all. Anything that strikes you is actually striking me. Death when draws near to you is drawing to me. Your affairs are as same as mine.”

Yes indeed, sons are not only parts of their fathers. They are truly their fathers’ all in all. They expose their fathers’ existence and entity. From this cause, fathers should care for their sons’ education, edification, and perfection in order that they will take pride in them magnificently. On the other hand, sons may be evil and mischievous to their fathers if their education and affairs are neglected. The following are some of the fathers’ tasks:

1. Custody of Sons:

Fathers should take care of their sons by granting them with affection and tenderness, and conferring honor upon them. These matters form the most influential effects in structuring their educational entity and advancing their personalities and mental maturity.

The Prophet (s) had al-Hassan and al-Hussein -his grandsons- in the greatest custody. As he was having them on his shoulders, the Prophet (s) used to say, “These two are my single basil in this world. He whoever loves me should love them.”[3] On another occasion, he said to Fatima az-Zahra (a), “Summon my two sons.” As she presented them, the Prophet (s) smelt and embraced them.[4] It is also related that al-Aqra bin Habis, seeing the Prophet’s fondness and custody of his two grandchildren,

[1] Refer to Tuheful Uqoul: 263.
[2] Refer to As-Sahifa As-Sejjadiya.
[3] Refer to The Lifetime of Imam Al-Hasan: 1/83.
[4] Ibid.

said, “I do not remember I have ever kissed any of my ten sons.” This saying made the Prophet irate. “What can we do to a man that God has uprooted mercy from him!”[1]
The Prophet (s) poured his ideal and guidance in the minds of his two grandsons. He also dwelled his merciful tendencies on them. Therefore, they became the excellent exemplars of perfection. Their liberal lifetime accumulated the total aspects of magnitude and divinity as well as whatsoever mankind boasts all over history. They achieved the elevation in ethics and essence, and delved into the fields of grandeur and right.

Fathers’ custody, affection, and charity to sons are the most consequential constituents of the educational entity that consummates the children’s personal affluence and spares the mental complexities that are the most serious diseases. Modern educational surveys have proved that good citizens and virtuous scientists are mostly the outcome of the careful families.[2] Psychologists have asserted this fact, too. Conversely, the sons that are unwelcomed and disregarded by their families take aggressive paths and seem to be negative, quarreling, and rebellious, and invent skillful trickeries for disturbing the adults. Besides, they tend to criminal behavior.

- The aspects of the family negligence are as follows:

- Cruelty and excessive vulgarity in treating the children.
- The use of the fierce physical disciplining.
- The continuous criticizing, reproaching, and exposition of the children’s defects before others.
- Intemperance in neglecting and accusing the children.
- The negligence of praising the children.
- Disgracing the children before the other brothers and sisters.
- Showing astonishment when others praise the children.[3]

Fathers should avoid the previous matters when they deal with their sons. This will save the children’s behaviors and guard them against irregularity and aberrance.

2. Equality:

Fathers should cover their sons with equal amounts of love, affection, and custody. Many psychological complexities, jealousy, fury, and the arising of mental passive revolts may occur to the children who notice any distinction in the fathers’ conservation. These effects may lead to serious psychological ailments.

The holy Quran exposes the story of Joseph the prophet when his father favored him to the other brothers. Consequently, they plotted for an artifice by which they threw him in a well and came to their fathers weeping. The father –Jacob the prophet- was so regretful that his eyes turned into white. A calamitous crisis that he had to suffer was owing to favoring a definite son to the others. The Prophet (s) is reported to say, “Treat your sons equally as you like to be treated fairly in benevolence and

[1] Refer to Mekarimul Akhlaq: 1/252.
[2] Refer to Education, Child, and Child psychology: 305.
[3] Refer to Psychological consonance: 21-2.

kindness.” As he noticed a father of two sons kiss one and neglect the other, the Prophet (s) reproached, “You should have treated them equitably.”[1]

Equality among sons is one of the components of the Islamic education. Fathers should never distinguish between brothers. Fathers who address charity and benevolence at certain sons exclusively, or give the heritage exclusively to the sons and neglect the daughters, are definitely out of the circle of Islam. Such procedures arouse hostility and hatred among the brothers and cause retardation in their educational entity, and mental disorder and slowdown in the social relations. It is proven that the sons that are deprived of paternal affection and benevolence are stroke by psychological complexities, social antagonism, and severe conduct. Fabrication, larceny, cruelty, evildoing, and assaulting deeds are the effects of the children that lack paternal affection.

