|CHAPTER -VIII- ACCOUNTING (HISAB)|
Allah says in the our an “Their reckoning has drawn near to men, and in heedlessness are they turning aside.” (Surah- al-Ambiya: l)
“And how many a town rebelled against the commandment of it s Lord and His Apostles. So we called it account severely and we chastised it (with) a sternchastisement. So it tasted the evil result of its conduct, and the of its affair was perdition. Allah has prepared for them severe chastisement, therefore be careful of (your duty to) Allah, o men of understanding”. (Surah-at-Talaq: 8-10)
Who will take the Accounting?
According to the Qur’an and the traditions (Ahadeeth) it is proved that Allah Himsalf will take account of all people. “And He is swistest in taking account”. (Surah-al-An’am: 62). But also according to some traditions this work will be assigned to the Angels. According to some reports it is related that Allah will take account from His prophets (Ambiya), while the prophets will take account from their Vicegerents (Awsiya), while they in turn will take account from their Ummat. “(Remember) the day when we will call every people with their Imam”. (Surah-ul-Bani Israel :71) (Ehsanul Fawaed)
It is narrated from Imam Jafar-as-Sadiq (A.S.) in the third volume of Bihar-ul-Anwar of Allamah majlisi and Amali of Shaikh Mufeed then he said, “when the day of Qayamat will dawn, Allah will command us to take account from our Shiahs (followers). We will question them about the Rights of Allah (Huqullah) and Allah will forgive them (because of their intimacy with us). Then we will also forgive them our rights (due on them)”. Then Imam (A.S.) recited the following verse : “Surely to Us is their turning back, then surely upon Us is the taking of their accounts”. (Surah-al-Ghashiyah: 25, 26) In the same book it is related from Ma soom (A.S.) that after the forgiveness of the Rights of Allah and the Rights of Aimmah (A.S.), the rights still due on our Shiahs will be compensated for by the Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) Himself.
May Allah place us amongst the Ummat of the Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) and the Shi ahs of Ahlulbait (A.S.), and resurrect us with Them.
On the day of ayamat, when Allah will appoint over the ummat their Imams to take accounts, it is a felicity for us Shiahs that our accounts will be taken by no other than the Imam of our Age Hazrat mahdi (A.T.F.S.). when we will be pought to His presence with heads bowed down in shame and repentence, and with a blackened face, but with heads full of their love (Walayah), we have faith that He will cause our accounts to be scrutinized by a Benevolent Son of a Benevolent Father who Himself holds a high status in the eyes of the Almighty. (ma’ad)
Whose Account will be taken ?
On the day of Qayamat people who will be accounted for their deeds will be classified into four groups. The first group of people will be the ones who will be made to enter paradise without accounting. They will be the ones who loved Ahlulbait (A.S.) in their life-time and had not committed any sins, or died after repenting and seeking forgiveness from Allah.
The second group be will averse to the first one, they will be the enemies of Ahlulbait (A.S.). They will be thrown head- long into the fire of hell without taking their accounts. The following verse speaks about such people: “These are they who disbelieve in the communications of their Lord and His meeting, so their deeds become null, and therefore we will not set up a balanca for them on the day of resurrection”. (Surah-al-Kahf: 105).
Shaikh Kulaini relates from Imam Ali Zainul Abadeen (A.S.) that He said, that the polytheists (mushreqeen)’s and unbelievers (kafereen)’s deeds will not be weighed weighing of deeds (meezane A amal), accounting (Hisab), and scroll of deeds are meant for the muslims only, while according to the Qur’an the polytheists and unbelievers will remain in eternal chastisement.
The third group will consist of people who will be made to wait for accounting. They will be the ones whose evil deeds would be surpassing their good deeds. When their sins will be compensated for (by waiting long), they will find freedom. The Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) said to Abdullah ibne Abbas, “Some people will have to wait for a hundred years for accounting, and only then will they be made to enter paradise”. But for which particular sin will he be made to wait is not specified. Hence a believer (mo’min) should keep himself away from all sins, so that he may not have to wait that long. (ma’ad)
Shaikh Sadooq relates from Imam Ja’far –as- Sadiq (A.S.) that He said, that on the day of Qayamat two types of people from the followers of Ahlulbait (A.S.) will have to wait for long. One will be the indigent a poor person, while other a rich a wealthy person. The poor man will cry out, “o my Lord why do I have to wait so long. I swear by your Glory and majesty that in the world you had given me no kingdom or empire so that I may oppress anyone or commit injustice therein or usurp other’s rights. And you had given me only that which You thought was enough for me, and I remained patient and never grumbled’. Then Allah will reply, “o believer surely you speak the truth”, thus he will be made to enter paradise.
The rich man will have to wait so long that he will sweat profusely, so much so that forty Camels could quench their thirst with it. Only then will he be made to enter paradise. In paradise when they will meet each other, the poor man will ask him the reason for having made to wait so long. The rich man will reply, “I was made to wait for a long time giving account of my enormous wealth, so to how I earned it (whether lawfully or unlawfully), as how I spent it. Then the merciful Lord blessed me, forgave my sins and accepted my repentence”. Then he will ask the poor man as to who he was? He will reply that he is the same indigent fellow who was with him in the plains of Qayamat. The rich man will say, “Verily the blessings and bounties of paradise have transformed you to such an extent that even I could not recognize you”. (matalib)
The fourth group will consist of people whose bad deeds will be more than their good ones. And only if Allah’s mercy, blessings a forgiveness will give way, they will be made to enter paradise. If not they will be punished at that very place, the punishment appropriate for them. They will be chastised in that way till they become clean of all sins. Then people in whose hearts even an atoms weight of faith (Eeman) exists, will not have to stay long in hell, they will be pought back to paradise. While only the polytheists a unbelievers will remain there.
Wasting of Good deeds (Ehbat) and Expiation of sins (Takfeer)
“And (as for) those who disbelieve, for them is destruction, and He has made their deeds ineffective. That is because they hated what Allah revealed, so He rendered their deeds null”. (Surah- al- Mohammad : 8-9).
“And (so for) those who believe and do good, and believe in what has been revealed to mohammad (S.A.W.S.), and it is the very truth from their Lord, He will remove their evil from them and improve their condition”. (Surah-al – Mohammad: 2).
Ehbat (wasting of good deeds) : If a person was a muslim in the former part of his life and did good deeds, but turned away from the Right path (Siratal Mustsqeem) during death and died a non –believer, none of his previous (good) deeds will benefit him and they will go waste. If anyone argues that in the Qur’an it”. (surah-az-zilzal: 7). The answer to it is that the person who died disbelieving himself wasted his (good) deeds. It is impossible for Allah to accept a non - believer’s (good) deeds and make him enter paradise. But the Just Lord gives them the reward for it in this very world, like ease during death, healthiness, wealth etc. as discussed earlier. But it is possible that there may be leniency in their punishment, as in the case of Hatim Tai or Nawshirwane Adil who were generous, they shall be made to enter hell, but the fire will not harm them. As said in the Qur’an: “Nor (for) those who die while they are unbelievers”. (surah-an–Nisa: 18)
In another place it is stated : “And (as to) those who reject our communications and the meeting of the Hereafter, their deeds are null. Shall they they be rewarded except for what they have done”. (surah- al-A’araf : 147).
Many verses (ayah) of the Qur’an prove that disbelief (kufr) and polytheism (shirk) wastes away all good deeds. Then there are also such sins that obliterate good deeds astop shop them from being accepted. The Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) has said regarding a disobedient child: “o the one shunned away by his parents do whatever you like, for none of your (good) deeds will be accepted”. If a person has upon him the curses and woes of his mother, he will be thrown into hell even if his good deeds are equal to the size of a mountain. Also is the case with slander and jealousy. Ma’soom (A.S.) says, “Jealousy consumes faith (Eeman) just as fire consumes wood”. (ma’ad). Shaikh kulaini quotes Abu Baseer who narrates from Imam Ja’far- as- Sadiq (A.S.) that he saod, “Disbelief (kufr) has three roots (foundations) : greed, pride, and jealousy”. And as these roots start gaining strength, faith starts moving away and good deeds go waste. Thus man becomes a fuel for the fire of hell. Shaitaan’a good deeds lay wasted because of his pride. But he was given a long span of life in compensation for his (good) deeds. The whole narration is stated in the Qur’an.
Takfeer (Expiation of sins): It means that the sins which a person commits are compensated for Acceptence of faith (Eeman) destroys all the sins committed in the past. If a person was a non-believer in the former part of Iife, but later accepted Islam, then the sins which he committed during that period will be forgiven and will not be taken he committed during that period will be forgiven if he truly repents and seeks pardon. It is stated in the Qur’an: “Allah changes the evil deeds to good ones”. (surah-al-Furqan: 70)
It is written in the fifteenth volume Ubiharul-Anwaar’, that once a man came to the presence of the Holy prophet mohammad (S.A.W.S.) and said, “o master my sin is very big (in his pre-Islamic days he had buried his daughter alive as was the custom then), you recommend to me a deed whose performance would act as compensation for it, and Allah may forgive me”. The prophet (S.A.W.S.) asked him, “Then is your maternal aunt (mother’s sister) alive”? He replied “Yes, she is”.