“Children’s paternal hatred stops against the social conditioning. It cancels the feelings of security and self-confidence. Modern psychological surveys have confirmed that the most critical causes of disquietude are the nullity of the family emotional warmth, feelings of others’ negligence, deprivation of love, kindness, and affection, and feelings of weakness in the aggressive world. Secondly, inequality among brothers arises the feelings of disquietude in the children’s minds, and kills the spirits of keenness that help in pushing the way easily and tranquilly. Disordered men feel of depression and mental torment everywhere.”[2]

Fathers should treat their sons equally, lest the sons will be affected by such serious ailments that smash the mental entities.

3. Cordiality:

Fathers must cover their family members, especially spouses, with cordiality, affection, and benevolence, and meet their needs entirely. God has instituted this as one of the wives’ rights. It also contributes in the children’s prudent education and personal contentment that live in aspects that are filled with love, affection, peace, and settlement. Islam has urged on caring for wives. The Prophet (s) said, “The best of you are the best to their wife. I am the best to my wives.” He also said, “Wives are the husbands’ delight. Almighty God favors those who deal with their delight in the best way.” Imam al-Baqir (a) says, “May God’s mercy be upon those who enjoy good relations with their wives. Allah the Exalted gave men the wives in possession and made them their custodians.” Imam as-Sadiq (a) says, “Fear God while you deal with the two weak; women and slaves.”

Fathers ought not to displease or wrong their wives. The Prophet (s) says, “The best men of my nation are those who do not encroach or wrong their wives and those who treat them kindly.” He then recited God’s saying:

Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has made some of them to excel others.

[1] Refer to Mekarimul Akhlaq: 1/252
[2] Refer to psychological consonance: 21-2.

Fathers’ natures and manners to their family members leave the greatest influence on the children’s consonance in the society. The children’s personalities achieve prosperity only when their fathers’ treatments are well. Contrariwise, children’s behaviors and intellectual maturity are badly affected and ceased if fathers use rudeness.

4. Avoidance of Obscene Language:

Fathers, as paterfamiliases, are in charge of constituting the educational entity of their families. They should avoid obscene language, vulgarity, and any matter that injures the general manners. Chastity and homogeneity should find a considerable place in every house. It is obligatory upon fathers, whose words and deeds penetrate the hearts of their sons who are influenced by their manners and morals, to shield the family members from evil and obscene language. Children who notice their parents’ ill deeds can never have sound education and growth up. Similarly, children who notice their fathers say false things will never comply with their instructions of truth and sincerity. They pursue their fathers’ deeds and actions. On that account, fathers must apply the noble traits and manners to their lives to be good exemplars for their family members.

5. Supervising the Sons’ Behaviors:

In most cases of the ethical crimes that are committed by juveniles, the source is heeded to be the fathers’ negligence of superintending their sons and discounting the signals of aberrance they show. Naturally, children whose conscience and mind are imperfect cannot distinguish between good and evil. As children notice that no problem or reproach occurred owing to their doing a bad deed, they will certainly keep up doing it habitually.

Islam has urged fathers on associating and supervising the behaviors of their early children for saving them against the pollution of crimes that are arisen from aberrance. Nowadays, it is unfortunately noticeable that fathers disdain this condition on which the future of their children relies. This terrible negligence led to the young’s deviation and moral degradation. Violence and irregularity have become the nature of most young men’s behaviors and morals.

One of the ugliest sorts of negligence and deviation from the sound educational courses is the unsupervised mixing of the two sexes of the same age in schools and universities. In most cases, such mixing may induce young women to lose chastity and avert the behavioral criteria of probity.

Fathers are liable -before God- for supervising their sons’ behavior and turning them aside from all of the evil tendencies. Al-Ghezali says, “Opting for certain methods of educating is one of the most significant and considerable tasks. A child is his father’s trust. His stainless heart is a precious gem that is clear from any image or picture. It is becoming to receive any image and follow any way. If a child is inured to good, this will stick to his mind, and the pleasure of this world and the Hereafter will be amassed for him. Parents, tutors, and trainers of children have a share in his rewards. Inversely, if a child is inured to evil, and neglected like animals, nonsuccess and loss will be the result. The guardian will undergo the sin of misguidance. God the Exalted says:

O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is men and stones; over it are angels stern and strong, they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do as they are commanded.