The prophet (S.A.W.S.) told him to go and serve her (for she had a very near relation with his mother, thus serving her would mean serving his mother). Then He (S.A.W.S.) said, “Had his mother been alive, it would have been the best compensation (for his sins). (ma’ad).
Incident of Ehbat a Takfeer
It is writtem in trustworthy narratives that in the former days there lived two pothers. One was a believer in the unity of Allah (Tawheed) and the other a polytheist and a worshipper of idols. They both lived in the same house, the believer lived on the ground floor and his (non-believer) pother on the top one. The non-believer was wealthy and lived a lavish life, while the believer was poor and passed his days in hunger and poverty. Sometimes the non- believer would tell his pother, “If you prostrate before the idols and accept them as your Gods, I will off half of my wealth with you. Why do you wish to live such a hard and bitter life. Come and prostrate before my idols so that both of us may enjoy life together”.
The believer would answer, “why do you not fear Allah and the day of Qayamat. The idols happened many times and days passed by. Whenever they met the same conversation took place between them. One night the believer was sitting in the courtyard of his house when he smelt the cooking of delicious food from his pother’s house. He said to himself, “Till when will you keep worshipping Allah and glrifying His name? when even after such a long time you have not had a good dress to wear, nor a soft and comgortable bed to sleep on. You have turned old due to eating loaves of dry pead, and your teeth cannot chew them ahymore.
Verliy my pother speaks the truth, let me go and protrate before his odols and feast upon the delicious food and enjoy myself”. He got up and started ascending the stairs leading to his pother’s place and accept his pagan religion.
There his pother too was engrossed in deep thoughts and wondered, “I fail to understand the reality of idol worship, and it has no benefit as such. Verily my pother speaks the truth, I should go and accept his true religion and worship only one Allah”. He too got up and started descending the stairs to go to his pother’s place. Both pothers met each other on the stairs and exchanged their thoughts. At that moment Allah ordered the Angel of deeth (malekul maut) to remove the spirits of both of them. Hence they both died, and whatever good deeds the believer (pother) had performed in his life were transferred to the account of the non-believer (pother) who had left his house with the intention of professing the true faith. And whatever bad deeds the non-believer (pother) had done in his life time were likewise transferred to the account of the believer who had left his house with the intention of abandoning the faith. The believer’s entire life was spent in performing good deeds but died a death of infidelity, while the non-believer spent his entire life sinning yet died a faithful. The above incident is the best example of turning from the right (Ehbat) and expiating for sins (Takfeer).
Hence oh believers, shaitaan is your sworn enemy. He is on the constant move (till your last moment) to turn you away from the Right path (siratal mustaqeem). Put yourself in the habit of righteouby perfoning good deeds frequently worshipping Allah, so that you may not fall prey to the evil intentions of shaitaan, and thus remain steadfast on the Right path. (khazeenatul Jawahir)
Questiong about deeds
It is said in the Qur’an: “And most certainly we will also question the Apostles”. (surah-al –A’araf : 6), that “we had sent you to guide”? They will reply, “o our Lord we have not left even an atom’s weight of Your message to be passed on to them”. They will be asked, “who are your witness”? They will reply, “o Allah You are our witness and besides Thee is mohammad (S.A.W.S.), as said in the Qur’an, “And thus we made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Apostle may be abearer of witness to you”.(surah–al–Baqarah: 143)
It the same way it will be asled to prophet Isa (A.S.), “o Isa son of marium Did You say to men, Take and my mother for tow gods besides Allah”? (surah-al-maidah : 116). Prophet Isa will tremble (with fright) due to Allah’s Glory and reply, “o Allah, if I had ever told them I would surely have known it. But I had always said that, “surely I am a servant of Allah, He has given me the book and made me a prophet”. (surah-al -marium : 30). He once worship Him who created me and you.
Then their people will be questioned, “Did your prophet not remind you of this day of Judgement”? They all will reply, “surely rhey did so”. Then they shall be questioned about the blessings sent to them by Allah and as to how they spen it “Then on that day you shall most surely be questioned adout the blessings”. (surah-al –Takasur: 8). Did you thank Allah for His bestowing His blessings on you, or you rebelled? It is stated that the blessings of Allah referred to here means the love of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.S.) and His progeny (A.S.).
Imam (A.S.) asked Qatada, “wgat do you (sunnis) interpret by the following verse (Ayah), UThen on that day you shall most surely be questioned about the blessings’. Surah-al –Takasur: 8) He replied, “It means that on the day of Qayamat we will be questioned about the food and drink that we consumed in this world”. Imam (A.S.) replied, Verily Allah is far beyond this, so as to question anyone about this. If you invite someone for food to your house do you then question him as to how much he ate”? Qatada replied, “No, but then what does this blessing mean”? Imam (A.S.) replied, “The blessing referred to here is the love of us Ahlulbait (A.S.)”. It will be asked as to how did you treat the Ahlulbait (A.S.), did you love them and follow them, or you disobeyed Allah by bearing grudge towards them. “They recognize the favours of Allah, yet they deny it”. (Surah-an-Nahl: 83)
Regarding sustenance it will only be asked as to how he earned it whether lawfully or unlawfully. Why did he squander it or spend it on unlawful means, “I kept asking from you but you ta deaf ear. The wealth was my welth, and the poor were my childern, and their questiontin (from you) was my questioning”.
Shaikh Sadooq relates that on the day of Qayamat man will not be able to move an inch till he is questioned about four things it on: (1) the way how he spent his life, (2) As to how did he wear out his youth, (3) About the wealth, as to where he got it from and in what way he spent it, and (4) And about the love of us the Household (Ahlulbait) of prophet .
Rights of Allah or the worship Acts (Haqqullah Ibadah)
The first thing about which a person will be questioned is prayers (Namaz). Did be say his prayers in time? Did be serve (rightly) this pillar of Islam and the Legacy of prayers (A.S.), or did he recite it to show off. After this people will be questioned about Fasting (siyam), pilgrimage (Haj), zakat, khums, the Holy war (Jehad) etc. and then the righful recipients will catch hold of their shirts (and ask for their rights).
Riqhts of people (Haqqun Naas)
Allah will deal with His servants in tow ways, (1) with Justice (Adl), and (2) with mercy (Fazl).
Allah’s Justice (Adl): If a person has upon him someone’s right (haq), his good deeds (of equal weight or merit) will be haoded over to the rightful owner. For example backiting (gheebat), defaming etc The good deeds of a person who has bacldited or has defamed anyone, will be transferred to the account of the person whom he backdited or defamed, and in turn that person’s bad deeds will be transferred to the account of the person who backdited and defamed him Many traditions (Ahadees) are quoted to support this.
There is a lenghty tradition (Hadees) from Imam Ali zainul Abedeen (A.S.) in “Rawzae kafi” that on the day of Qayamat people will be questioned about the rights of men At the concluding part of this tradition it is quoted that a person asked Imam (A.S.), “o son of the prophet If a non-believer who has been thrown into hell owes something to a believer, how will the deeds be exchanged when the non- believer has no more good deeds left”. Imam Abid (A.S.) replied, “The punishment aquivalent to the right that be owes will be incurred on him. Likewise the good deeds of the oppressor will be transferred to the account of the oppressed”. The person asked, “But if the Muslim oppressor does not have any good deeds left”? He (A.S.) replied, “The load of sins of the oppressed will be placed on the shoulders of the oppressor, and verily this is true justice”.
It is narrated in “Lu’ali’Akhbar” that once the Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) asked His companions as to who was an indigent (muflis) person They replied that, “That one of us is an indigent person who does not possess wealth or property”. He (S.A.W.S.) replied, “The indigent from my ummah on the day of Qayamat will be the one who even after having offered Namaz, kept fasts, performed the Haj, paid the zakat, but simultaneously abused anyone, or usurped the rights of anyone, or killed or physically tortured someone. Hence the oppressed ones will be given the good deeds of the oppressor and these deeds will be their’s. If the good deeds of the oppressor are exhausted, the bad deeds of the oppressor will be given to the oppressor, and he will be thrown into the raging fire”. (Ma’ad)
Allamah Jazaeri quotes a Tradition in his book that if a person owes someone even one dirham and returns it back to it’s owner, this act of his is greater than worship of a thousand years, freeing one thousand slaves in the way of Allah, and performing one thousand Haj and the lesser pilgrimage (Umrah ).
In another tradition Ma’soomeen (A.S.) says, that whosoever pleases his debtors (by repaying their loans), will be made to enter Paradise without taking account, and in paradise they will be among the friends of Prophet Isma’il (A.S.).