Fathers should save their children against the hell-fire and that of this world. Fathers’ salvation is educating, disciplining, and leading their children to the noble traits and keeping them against associating with the evil. Fathers should avoid inuring their children to luxurious living, otherwise the sons will spend their lives looking for such things, and this will definitely cause damage. Fathers’ supervision should be initiated with the children’s early years. It is also essential for fathers to choose chaste and religious wet nurses and nursemaids. Women’s milk is unblessed unless it is produced from legal earnings. Children who are brought up on such illegitimate food will tend to evil and illegal matters.”[1]

The previous opinion of Al-Ghezali is, to great extent, exact. Modern educational surveys have accepted this opinion. Early supervision, encouragement on the noble traits, and the avoidance of the evil tendencies; all these are the matters that incite prosperity of this world and the Hereafter. In like fashion, negligence and non-supervision lead to nonsuccess and damage. 6. Disciplining:

Fathers should take initiative in disciplining their children as soon as they notice a behavioral irregularity or any offense that contradicts the religious and social traditions as well as the general manners. Precipitation in disciplining the wrong children is a sufficient means for removing evil and rebellious spirits. Islam has confirmed this matter. The Prophet (s) said, “Discipline your children. This is better for you than a daily giving of a big sum of alms.” He also said, “If you honor and discipline your children aptly, God will forgive you.”

In most cases, irregularity that accompanies the children is the consequence of the fathers’ negligence and failure to discipline the children who deviate. Sheik Naraqi says, “Children that are neglected in the earliest stages of growth up will mostly opt for ill manners. They chiefly prefer fabrication, envy, and obstinacy, and become thieves, traitors, and impolite. In other cases, such children may be weakling, licentious, and profligate.”[2]

7. Taking the children away from the sexual activities:

Islam has warned spouses against copulation near their children, since this may incite their lust and give them a motive to seek fields of harlotry and depravity. Imam

[1] Refer to History of education: 82.
[2] Refer to Jamiu-saadat: 1/270-1.

al-Baqir (a) advised Jabir saying, “Avoid copulating in a place where a boy that is able to distinguish your doing, can see you.”[1] Imam as-Sadiq says, “Men should never copulate with their ladies where there is a boy. This brings about fornication.”[2] The Prophet (s) said, “I swear by the Prevailing of my soul, success will never approach boys who see or hear even the breath of the copulating spouses. Fornication is the result.”[3]

Specialists in sexual education have affirmed the necessity of taking the children away from the sexual relations. Sir Pepsi says, “The sexual sense is existent to every human being including babies to whom this state begins to gush after maturity. So, it is very much important to avoid any activity arousing this state before its proper time. Some fathers undervalue the necessity of preventing the children from noticing them when they strip their clothes. Such fathers go to extremes in this regard, as they think of being intellectuals or progressists who should give us the opportunity to see them naked. As children frequently notice such manners, they will soon be paying great interest to the sexual characteristics in their minds.”[4]

Children’s minds are quickly affected by what they notice. On that account, it is essential to take them away from whatever stirs up the lusts and corrupts the moralities, for guarding them against aberrance and irregularity. As the western education paid no attention to this regard, their sons had to encounter mental damage, many sorts of sexual troubles, and moral downfall as well as the absence of social bonds.

8. Taking the children away from the ill-gotten food:

Fathers should provide legal-gotten foods to their children, and protect them against any food that the Lord has forbidden. The forbidden foods are the usurped, the real filthy things -such as pork-, the external filthy things -such as foods affected by external impurities-, and the like things that are detailed in the theses of the jurists. Fathers should exert all efforts for habituating their children to have legal food only since, as it has been proven through modern clinical surveys, the sources of nutrition leave a great influence on the behavior and maturity.

Islam is terribly sensitive to any matter that may delay the children’s growth and personal prosperity. Ill-gotten foods have internal aftereffects on the mental constituents. They may cause the hindrance of the behavioral activities in a way permitting the composition of evil tendencies, such as severity and extreme assaults. As Islam has cared for these aspects, it issued the obligation of keeping the children clear of the ill-gotten foods. It is related that as the Prophet (s) noticed that Imam al-Hassan -when was a child- put a fruit of date palms in the mouth, he disciplined,

[1] Refer to Tibbul-ayimma: 135.
[2] Refer to Al-mehasin: 317 and Wesailus-Shia: 7/95.
[3] Refer to Furou-ulkafi: 2/58.
[4] Refer to Sexual education: 55.

“Throw it out! Have you not known that we –the Prophet and his household- do not have from foods given as alms?”

After the calamitous incident of Kerbala, Imam al-Hussein’s harems were taken to Kufa as captives. As some people noticed that the accompanying children were starving, they gave them some fruits of date palm as alms. Ummu-Kulthoum, the Prophet’s granddaughter, reproached the children and informed that it was forbidden for the Prophet’s household to receive alms. Immediately, the children took the fruits out of their mouths. As the Prophet’s household kept up this illuminative behavior in the educational fields, they produced those unprecedented and unparalleled young men and women who formed the greatest exemplars in veracity, chastity, and decency.