Allah’s mercy: on the day of Qayamat when a person owes some rights to someone, and if Allah is drowning in their own sweat (due to fear). Allah will reveal to the people the palaces of paradise and call out to the persons who owes something from His servants: O people who owe something from my servant, if you wish to enter paradise, forgive him the rights that he owes you, and thus free him of this responsibility. Fortunate is the person on whom Allah is Merciful. For verily if Allah does not straighten his affair, his state will become bad. Imam Ali Zainul Abedeen (A.S.) wept (in fear) with Thy Justice, O Merciful Lord.
It is appropiate to quote here the Supplication (Du’a) of Abu Hamza Sumali.
Abu Hamza Sumali says, that Imam Ali Zainul Abedeen used to recite the following du’a every night at the time of ùSehar’in the month of Ramazan. This du’a is quoted in many books of supplications and also in the first volume of ùMahateehul Jinaan’ by the same author.
The recitation of Namaze Radde Mazalim (Namaz for expiation of rights due) is also beneficial. It’s method is as follows: Recite four Rak’at Namaz (two Rak’at each), in first Rak’at after Surah-al-Hamd recite Surah-at-Tawheed Twenty five times, and in the second Rak’at after Surah-al-Hamd recite Surah-at-Tawhed fifty times, in the third seventy five times, and in the fourth hundred times. After ending Namaz ask All’s forgiveness.
This incident is quoted in one of the writing of Shaikh Shaheed. Ahmed bin Abil Hawaree says that I had a wish to see in my teacher Abu Salman Duraani (vis. Abdul Rehman bin Aytiyyah, a virtuous person who died in Dariyah in Damascus in 235 A.H. and his grave is renowned there). After a year I saw him in my dream and asked him, “O dear teacher, how was your treatment (after death)”? Abu Salman replied, “o Ahmed one day while coming from Babe Sagheer I saw a Camel laden with hay. I casually removed a straw from it. Now I do not remember whether I but in my mouth or threw it away without chewing it. One year has passed and I am still being accounted for it”.
This narration is not an imaginary work, but can be supported by the following verse (Ayah) of the Qur’an: “o my son surely if it is the very weight of the grain of a mustard seed, even though it is in (the heart of) a rock, or (high above) in the heavens, or (deep down) in the earth, Allah will ping it (to light)” (Surah-al-Luqman : 16)
Amirul Mo’meneen Ali (A.S.) in one of his sermons says, “Will not the souls be accounted for their good or bad deeds on the day of Qayamat, even if it be of the weight of a mustard seed”.
Hazrat Ali (A.S.) sent Mohammad ibn Abu Bakr with a pronouncement, “o servants of Allah You should know that on the day of Qayamat Allah will certainly question you about your actions, big or small, open or concealed”.
Hazrat Ali (A.S.) wrote to Abdullah ibne Abbas, “Are you not afraid of the Umanaqesha’ of accounting”? In reality Umanaqesha’means a thorn pierced in the body. As a person faces great difficulty in removing a (minute) thorn, in the same manner on the day of Qayamat people will have to bear hardships. Some researchers say that on the day of Qayamat on will be safe from the fear of the weighing scale (Mizan), except the one who in his lifetime started taking account of all his good and bad deeds. The Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) says that, “o people take account of yourselves before your account is taken (in Qayamat) , and weigh your actions before they are weighed in Qayamat”.
It is said about Tawbah bin Samah that he daily took account of himself. One day he calculated his age and concluded that sixty years of his life had passed. Then he counted the days in sixty years and that came to twenty one thousand six hundred. He was shocked and said to himself, “Woe be to me Will I face Lord having committed twenty one thousand six hundred sins”. After having uttered these words he fell down unconscious and passed away (in grief).
It is also narrated that once the Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) was sitting on the barren ground with no grass on it. He ordered his companions to gather fuel to lit a fire. They replied that they were in a place where there was impossible to find dry grass for fuel. The prophet (S.A.W.S.) told them to gather whatever they could. Each one of them collected a small quantity and slowly it became a . The prophet (S.A.W.S.) looked at the heap of grass and said, “In the same manner sins of people will be collected on the day of Qayamat”.
The prophet (S.A.W.S.) wanted to tell his companions that as the dry grass cannot be seen in that barren land, but when searched for can turn out to be a heap. In the same manner the small small sins which a person commits cannot be seen, but on the day of Qayamat when all sins will be gathered they will amount to a large stock. Thus Tawbah bin Samah calculated one sin (the least) committed in one day which amounted to twenty one thousand six hundred sins in sixty years.